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African Traditional Religion | South African History Online

“I am a child of God, a servant of Allah, a child of Shango, a child of Oshun, no matter what anyone does to me.” —Show 1, This Far by Faith Africa is a vast continent, with many ethnicities, languages, and cultures. The Sahara Desert divides the continent geographically and spiritually. North Africa belongs to the Middle Eastern world, with Islam established as early as the seventh century A.D. Christianity, meanwhile, held the ancient Coptic churches in Egypt, flourished for a long time in the Sudan, and still survives in Ethiopia, the only African kingdom with a Christian state church. Most Africans, however, came from societies with traditional African religious backgrounds, unrelated to Islam or Christianity. As a whole, African religious traditions combine belief in a Supreme Being with the worship of other gods and ancestors, and use ritual and magic to mediate between human beings, nature, and the gods. In many African languages, there is no word for God, because in their tradition, every thing and every place embodies God.

Religion without Belief and Community in Africa

Religion in Africa is in many respects becoming religion without belief and community again, I will argue in this article. Europeans arriving in Africa did not recognize African religion, because Africans did not have the kind of belief and community characteristic of European concepts of religion. Pentecostalization brings back this African concept of religion without worship groups defined by an adherence to a particular picture of the world, and I will show what this means at grassroots level. What matters in this concept of religion is whether something works rather than some implied truth-claims about the world. Instead of forming groups, Neo-Pentecostal ministries are more often organized around the vertical relationship between the man/woman of God and his/her client. The Pentecostalization of Christianity in Africa has led to a form of religion in which beliefs and community are not of central importance.

15 Facts on African Religions

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We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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Brazil: The Story of Slavery

United Nations - More than four million slaves were shipped to Brazil from the coast of Africa during the 16th century and onward. But the practice of slavery was abolished in 1888 when abolitionists brought the issue to the forefront. Today, descendants in Danda community – a quilombo – fight for their right to land that their ancestors once lived and worked on for generations.

UN in Action, Episode #1486

Script (Pdf): hhttp://www.un.org/webcast/pdfs/unia1486escript.pdf

Afro-Brazilian Slavery tour

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V66sQ7W8zP8


Brazil: a society shaped by slavery

 Early European visitors to eastern South America described an earthly paradise inhabited by naked cannibals – one soon inundated with African slaves. Lilia M Schwarcz explores the modern legacy of 
past colonisation and exploitation in Brazil.

https://www.historyextra.com/period/brazil-a-society-shaped-by-slavery/


The church must make reparation for its role in slavery, segregation


The ever-expanding protests over the epidemic of police violence and systemic racism in the United States, manifested most recently in the murders of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor and Ahmaud Arbery, have brought our society to another monumental crossroad. At the intersection of these enduring crimes against humanity and protesters of varying hues and creeds screaming, "Enough is enough," is a global system of anti-Blackness and violence that has strangled Black communities in the United States and across the African Diaspora since the rise of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. That these murders and protests have erupted amid a global pandemic that is disproportionately killing Black and Brown people only underscores the unchecked ferocity of institutionalized systems of white supremacy in our society.

https://www.ncronline.org/news/opinion/church-must-make-reparation-its-role-slavery-segregation

Brazil Comes to Terms with it's Slave trading Past


Just a step from the centre of Rio de Janeiro, at the heart of the docks undergoing a massive facelift in preparation for the 2016 Olympics, two workers await the verdict of three archaeologists at the bottom of a trench. Municipal workers have once again stumbled on the remains of the Valongo wharf, where the largest number of slaves imported to the Americas disembarked. A place to remember, a place of suffering long buried under the paving stones of this dazzling city.


https://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/oct/23/brazil-struggle-ethnic-racial-identity


History of Slavery and Abolition in Brazil

350 Years of Slavery From its discovery in 1500, Brazil has been a hub for human trafficking in South America. From about 1600 to 1850, some 4.5 million enslaved Africans were taken to Brazil; this is ten times as many as were trafficked to North America and far more than the total number of Africans who were transported to all of the Caribbean and North America combined.

