Criminology and Economic Theory
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Texas Leads the Nation in Prosecuting Children for Truancy

Texas Leads the Nation in Prosecuting Children for Truancy | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Today, Texas is only one of two states that still criminalizes truancy. Texas prosecutes children for truancy at more than double the rate of all forty-nine other states combined.
Rob Duke's insight:

After several warnings and a truancy hearing, we'd show up at their home right at school time.  We'd take them to school in their pj's; and, thoughtful as I am, I always carried a pair of bunny slippers, so they'd have something to wear on their feet.  We didn't seem to have much of a problem after this....

Rodney Ebersole's comment, March 7, 2015 11:04 PM
Mr. Duke, I think your comment of bringing the kids to school in their pjs and bunny slippers is an excellent idea to fight truancy. I think a lot of kid need a dose of reality in regards to skipping school, but a criminal record does seem excessive if the studies show that it isn't helping turn around the delinquency rates. If this is just a money maker for the city, than I am for the juvenile courts handling this instead.
Rob Duke's comment, March 8, 2015 12:11 AM
Rod, yeah, it probably wasn't kind of us to do that, but I don't recall having to do it twice to the same kid...
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The Brett Favre Mississippi welfare fraud scandal, explained

The Brett Favre Mississippi welfare fraud scandal, explained | Criminology and Economic Theory |
How a WWE wrestler, corrupt Mississippi officials, and Brett Favre allegedly siphoned money away from poor people.
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Evidence on Strategies for Addressing the Opioid Epidemic - Pain Management and the Opioid Epidemic

Evidence on Strategies for Addressing the Opioid Epidemic - Pain Management and the Opioid Epidemic | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Years of sustained, coordinated, and vigilant effort will be required to contain the present opioid epidemic and ameliorate its harmful effects on society. At least 2 million people have an opioid use disorder (OUD) involving prescription opioids, and almost 600,000 have an OUD associated with heroin (HHS, 2016). These numbers are likely to increase in the coming years, regardless of what policies are put in place. Follow-up studies of individuals receiving treatment for OUD involving heroin (e.g., Hser et al., 2001) find very high rates of premature mortality (in the neighborhood of one-third) due to overdose or other complications of the disorder. Thus, even if the nation ramps up treatment availability substantially and immediately, death rates will climb and quality of life will be dramatically reduced for many people for years to come. Likewise, the continued progression of still more people from prescription opioid use to OUD will demand sustained and coordinated effort to establish and implement the scientifically grounded policies and clinical practices necessary to reshape prescribing practices and reduce the occurrence of new cases of prescription opioid-induced OUD.1
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San Francisco police can now watch private surveillance cameras in real time

San Francisco police can now watch private surveillance cameras in real time | Criminology and Economic Theory |

Police in San Francisco got a boost to their surveillance powers this week after the city’s board of supervisors voted on Tuesday to grant the police department access to private surveillance cameras in real time.
Leonard Lovett's comment, September 28, 9:07 PM
its good that they are getting permission from the owners, but this seems like you would read from George Orwell's 1984 book and hear happening from China.
Kylie Lambries's comment, September 29, 3:00 AM
This program will definitely cause some controversy. While it can be useful to investigate crimes, the public may see it as the police/government spying on them. I think this would cause more divide between the police and the public than there already is. I do not think this would be helpful for the relationship between the two. I think asking the owners for permission does help a little bit, but overall not the best idea for the time being.
Kenton Mayfield's comment, October 1, 4:51 PM
I believe this program will greatly enhance the investigative abilities of the SFPD, but I do believe they need to tread lightly so as not to interfere with the privacy rights of the citizens of San Francisco. I am curious to see how the police department's access to private security cameras will change the scope of search warrants that are typically needed to enter private property.
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Adnan Syed's release and what it says about why convictions are vacated : NPR