https://exoduscry.com/blog/general/history-of-slavery-and-abolition-in-brazil/

The Slave Trade in the U.S. and Brazil: Comparisons and Connections

 in American History

When faced with the numbers of the transatlantic slave trade, U.S. citizens are frequently surprised by the fact that less than 400,000 enslaved Africans were carried to North America out of the more than ten million people that were disembarked by slave ships in the Americas between the sixteenth and the nineteenth centuries. (For estimates of the transatlantic slave trade, see www.slavevoyages.org). Of all major American regions of slave disembarkation, British North America (after 1776, the United States) was ahead only of the Danish Caribbean during the whole period of the transatlantic slave trade. At the other end was Portuguese America (after 1822, Brazil), which received almost five million enslaved Africans between 1501 and 1866. 


http://blog.yalebooks.com/2016/11/21/slave-trade-u-s-brazil-comparisons-connections/


Slavery and the Atlantic Slave Trade in Brazil and Cuba from an Afro-Atlantic Perspective

A growing number of studies comparing slavery in the Americas were published over the last two decades. This recent scholarship has greatly stressed the importance of studying the role of Africa in the Atlantic slave trade, in order to understand its dynamics and to grasp the ways enslaved Africans contributed, economically, politically, and culturally, to the construction of the Americas.1 Although most comparative studies on slavery in the Americas have focused on Brazil and the United States, the two largest slave societies of the western hemisphere, new research has also explored the many similarities between Brazil and other slave societies, especially Cuba.2


https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2236-46332016000100001


Slavery in Brazil


For 350 years, slavery was the heart of the Brazilian economy. According to historian Emilia Viotti da Costa, 40 percent of the 10 million enslaved African brought to the New World ended up in Brazil. Enslaved persons were so pivotal to the economy that Ina von Binzer, a German educator who lived in Brazil in the late 1800s, wrote: “In this country, the Blacks occupy the main role. They are responsible for all the labor and produce all the wealth in this land. The white Brazilian just doesn’t work.”

https://www.wilsoncenter.org/blog-post/slavery-brazil


Africa Enslaved - Comparative Slave Systems ( 9th grade pdf)

https://liberalarts.utexas.edu/hemispheres/_files/pdf/slavery/Slavery_in_Brazil.pdf


In Brazil the wounds of slavery will not heal Brazil abolished slavery 130 years ago, but its society has failed to deal with the crimes that took place. Many Afro-Brazilians remain trapped in a cycle of violence and slave labor, legacies of Brazil's slave trade.

https://www.dw.com/en/in-brazil-the-wounds-of-slavery-will-not-heal/a-43754519

African Slave Trade and Slave Life

While Indians provided a steady stream of slave labor to early colonists, most notably in the Jesuit aldeias, by the mid-sixteenth century the Portuguese were importing African slaves in substantial numbers to work in new, permanent sugar colonies. Years before the North American slave trade got under way, more slaves had been brought to Brazil than would ever reach British North America. The Brazilian slave trade would continue for another nearly two hundred years.

https://library.brown.edu/create/fivecenturiesofchange/chapters/chapter-2/african-slavery/

 Mapping the Slave Trade and Growing Black Awareness in Brazil

  

Today, November 20, is Brazil’s Black Awareness Day, a day to celebrate Black Brazilian history and resistance to oppression.


https://www.rioonwatch.org/?p=25458

Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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ECOWAS Adopts ECO As Single Currency

ECOWAS Adopts ECO As Single Currency | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it
Beginning in January 2020, Liberia and other countries within the West African sub-region will be able to use a single currency called ECO. The currency was adopted by the Authority of ECOWAS Heads of State and Government on Saturday in Nigeria’s capital Abuja. The West African leaders endorsed the currency at their 55th Ordinary Session…
Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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Georgism: A Tool to Confront Economic Racism

Georgism: A Tool to Confront Economic Racism | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it
Deeply-rooted racial inequalities have once again burst onto center stage of the American consciousness. Like the capture of fugitive slaves in the 19th
Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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How African American Land Was Stolen in the 20th Century

How African American Land Was Stolen in the 20th Century | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it
I recently read an article in the New Yorker that so shocked me that I knew I had to tell you, my small audience, all about it. Vast tracts of land owned by African Americans were taken from them in the 20th century. At the heart of the story is racism in many forms: how the promise of emancipation after the Civil War was broken; how whites used bureaucracy and twisted legalisms to take black land from owners too poor to defend themselves; how the teaching of American history was whitewashed to bury this story.
Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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The History of Slavery

The History of Slavery | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it

The history of slavery is a large and untellable story. Keep reading to learn about how it developed across ancient cultures and what you can do too


Black History Month series: Abolishing the slave trade is a history that belongs to black rebels

This Black History Month we're focusing on black-led movements and resistance throughout history. How have they shaped our understanding of politics and activism, how do they continue to inspire social movements today? From the Black Jacobins to Black Lives Matter there is a thread of rebellious connection that, as a movement, we must learn from. We must learn the histories that were never taught to us in school, learn about the reality of our own histories and truly understand what solidarity looks like, not just this month but everyday. This blog is first installment on our series about black movements, looking back at the rebels that helped end the slave trade in 1791.


https://www.globaljustice.org.uk/blog/2019/oct/1/black-history-month-series-abolishing-slave-trade-history-belongs-black-rebels?gclid=EAIaIQobChMIis2997qZ6wIVxBx9Ch2dVQTnEAAYAiAAEgIqU_D_BwE

Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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Kenya country profile

Provides an overview of Kenya, including key events and facts of this East African country.


A Millennial Reflection on The Second Liberation 

 Our main mistake has been to believe that we are free and that the government and its horde of politicians work for the good of every Kenyan. The change that the young generation hopes for will certainly not be delivered by the mainstream leaders. Read more at: https://www.theelephant.info/reflections/2019/07/26/a-millennial-reflection-on-the-second-liberation/ The Elephant - Speaking truth to power.

https://www.theelephant.info/reflections/2019/07/26/a-millennial-reflection-on-the-second-liberation/


Kenya's Independence Struggle

https://www.iofc.org/history/Kenya

Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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South Sudan Fast Facts

South Sudan Fast Facts | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it
Read CNN's Fast Facts about South Sudan. In 2011, South Sudan gained independence from Sudan.
Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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Central African Republic profile - Timeline

Central African Republic profile - Timeline | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it

A chronology of key events in history of the Central African Republic, from the 1880s to the present


https://www.everyculture.com/Bo-Co/Central-African-Republic.html


Chad Profile Timeline ( BBC)

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13164690


Chad Independence

https://www.britannica.com/place/Chad/Independence

Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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The Inevitable Pipeline into Exile. Botswana’s Role in the Namibian Liberation Struggle, by Johann Alexander Müller vorgestellt im Namibiana Buchdepot

The Inevitable Pipeline into Exile. Botswana’s Role in the Namibian Liberation Struggle, by Johann Alexander Müller vorgestellt im Namibiana Buchdepot | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it

Johann Alexander Müller book The Inevitable Pipeline into Exile: Botswana’s Role in the Namibian Liberation Struggle will serve as a valuable source of new information for many and preserve the precious memories that present and former activists shared with him.


Caprivi liberation Front


The Caprivi Strip is a narrow strip of land in the far northeast of Namibia, about 400 kilometres long. The East Caprivi bordered by the Kwando, Linyanti, Chobe and Zambezi Rivers is a region of swamps and flood plains. It was obtained from Great Britain by Germany in 1890 to give German South West Africa (now Namibia) access to the Zambezi River west of Victoria Falls. Originally part of Botswana -- then Bechuanaland -- the Caprivi was ceded by Britain to the Germans in a complicated land exchange deal designed to link German colonies from west to east Africa.

https://fas.org/irp/world/para/caprivi.htm


Namibian National Liberation Struggle ( 1966-

https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/meet.1450410106


Namibia Profile ( BBC)