Adnan Syed's release and what it says about why convictions are vacated : NPR | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Roughly 2,500 people were exonerated in the United States between 1989 and 2019. In roughly half of all cases, the withholding of key evidence was the reason why.
Jackson Magie ID#31278143's comment, October 1, 9:12 PM
I listened to the Serial Podcast a few years ago for my English class and has many discussions in my class bout the case and the potential outcome. It is completely unfair that his case had two Brady violations, which most definitely swayed the outcome of the trial. Adnan was sentenced unfairly, and there was plenty of evidence exonerating him. It is infinitely better in every way to let a guilty man free than to imprison an innocent man. Adnan was imprisoned for 22 years, and only now is the case being seriously questioned. He spent more time in prison than he spent free, and there is no amount of reparations that can absolve what he went through.
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Warns of Brightly-Colored Fentanyl Used to Target Young Americans

Warns of Brightly-Colored Fentanyl Used to Target Young Americans | Criminology and Economic Theory |
WASHINGTON – The Drug Enforcement Administration is advising the public of an alarming emerging trend of colorful fentanyl available across the United States.  In August 2022, DEA and our law enforcement partners seized brightly-colored fentanyl and fentanyl pills in 18 states.  Dubbed “rainbow fentanyl” in the media, this trend appears to be a new method used by drug cartels to sell highly addictive and potentially deadly fentanyl made to look like candy to children and young people.

“Rainbow fentanyl—fentanyl pills and powder that come in a variety of bright colors, shapes, and sizes—is a deliberate effort by drug traffickers to drive addiction amongst kids and young adults,” said DEA Administrator Anne Milgram.  “The men and women of the DEA are relentlessly working to stop the trafficking of rainbow fentanyl and defeat the Mexican drug cartels that are responsible for the vast majority of the fentanyl that is being trafficked in the United States.”

Brightly-colored fentanyl is being seized in multiple forms, including pills, powder, and blocks that resembles sidewalk chalk. Despite claims that certain colors may be more potent than others, there is no indication through DEA’s laboratory testing that this is the case.  Every color, shape, and size of fentanyl should be considered extremely dangerous.
Jessica Schwankl's comment, September 26, 9:13 PM
At this point, it isn't even about people being addicted to different pills that's the problem. It's the fact that drug cartels and drug dealers are selling these "rainbow pills" to the youth, when a tiny dosage could kill them. Just seizing the pills when they are discovered is not enough, the people who are transporting them and selling them should be punished too. Are the drug cartels trying to kill people or what is the point of lacing things with fentanyl or selling fentanyl pills? There has been way too many people lose their life because of this.
Paityn Taylor's comment, September 29, 7:48 PM
The fact that the drug cartels are making these deadly drugs look like candy and selling them to 18-year-olds and younger is very horrible. Just one of these pills could kill a kid, and they continue to sell them. Also, who knows, these could taste like candy too, and the kids will just eat them like it's nothing, especially since they are colorful too.I think anyone who is using, selling, buying, dealing should be punished for this and that could be a lot of people but these need to get off the streets ASAP because there has been a lot of people loosing their life or loosing loved ones due to these rainbow pills.
Kenton Mayfield's comment, October 1, 4:35 PM
The fact that illegal drug manufacturers are resorting to doing something like this to make money off kids and young people buying an extremely dangerous and potent drug such as fentanyl is extremely disturbing. Hopefully the DEA and other law enforcement agencies are devoting as many resources as possible to prevent the sale of these rainbow pills to youths and to place the individuals responsible for their manufacturing in custody.
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McDonald’s to Move Jobs to Chicago But Voices Concern on Crime - Bloomberg

McDonald’s to Move Jobs to Chicago But Voices Concern on Crime - Bloomberg | Criminology and Economic Theory |
McDonald’s Corp. is moving its innovation center and about 100 jobs into central Chicago -- a big bet on the city that comes as other high-profile companies flee the area’s high taxes and crime.
Rob Duke's insight:

Ironically, the Univ. of Chicago is one of the places where we established a need for "rounded" justice polices that include investment in the community--yet 100 years later, Chicago is still a crime capitol.

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Stopping the spiral of murder and violent crime

Stopping the spiral of murder and violent crime | Criminology and Economic Theory |

America has relied too long on a toxic combination of over- and under-policing

In the summer of 1975 the Council for Public Safety, a New York group run by trade unions, including those of the police and firefighters, mocked up a leaflet for passengers arriving at the city’s airports. The cover featured a picture of a skull wearing a shroud with the message, “Welcome to Fear City”. The leaflet offered such helpful advice as “stay off the streets after 6pm”, and “you should never ride the subway for any reason whatsoever”. It was never distributed, but it is remembered, at least partly because it rang true. In that year New York had over 1,600 murders.

Today such a figure seems hard to imagine. The biggest risk most visitors face to their wallets comes from eating in restaurants, not from hooded figures carrying guns in the street. Last year, the city saw 488 murders, in a population of 8.5m. That is a substantially higher rate than in cities like Paris or London. But it is similar to what it was a decade ago when Michael Bloomberg, the then mayor, boasted about New York being the safest big city in America. It still claims to be.

Patrick Sharkey, a professor of criminology at Princeton University, argues that from the 1950s until the 1990s, rising violence in black neighbourhoods emerged in part as a response to racism. As they escaped from the South to northern cities, black people were driven by racist policies into appalling slums. When their factory jobs started to disappear in the 1970s, heroin and crack cocaine arrived instead. As neighbourhoods were abandoned, and people became more fearful, the social norms that had kept crime under control deteriorated, creating a perfect recipe for violent crime. Too often the investment was lacking.

It was often black leaders who pushed for more police and more punitive sentences to tackle drugs and violent crime. According to Mr Sharkey, the long decline in such crime that began after 1991 was brought about in part by more aggressive policing. The number of police officers soared. More cops on more street corners helped to contain violence by sheer force. But those same leaders also wanted investment in their neighbourhoods, and police officers who respected the majority of law-abiding black citizens, even as they were tough on crime.

As a result, the fall in crime proved unsustainable. Many urban economies did not recover in the way that New York did. By 2015 the costs of rough, unaccountable policing had become impossible to ignore. As protests took off that year against police violence, murder rates in some cities started to rise. The pandemic, and the subsequent outpouring of rage at police, has made things worse. It “shut down the institutions of social life that bring people together”, says Mr Sharkey. That affected all Americans. But it was people in the poorest places who were least prepared for it.

The risk now is that a new spiral of disinvestment and decline will start up again. To stop it, America’s poorest people need more investment in their neighbourhoods, better education and greater access to jobs. In the long run, reducing the disaffection and poverty that too many Americans suffer from is the only way to stop a minority from resorting to violent crime. The proponents of “defunding” the police are right to call for more money for social projects. Where they are wrong is in imagining that taking the money away from America’s modest police budgets would provide anywhere near enough—or that policing can be dispensed with in a country that has nearly 400m guns in circulation.

Mr Biden is right to argue instead that more police officers are needed. But hiring more cops is not enough. They also need to do their work differently. Robert Peel, the founder of the Metropolitan Police in London, wrote almost two centuries ago that “the test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, and not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with them.” On that measure, America’s police are profoundly inefficient. For extra spending to work, retraining is clearly vital. But hostile police unions also need to be defanged, and the worst cops fired and prosecuted. Only greater accountability can rebuild shattered trust. That is the best way to a better future.

Wesley McIntosh's comment, September 19, 2:38 AM
The welcome to fear city quote is interesting to me. Society and the law is designed to create the end product of no one having to live in fear. A city to me is a place where you can walk anywhere and talk to anyone without the fear of being hurt or killed. So fear city should be a contradiction but sadly its not for one of the most well know cities in the world. Its crazy to think of something like this 20 years ago that the biggest cities would be the most dangerous places to be instead of an active war zone.
Bam Janssen's comment, September 19, 2:50 AM
This kinda supports the idea that's explored in Chap. 4, which is that an uptick in police personnel number doesn't really do much to deter crime. However this offers the alternative that it actually adds to the violence. While I think everyone's responsible for their own actions, the situation that's outlined is rather crappy. When is life is going own the drain and someone waves "pain relief" under your nose... What was that the chapter talked about? Cost vs. benefit?
Paityn Taylor's comment, September 25, 6:51 PM
i fully agree with the fact that hiring more cops will not solve the issue and that training them differently and people taking accountability for what the cops do and what they do themselves. I also agree that they do need to go through all the police stations and get rid of some of the not so good officers and start picking them off one by one and slowly start gaining new ones. All officers are different in terms of thoughts, athleticism, and all-knowing but they are all trained them same way so they should all meet the same criterias to be able to do the job so there is no reason for cops to disagree on some situations. All cops should have the same type of interactions with people and what race of person they are dealing with. Our skin color does not define who we are and how we act so all police should stop profiling people based on skin color.
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Manson Follower and Convicted Murderer Bruce Davis Denied Parole—Again