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13891138


Namibia: Genocide and the Second Reich ( video)

https://topdocumentaryfilms.com/namibia-genocide-second-reich/


Laboratories of Racist Violence

In German South West Africa, men, women and children were brought into the concentration camps. Life and death in these camps were marked by forced labour as well as bad conditions and insufficient supplies for the interned. There are direct political, ideological and personal connections to National Socialism


https://www.dandc.eu/en/article/german-concentration-camps-what-namibia-today-were-predecessors-nazis-extermination-camps



Herero, Nama killings were genocide – German minister Written by Reuters 

 A German minister described the slaughter of Herero and Nama tribespeople in Namibia more than a century ago as genocide, one of the most senior government members to use the term while compensation claims are under discussion. German soldiers slaughtered some 65 000 Herero and 10 000 Nama in a 1904-1908 campaign after a revolt against land seizures by colonists in what historians and the United Nations called the first genocide of the 20th century.

https://www.defenceweb.co.za/joint/diplomacy-a-peace/herero-nama-killings-were-genocide-german-minister/


Germany to finally apologise for genocide

The German government has acknowledged the mass killings of the Nama and Ovaherero, more than 100 years ago as genocide and willing to apologise to affected communities, President Hage Geingob has said.

https://neweralive.na/posts/germany-to-finally-apologise-for-genocide


Namibian Debate over German Reparations

Beyond the white, German-speaking community in Namibia, whose political influence is waning, there are others in the seat of power, including black Namibians, who resist fully addressing the genocide.

https://africasacountry.com/2017/07/the-namibian-debate-over-german-reparations


Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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Southern Africa - Independence and decolonization in Southern Africa | Britannica

Southern Africa - Independence and decolonization in Southern Africa | Britannica | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it

Southern Africa - Southern Africa - Independence and decolonization in Southern Africa: After the war the imperial powers were under strong international pressure to decolonize. In Southern Africa, however, the transfer of power to an African majority was greatly complicated by the presence of entrenched white settlers. After an initial phase from 1945 to about 1958, in which white power seemed to be consolidated, decolonization proceeded in three stages: first, the relatively peaceful achievement by 1968 of independence by those territories under direct British rule (the High Commission territories became Lesotho, Botswana, and Swaziland, and Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland became Zambia and Malawi) 


Botswana and the Liberation of Southern Africa

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/249059207_Botswana_and_the_liberation_of_southern_Africa


Botswana liberation participant

http://www.dailynews.gov.bw/news-details.php?nid=39118

Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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Beijing faces a diplomatic crisis after reports of mistreatment of Africans in China causes outrage

Beijing faces a diplomatic crisis after reports of mistreatment of Africans in China causes outrage | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it

African governments, media outlets and citizens reacted angrily to the developments, as videos of Africans being harassed by police, sleeping on the streets or being locked into their homes under quarantine circulated on social media.


China’s Racism Is Wrecking Its Success in Africa


Over the past two decades, China and Africa have become inextricably entwined. China has built roads and railways across Africa and is the biggest trading partner for the entire continent. Eighty percent of Nigeria’s bilateral debt is owed to China. About 60 percent of foreign direct investments to Ethiopia came from China in 2019. China has repeatedly stressed the importance of China-Africa alliances based on “mutual prosperity.” Yet these partnerships face irrevocable disruption if the Chinese government continues to downplay deeply rooted racial prejudices and dismisses the international outrage concerning the treatment of African migrant workers and students in China.

https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/04/15/chinas-racism-is-wrecking-its-success-in-africa/


African countries have started to push back against Chinese development aid. Here’s why.