Manson Follower and Convicted Murderer Bruce Davis Denied Parole—Again | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Davis has been recommended for parole seven times between 2010 and 2021.
Wesley McIntosh's comment, September 19, 2:33 AM
These are always interesting to me and like most of parole denials its completely unsurprising. A Manson follower and convicted murderer alone is enough to reject a parole. what I wonder is if he was actually sorry for what he did and he genuinely would be a good fit for society and wasnt a threat, would he still even be granted parole? I also wonder if the publicity he has on his case is what actually prevents him from getting parole. Because imagine if this headline said that he did make parole. People would be terrified.
Tammi Jepsen's curator insight, September 21, 5:36 PM
Bruce Davis is about to turn 80 on October 5th. At this point in life, why isn't he being released? I would imagine that it's because he will always be associated with Charles Manson. 

Convicted serial killer, Karla Homolka helped rape and murder several teenage girls (she raped her own little sister) with her boyfriend (later they married) Paul Bernardo. She served 11 years, got remarried and had kids. Is she less of a threat to the community than an 80 year old man who has been in prison for most of his life?

I found a list of serial killers, some who were responsible for 20+ deaths, served a portion of their time and are walking free amongst us: 

Undoubtedly, Bruce Davis will never be a free man.
Aaron Green's comment, September 29, 10:04 PM
Parole is a show of mercy that is only deserved by some people. It can vary case by case. And some do not deserve to be shown such a privilege, those who don't show remorse for their actions. It is completely understandable why Bruce Davis would be denied, as being associated with such a violent and dangerous group can make someone appear irreedemable, but there may be more to consider, if one is willing to play devil's advocate. Knowing that the man turned himself in, it can come to question whether he felt guilty or regretted his actions. And good behavior can be a sign of rehabilitation, which ideally should be something prisons should strive for. Several commisioners found him suitable for parole, so they must have seen some positive changes to his character. While the final decision should be respected, I believe that testing the man wouldn't be the worst idea. Under moderation he may become a positive role model and show his fellow prisoners that redemption may be possible, even for the more severe of crimes. If he breaks the trust he's given, however, then I have no problem tossing him back behind bars, permanently.
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The Monkee's Mickey Dolenz is suing the FBI for the band's file

The Monkee's Mickey Dolenz is suing the FBI for the band's file | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Dolenz, the last surviving member of the band, has filed an FOIA suit to gain access to the agency's records on the group
DannyMac's comment, September 9, 7:24 PM
I think it would be interesting to see the files they had on many of the bands during the Vietnam war Era. What is it that he is going to do with the information once he gets it, I wonder. Many people were loudly outspoken about their feelings about the war on either side, and it is my experience over the decade that members of Hollywood use whatever platform they can to disseminate their message. I also wonder how subliminal the message was.
Wesley McIntosh's comment, September 12, 1:13 AM
I’m confused as to what the FBI is getting sued for… Is the problem here that the FBI gathered information on an event that had potential to cause violence… at a public place? Im not a huge fan of the FBI gathering data on every single person that they deem to be a threat. Which is a lot of people. The FBI has a terrifying number of files on people who just post memes on the internet. Why is it surprising that the FBI has a file on a well-known band. Even if the informant was wrong and there weren’t any subliminal messages, couldn’t the FBI still keep the file? If the argument is that his FBI file makes him look bad then maybe I could understand but at this point they have so many files on people no one seems to care anymore.
Skye OKelley's comment, September 17, 8:16 PM
I understand where he is coming from, if the FBI made a file about me I'd want to read it myself! It seems as everyone big this day is spreading their opinions on everything, so why is it so different from their platform? I don't know anything about their subliminal messages and how it impacted their followers, but there is no way this one band's opinions is so important that the file is under such lock and key. I find this very interesting.
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How a New Jersey city achieved 0 traffic deaths in 4 years : NPR

How a New Jersey city achieved 0 traffic deaths in 4 years : NPR | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Traffic fatalities are on the rise across the United States. Yet in some parts of the country, efforts born from both tragedy and political will have seen the numbers move in a different direction.
Rob Duke's insight:

1. education

2. engineering

3. enforcement

Brodie Josefsen's comment, September 12, 11:05 PM
I have been in car accidents myself, and I can say first hand how horrible they are for everyone involved. It is great to see that work is being done to suggest safer driving methods. If any effort made can save 1 life it is worth it.
Kylie Lambries's comment, September 13, 2:43 AM
I can appreciate the effort to cut down on traffic accidents, I have known too many people that have been in some, and some who have lost their lives. Unfortunately that is a lot of people who also share this experience. I think this is a great idea and should be implemented everywhere. Many people have been greatly effected by these accidents, and while not everywhere is the same, I think over time improvements can make this a country wide thing, making car accidents a rare occasion, leading to more people who can live their lives, and families and friends not grieving at their loss.
Kenton Mayfield's comment, September 16, 11:49 PM
The traffic devices that have been implemented in Hoboken have been crucial in preventing all traffic related deaths for 4 years. While it may be obvious that these devices have the potential to greatly reduce traffic fatalities, the problem arises when trying to secure the funding for these devices when attempting to implement them on a large scale. While this article doesn't necessarily relate to anything criminology related, I believe a correlation can be made between the success of these traffic devices and the success of certain crime reduction policies and their shared difficulty in implementing on a large scale.
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In Baltimore Report, Justice Dept. Revives Doubts About Zero-Tolerance Policing - The New York Times

In Baltimore Report, Justice Dept. Revives Doubts About Zero-Tolerance Policing - The New York Times | Criminology and Economic Theory |
The broken-windows style of policing that New York evangelized is increasingly seen as a source of community tensions, not a successful crime-fighting strategy.
Cherie's comment, September 12, 2:12 AM
Ah, yes, this makes sense that the zero-tolerance policing strategy evolved from the war-on-drugs mentality of the ‘80’s and ‘90’s. Community-based policing is what is needed. It has already been shown that most of these officers unfairly target minority communities with this broken-window policy. How do you gain public trust in the police when there are disparities like this and especially when such tactics as stop-and-frisk do not produce the results police had hoped for in catching larger criminals? I am happy to see that these low-level crimes are being decriminalized and hope that we see more investment in maintaining the public’s trust.
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Spain euthanizes jailed gunman ahead of trial

Spain euthanizes jailed gunman ahead of trial | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Spanish prison authorities on Tuesday euthanized a man who shot and wounded four people in December and was subsequently wounded in a shootout with the police, rendering him paralyzed and begging to be allowed to die while awaiting trial.
Joezen Ortiz's comment, September 16, 3:09 AM
In my view, the justice system is in place for a reason. One who does the crime should face the appropriate consequences. This man decided to do this act, and in the shuffle of this act, he was left paralyzed. Why should he get the "easy" way out? He should have to stand and face trial just like everybody else. Then, and only then, should the decision be made to euthanize, or not.
Jackson Magie ID#31278143's comment, September 18, 1:56 AM
In this case, I see assisted suicide as justified. He was fully paralyzed, and obviously had no way of carrying out any further acts of violence and pretty much had no future ahead of him. Keeping him alive and paralyzed would have been torture, having to live out every day of his life completely out of his control. Yes, he was a horrible man who carried out an unjustifiable deed, but in the end, there is no way to bring back what was lost. He was begging to be put down, not wanting to live through the rest of his life in such a hell, and his final request was granted.
Cherie's comment, September 18, 11:50 PM
Laws should be made applicable to everyone, and therefore the gunman had every right to be euthanized. Still he should have been forced to meet publicly with the victims so that he would see and know the impacts of his actions before he being euthanized. The victims deserve some type of closure. It is important that the justice system and the gunman acknowledge how the lives of the victims have forever been altered. The public must feel that justice has been served on some level.
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Arrested in my pyjamas: I became a Russian political prisoner at 23