Just how entrenched is China in Africa these days? The Forum on China Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in Beijing in September highlighted China’s expansive economic diplomacy – and $60 billion pledge in “no-strings” attached development assistance.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2018/10/16/african-countries-have-started-to-push-back-against-chinese-development-aid-heres-why/


Beijing faces a diplomatic crisis after reports of mistreatment of Africans in China causes outrage


(CNN)Beijing is facing a diplomatic crisis in Africa after reports of alleged coronavirus-related discrimination against African nationals in China sparked widespread anger across the continent.

https://www.cnn.com/2020/04/13/asia/china-guangzhou-african-blacklash-hnk-intl/index.html

Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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(PDF) Rites of Passage, Routes of Redemption: Emancipation Tourism and the Wealth of Culture

(PDF) Rites of Passage, Routes of Redemption: Emancipation Tourism and the Wealth of Culture | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it
PDF | This paper examines how the Ghanaian government has appropriated, crafted, and "repatriated" a Caribbean holiday, "Emancipation Day,"... | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate
Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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The silence about black slavery in the Arab world | David Meir | The Blogs

The silence about black slavery in the Arab world | David Meir | The Blogs | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it

From the blog of David Meir at The Times of Israel


History of Slavery in the Muslim World

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery_in_the_Muslim_world


Africa's mark on Arab world; The legacy of the slave trade to the Middle East has influenced life in southern Iraq and neighboring Kuwait.

USUALLY, BLACK History Month focuses on the accomplishments of African-Americans or the past glories of African civilizations. When the issue of slavery is explored, the focus is almost always on slavery in the United States. Seldom, if ever, do we ponder the history of slavery in Africa or the Arab slave traders who exploited Africa long before the 15th century when the Portuguese became the first Europeans to buy and sell Africans. What happened to the millions of Africans who did not make the voyage west across the Atlantic but wound up in bondage in the Middle East?

https://www.baltimoresun.com/news/bs-xpm-2000-02-13-0002160337-story.html


East Africa's forgotten slave trade


 Over several centuries countless East Africans were sold as slaves by Muslim Arabs to the Middle East and other places via the Sahara desert and Indian Ocean. Experts say it is time for this to be discussed more openly.


https://www.dw.com/en/east-africas-forgotten-slave-trade/a-50126759


Confronting anti-black racism in the Arab world

In response to an essay I wrote recently regarding the "essential blackness" of the Palestinian struggle, I received this reaction, among others: "What about Arab anti-black racism? Or the Arab slave trade?" The Arab slave trade is a fact of history and anti-black racism is a fact of current reality, a shameful thing that must be confronted in Arab societies. Though I claim no expertise on the subject, I think that applying notions of racism as it exists in the US will preclude a real understanding of the subject in the Arab world.

https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2013/06/201362472519107286.html


FORGOTTEN SLAVERY: THE ARAB-MUSLIM SLAVE TRADE

Over the years global focus and discourse on slavery has concentrated on the Trans-Atlantic trade that featured the Americas and European merchants. One other trade has however remained largely ignored at times even treated as a taboo subject despite being a key component of the African history owing to its devastating impact it has had on the continent, its generations and a people’s way of life. The Arab Muslim slave trade also known as the trans-Saharan trade or Eastern slave trade is billed as the longest, having happened for more than 1300 years while taking millions of Africans away from their continent to work in foreign land in the most inhumane conditions.

https://www.fairplanet.org/dossier/beyond-slavery/forgotten-slavery-the-arab-muslim-slave-trade/


Africa The Dark Continent And Race Relations In America

When you think of Africa and its history, what do you think of? How do you view its people and their way of life? Do you think of primitive people with no history who have never built complex civilizations, who never contributed to society, who ran around naked killing and eating each other until the Europeans came and delivered them from their savagery? If you believe in any or all of these things, I don't blame you. In fact most people - black, white or any other race/ethnicity for that matter probably have these same preconceived notions. When you think of America, it’s violent history and how it came to be, to whom do we owe the credit of it’s existence, its culture and it’s people’s way of life? What is taught to its people about its history and why things are the way they are? What influences most define its culture?


https://www.dailykos.com/stories/2020/7/22/1962799/-Africa-The-Dark-Continent-And-Race-Relations-In-America

Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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Africans in America/Part 1/The Middle Passage

Africans in America/Part 1/The Middle Passage | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it

A journey in Chains
A Journey in Chains Slave compound on the Gulf of Guinea, 1746 Slave compound on the Gulf of Guinea, 1746 Capture Most Africans began their journey into slavery at the hands of other Africans. While Europeans owned and operated the slave ships, the work of kidnapping new victims was generally left to West Africans. Bands of slavers would roam the African countryside, preying on villagers who let their guard down.