Arrested in my pyjamas: I became a Russian political prisoner at 23 | Criminology and Economic Theory |

t six in the morning on April 14th I was woken by the doorbell and yelling. “Open up, or we’ll break the door down!” Half-asleep and frightened, I opened the door. Ten or so men entered my flat, holding guns and wearing black balaclavas and bulletproof vests. I was in my pyjama bottoms and a sweatshirt.

Was I still asleep and having a nightmare? It felt like it. They pushed me into a room and took my phone and passport. After a while they asked, “Well, Alla Gutnikova, were you filming a video?”

They were referring to a film I made a few months earlier. In January many young Russians like me took part in protests against Vladimir Putin following the arrest of Alexei Navalny, Russia’s most prominent dissident, on his return to the country. Some were expelled from university for their role in the demonstrations.

I was working as an editor at DOXA, an online student magazine in Moscow. Three other editors and I released a three-minute video in which we criticised universities for illegally expelling protesters. As my sign off, I said, “the government has declared war on young people. But we will definitely win.” We showed the script to lawyers, who said it didn’t contain criminal content.

The law here is a kind of a Russian roulette

But the law here is a kind of Russian roulette. The authorities sent us a letter saying the video was illegal and that we needed to delete it. We did. Even so, here I was, a couple of months later, surrounded by armed men in my apartment. They told me to get dressed and took me in for questioning. I’d read about what happens to criminal suspects in Russia: would they keep me in a basement and torture me?

That evening there was a trial at the Basmanny district court in Moscow. The prosecution claimed that we had involved minors in life-threatening activities: they said teenagers watching our video could be inspired to go to a rally, where they might catch coronavirus and die.

The judge placed me and the other editors under house arrest. We were also banned from using the internet and making phone calls. Two weeks later, after we appealed, the court let us go out for a two-hour walk each morning.

For the first month I held up well. I tried to see the funny side of it and the potential for anecdotes. I thought about turning my experience into a story, play or song. But after five months of house arrest, I’m a bit broken. Everything is a haze or a half-dream. It’s like I’m in a movie, but it’s really happening to me.

Ifirst became interested in politics following the assassination in 2015 of Boris Nemtsov, a leading liberal politician. But until recently, my main focus was my education. I was doing a degree in cultural studies at the Higher School of Economics in Moscow – my thesis was on the philosopher Walter Benjamin. When I wasn’t studying, I taught children English and did a bit of modelling and acting. After graduating I planned to work as a teacher or go into publishing.

Like many young Russians, I got immersed in politics in the summer of 2019 after the arrest of Ivan Golunov, an investigative journalist who had reported on the finances of Moscow’s deputy mayor and his family, among other subjects. The authorities tried to plant drugs on him in broad daylight (the charges were later dropped). There was a popular slogan: “Me, us, Ivan Golunov”, and unprecedented solidarity among journalists and students.

Young people come along and say: “The king is naked”

Soon after came the events known as the “Moscow Case”, when young people were detained for protesting against Putin. I was trying to study, but all I could think about was what was happening to these demonstrators. My friend and I made stickers saying “the Moscow Case must be stopped” for people to put on their bags and laptops. I was naive enough to hope this would promote change: I imagined these stickers flooding the whole city, that we’d see how many of us there were.

Then, in January, came the controversy about Putin’s palace. Navalny, who had been poisoned by Russian security agents a few months earlier, released a film about Putin’s mansion on the Black Sea. Everybody was discussing it – even people who weren’t interested in politics. It was like a new Harry Potter had come out. I remember thinking: who could want Putin in power knowing the amazing level of corruption? Russians have nothing to eat, but officials have palaces and private jets.

The film led to several protests. It was dangerous to go to them: we all remembered the arrests of 2019, the videos of police beating protesters with batons, the woman with a bloody head. But I still hoped that something would change. There was a sense of unity and widespread enthusiasm. It was very exciting – this dormant feeling that had suddenly become visible.

All over Russia, schoolchildren and university students went to rallies. Fifteen-year-olds took buses to nearby towns just to protest. Some were detained. One child was asked: “Do you know Navalny’s next plans?” Several were threatened with expulsion from school. Parents started to tell their kids: “You’d better not go to the protests, it might be dangerous.” They turned a blind eye to corruption and pretended everything was fine.

Many in our parents’ and grandparents’ generations see Putin as a strong ruler: they think that if he steps back, everything will collapse. It’s hard to argue with people who watch the one-sided coverage on Russia’s state-run tv channel from morning till night. You’re told that being gay means selling your heart to the devil, that feminists want to kill men, that Navalny is spying for the Americans. You’re also told that Russia has the most beautiful women and that the West is decadent. It used to be Soviet propaganda; now it’s Russian propaganda.

Young people can only laugh at this. We get our news online. It’s like “The Truman Show”: you realise Russia is not quite as the propagandists describe it. We look more critically at what is around us; we can’t help but see how bad things are. We come along and say: “The king is naked. The milk yields are not increasing. Life is not getting any better. Everything is bad in Russia.”

The main problem is not fear, it’s a feeling of powerlessness

Once you see the injustices, you can bring them to light through journalism and social media. Navalny’s film has more than 100m views on YouTube. Telegram, a messaging app, is very important for activists: the DOXA channel, where we post links to our stories, has 15,000 subscribers. TikTok is also important – some people use the app to share videos about protests.

My hope that Russia would change came to an end in February. After the rallies and videos, somehow things quietened down. The intimidation makes everyone so scared that they sacrifice their opinion for mythical security. They think: if I just shut up now, don’t stick my neck out, maybe I won’t get hurt. But it doesn’t work that way. You can be jailed for nothing if they don’t like what you’re doing, writing or saying. It makes you want to crawl into a corner, somewhere you can’t be reached, so you can catch your breath.

The main problem is not fear, it’s a feeling of powerlessness. You can write anything you like on the ballot paper, but the election will still be rigged. You see another trumped-up case where people get ten years in prison for nothing. It’s enough to make me cry. Some of my friends have stopped reading news about arrests and torture. I’m ashamed that I’ve read almost nothing about the people who were arrested for protesting against Putin’s palace – my energy had been drained by the Moscow Case. Worrying for months on end burns you out. People are exhausted.

The authorities hope they can simply squeeze out all the dissenters. That people will leave the country, like they’re doing in Belarus, and like they did here in the old days. I’ve read diaries of people who were forced to leave the Soviet Union: they talk about their dreams of returning one day and walking through the city they grew up in. It’s scary.

For activists, living in exile at least gives you a chance to sleep peacefully at night and not to flinch at every rustle and knock on the door. Many young people want to move to Europe and America; to live somewhere with a higher standard of living, more rights and freedoms, better career prospects.

I understand why people want to abandon this sinking ship, but if everyone goes, Russia will have nothing left. It really will sink. We need people who are willing to sacrifice their comfort, nerves, time and emotional state to fight for something. If all the activists leave, only the apathetic will be left. Russia will slowly decay and fall apart.

Each time we go to court and the judge looks at us, I think that maybe she will say, “yes, you’ve made your case”, and end our house arrest. Then I laugh at myself for having hope. Most adults I know don’t hope for anything anymore, because they’ve been disappointed so many times before.

I’m at home with my family, I sleep in my bed, I eat good food, my friends come over. When it gets boring I find ways to entertain myself: I read a lot; an artist has painted my portrait; I’ve done several photoshoots. But house arrest is scary – it cuts you off from life. You descend into depression, because it goes on and on. Sometimes I just lie there and stare at the ceiling; I don’t have the energy to see guests, to do anything. It’s a bit like quarantine, just without the internet, or hope.