African Americans in the British New World 
Deck of a a slave ship This engraving from an 1860 issue of Harper's Weekly magazine shows the tightly packed conditions of a slave ship. Many Africans died during the grueling middle passage — so many that the ship depicted above was considered safer than most, having only lost 90 of 600 passengers. Even before the Mayflower touched ground off Cape Cod, African Americans were living in British North America. Although slavery itself was not foreign to West Africans, the brutal nature of the TRANS-ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE and the nature of COLONIAL SLAVERY was without parallel in African history. Millions of people deemed savages by their new "MASTERS" were uprooted from their ways of life and forced to adopt new ones.

The Middle Passage

Ottobah Cugoano, a survivor of the voyage, called it "the brutish, base, but fashionable way of traffic" (Gates and Anderson 1998: 369). The Middle Passage itself lasted roughly 80 days, on ships ranging from small schooners to massive, purpose-built "slave ships." Humans were packed together on or below decks without space to sit up or move around. Without ventilation or sufficient water, about 15% grew sick and died. In addition to the physical violations enslaved people suffered, they were ripped away from their families, homelands, social positions, and languages. Still, despite vast cultural and linguistic diversity, many found new ways to understand each other. In the New World, Africans transformed shared elements of their cultures into the creolized societies of the African diaspora. Widespread southern and Caribbean food traditions, music, and religious rituals in the New World have been traced back to African roots.

1619 in America 400 years ago.
After having been kidnapped from their villages in what is present-day Angola, forced onto a Portuguese slave ship bound for what Europeans called the New World and stolen from that ship by English pirates in a confrontation off the coast of Mexico, “some 20. and odd Negroes” landed at Point Comfort in 1619, in the English settlement that would become Virginia.

The Transatlantic Slave Trade and Origins of the African Diaspora in Texas

(video) Lost Lingeage quest identify Black American's roots
Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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Being Black and Immigrant in America

Being Black and Immigrant in America | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it

Black Lives Matter and that includes the lives of Black immigrants. 

Africans and African Americans: Conflicts, Stereotypes and Grudges

https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/37768085.pdf

Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN AFRICA & DIASPORA

Mariama Keita is a Guinean-American and founder of: ‘How I make a Difference’-HOIMA, an initiative geared towards empowering women by bridging the gap between Africa and the diaspora. As a native New Yorker, Mariama also represents the current generation of Africans in America who are dedicated to advancing the continent’s sustainable development.


Bridging the Gap

http://www.curlynikki.com/2017/04/bridging-gap-fixing-divide-between.html

PODCAST Bridging the Gap between Africa and African America through Business of Entertainment

https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/bridging-gap-between-africa-africa-america-through/id1140494886?i=1000416515951


Becoming "Black" in America: Exploring Racial Identity Development of African Immigrants

https://cornerstone.lib.mnsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1042&context=etds




Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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The Relations between African-Americans and African Immigrants

The Relations between African-Americans and African Immigrants | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it
The Yoruba word 
Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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Liberation of Slaves | Who Founded Liberia

Liberation of Slaves | Who Founded Liberia | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it
American Colonization Society in 1817 founded Liberia and sent free and freed blacks back to Africa as an alternative to living free in the USA.
Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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How Italy Was Defeated In East Africa In 1941

How Italy Was Defeated In East Africa In 1941 | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it

In October 1935 Italian troops invaded Ethiopia, forcing the country's Emperor, Haile Selassie, into exile. Ignoring protests from the League of Nations, the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini proclaimed a new Italian empire in East Africa, comprising Ethiopia and the pre-existing territories of Italian Somaliland and Eritrea.


African Diplomacy of Liberation: Eritrea search for African India

https://journals.openedition.org/etudesafricaines/17542


Ethiopia Profile- Timeline ( BBC)

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13351397


How did Italy lose to Ethiopia ( cartoon video history)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Hln0GjuUQk


Effects of the Italian Invasion in Ethiopia

https://classroom.synonym.com/effects-italian-invasion-africa-ethiopia-6391.html

Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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A history of the Sudans - in pictures | World news | The Guardian

A history of the Sudans - in pictures | World news | The Guardian | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it

From independence in 1956 to a secession in 2011 the history of the Sudans is marked by civil war and military men, with residents caught in the crossfire 


The British conquest

https://www.britannica.com/place/Sudan/The-British-conquest


South Sudan Fast Facts (CNN)

https://www.cnn.com/2013/07/10/world/africa/south-sudan-fast-facts/index.html

Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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African-Americans resettle in Africa

African-Americans resettle in Africa | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it

In Prampram, a town just an hour’s drive east of Ghana’s capital Accra, many holiday houses line the shores of the South Atlantic Ocean. One of them belongs to Jerome Thompson. Located only 500 metres from the water, Mr. Thompson’s house is resilient to the effects of the salt and wind. The floors, windows and doors are made of hard wood. His self-designed furniture is made from quality Ghanaian timber and hand-carved by local artisans.“The ocean helps me fall asleep and wakes me up in the morning,” says Mr.


The “Year of Return” and the unintended consequences for Ghanaians


Ghana’s “Year of Return”, by its very nature, was bound to gain a considerable amount of positive press in the United States. The campaign encouraged descendants of the African diaspora to visit and invest in Ghana. For African Americans who struggle to locate their ancestral roots, the “Year of Return” provided a fresh opportunity to reconnect with their past.

https://ksr.hkspublications.org/2020/01/29/the-year-of-return-and-the-unintended-consequences-for-ghanaians/


The African American who moved to Ghana 'to escape US racism'


Having vowed to quit the US after being the victim of what he believed was a racially motivated arrest by police officers, African American Obadele Kambon relocated to Ghana in 2008 - and has never looked back.

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-49394354


The American Revolution and the Black Loyalist Exodus

https://digitalcommons.brockport.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=hashtaghistory


The U.S. legacy of slavery began in the early seventeenth century. However, the stage for U.S. slavery was set as early as the fourteenth century, when the rich nations of Spain and Portugal began to capture Africans for enslavement in Europe. When Spain, Portugal, and other European countries conquered and laid claim to the New World of the Caribbean and West Indies in the late sixteenth century, they brought along the practice of slavery. Eventually, slavery expanded to the north, to colonial America. The first Africans in colonial America were brought to Jamestown by a Dutch ship in 1619. These 20 Africans were indentured servants, which meant that they were to work for a certain period of time in exchange for transportation and room and board. They were assigned land after their service and were considered free Negroes. Nonetheless, their settlement was involuntary. Read more: Slavery - History - Slaves, African, Reparations, and Africans - JRank Articles https://law.jrank.org/pages/10312/Slavery-History.html#ixzz6UlAPNOhI

https://law.jrank.org/pages/10312/Slavery-History.html


The Making of African American Identity

http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/maai/freedom/text1/text1read.htm


From Utopia to Dystopia: The Legacy of the Transatlantic Slave Trade in Liberia and Sierra Leone


 Introduction “[S]ix million Jews were systematically exterminated rather than just shipped to other countries. Yet it is not the common view that the Holocaust made the survivors less entrepreneurial and self-confident;” thus Robert Calderisi dismisses the Atlantic slave trade as a possible cause of the current economic backwardness and socio-political instability that characterise most African countries.1 His analogy is fundamentally flawed. Unlike the Africans, the Jews were Western-based, familiar with Western lifestyle and values and, often, wealthy agents of Western capitalism. The Holocaust, however traumatic and devastating, could not have deprived Jewish survivors of the capitalist skills that the overwhelming majority of Africans still lack. Despite this, experience and years of analysis nonetheless induce me to agree with Calderisi that rather than the transatlantic slave trade, it is decades of bad governance, cultural malpractice, corruption and, above all, dictatorial regimes often backed by the West, that explain the sorry state of most African countries nowadays.

https://www.brunel.ac.uk/creative-writing/research/entertext/documents/entertext071/ET71AboaED.pdf
Abolition of Slave Trade medal

https://www.rmg.co.uk/see-do/we-recommend/attractions/abolition-slave-trade-medal


New Approaches to the founding of the Sierra Leone Colony 1786-1808


The early years of the Sierra Leone colony represent an ideal site to investigate those motifs and many others. Nestled on the west African coast just south of the Guinea area and named for the leonine mountains visible from the shoreline, in the eighteenth century it was home to more than a dozen ethnic groupings, most notably the Temne, Mende, and Sherbro near the coast and the Limba inland. By then they were quite familiar with Europeans, having traded slaves and palm oil to them and been the subject of Christian missionary efforts for nearly two hundred years. Meanwhile, in the mid-1780s, black loyalist refugees from the American Revolution had gravitated to two general areas, London and Nova Scotia. In London, a group of white philanthropists decided to kill two birds with one stone by resettling the black poor to the coast of Africa, thereby not only helping the blacks return to their ancestral homeland but also striking a blow against the slave trade.

https://scholarworks.bgsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=hist_pub

Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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Political change in Ethiopia, South Africa, Zimbabwe mixed results —

Political change in Ethiopia, South Africa, Zimbabwe mixed results — | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it
2018 showed how entrenched political shortcomings are in contemporary African democracies.
Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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The role of Batswana in the liberation struggle in Southern Africa

The role of Batswana in the liberation struggle in Southern Africa | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it
All foreign guests, welcome to Botswana 50th independence celebration!
The flame of independence torch is passing through cattle-posts, hamlets, villages and towns in a race to the golden jubilee celebration in the capital, Gaborone. At every overnight station, the torch - Molelo wa Kgolagano, has been welcomed with ululations, dance, and excitement; outsiders watching the count-down to the big day on national television, must be green with envy, watching.
Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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Why Are There Two Congos in Africa?

Why Are There Two Congos in Africa? | Emancipate Afrika | Scoop.it

Two countries in Africa both share the name Congo; though both border the Congo River, they are two distinct nations, each with its own history.


Congo Free State

Congo Free State, French État Indépendant du Congo, former state in Africa that occupied almost all of the Congo River basin, coextensive with the modern Democratic Republic of the Congo. It was created in the 1880s as the private holding of a group of European investors headed by Leopold II, king of the Belgians.

https://www.britannica.com/place/Congo-Free-State


Belgium Colonialism The Legacy of Belgium's 19th and 20th Century African Colonies

Belgium is a small country in northwest Europe that joined Europe's race for colonies in the late 19th century. Many European countries wanted to colonize distant parts of the world in order to exploit the resources and "civilize" the inhabitants of these less-developed countries. Belgium gained independence in 1830. Then, King Leopold II came to power in 1865 and believed that colonies would greatly enhance Belgium's wealth and prestige. Leopold's cruel, greedy activities in the current Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Burundi continue to affect the welfare of these countries today.

https://www.thoughtco.com/overview-of-belgian-colonialism-1434364


The Congolese win Independence from the Belgian Empire 1959-1960


In the 1950s, revolution was brewing in the Belgian Congo. Africans living in colonized countries felt the winds of change swirling as their mother countries in Europe struggled to stand back up after suffering often devastating defeats in World War II, championing the ideal self determination and freedom while continuing to oppress their colonies.

https://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/congolese-win-independence-belgian-empire-1959-60

Keita Kora's insight:
We are excited to launch the Sankofa Retreats at Seven Circles Retreat Center in Central California. These series of annual retreats bring together Black People from the Afrikan Diaspora for healing racial trauma. Go to http://sankofaretreats.net for more information. We know everyone may not be able to attend retreats so please share this to your social networks. Keita Kora http://sankofaretreats.net
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