All my friends are getting on with their lives. They’re travelling, finding themselves, going to graduate school, building careers and moving away. I’m just sitting at home, in this kind of childlike state. I fear that I won’t be able to return to my old life, that I won’t be able to graduate or work, that something in me is broken, that I am not the same person I was before.

But I don’t regret making that video. The authorities wanted to send a message to young people: sit still and keep quiet, otherwise you will be put under house arrest. Instead it had the opposite effect. Our video turned us into superstars. It made young people confident – I guess a lot of them saw us as role models. By arresting us, the government did more to inspire young people to join opposition movements than we ever did: when they see their peers in court, they’re more likely to say, “I can’t keep silent.”

DOXA continues to publicise injustice against students in Russia – it’s just that other people now write the stories. We are one of many publications that have been targeted: the authorities have also tried to silence Insider and Meduza, two investigative news outlets. Individual journalists have been fingered as foreign agents. Every media outlet is under threat. Everyone is worried.

So is Putin: he is afraid of the young. Why? We are less afraid of him than older people are. I was two when he came to power; now I’m 23 and he’s still there. But youth always wins. It’s just the law of nature.

Bam Janssen's comment, September 12, 1:00 AM
I think this paints an excellent picture of how corruption and violence can crush people's wills and hold them down, but hope will always burn. I really enjoy this article, I'm not even sure how much I can relate it to what I've read so far but I'm so glad I picked this and read through it. Especially with what Russia's doing in Ukraine. In America, I believe we have the notion that the government works for the people. While I think an argument could be made for both, what I love is how clearly this person paints the picture that this is not the same across the world. That out there, away from our safety-pad country, corruption, violence, power... it doesn't need to hide. Or cover it's ass. It hangs itself out there and challenges anyone and anything to topple it. In my opinion, it's the strongest that keep going no matter what. This is fantastic
Paityn Taylor's comment, September 14, 3:27 PM
near the end when she says she dont regret making the video in the firt place even to all that happened to her when they caught her means thqt that video was important to her aqnde that she was putting her voice out there and she waas proud of it even thought they did take it down that video couldve gone anywhre in ther short time it was up and influenced a lot of people to do things. the house arrest mustve been awful and it does show that she doesnt know what all she feels she can acomplish anymore and have the energy for anything anymore but she was very proud that people saw her as a role model even though what she did was illegal and she got punished for the video.
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After 50 Years Of The War On Drugs, 'What Good Is It Doing For Us?' : NPR

After 50 Years Of The War On Drugs, 'What Good Is It Doing For Us?' : NPR | Criminology and Economic Theory |
President Nixon called for an "all-out offensive" against drugs and addiction. The U.S. is now rethinking policies that led to mass incarceration and shattered families while drug deaths kept rising.
Rob Duke's insight:

War! Huh! Yeah! What is it good for? Absolutely nothing!

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Ninth Circuit Copyright Case on Japanese Video Hosting Website

Focusing on the first prong of the minimum contacts test (whether the foreign defendant purposefully directed its activities at the United States) the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit reversed a district court holding that it lacked specific personal jurisdiction over the operators of a Japanese-language video-hosting website and remanded the case for further analysis under Fed. R. Civ. P. 4(k)(2), the federal long-arm statute. Will Co. v. Lee, Case No. 21-35617 (9th Cir. Aug. 31, 2022) (Wardlaw, Gould, Bennett, JJ.)

Will is a Japanese adult entertainment producer with more than 50,000 videos registered with the US Copyright Office. Will sells access to its content on its website, where it makes more than $1 million per year from US consumers. Defendants Youhaha Marketing and Promotion (YMP) and Lee own and operate, a Japanese-language video-hosting website similar to YouTube. allows users to upload and view videos for free alongside advertisements posted by third-party vendors.
Jackson Magie ID#31278143's comment, October 1, 9:12 PM
It’s very difficult to enforce laws overseas or even in different countries, especially if those two countries are so different culturally. It’s great to hear that the website got what it deserved, but it’s such a small fraction of offending websites which host legal content which reaches the U.S. and other countries where it is illegal. This is also the most popular way content is pirated so easily, because it’s so difficult for laws from other countries to prosecute them.
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Alabama abandons execution after failing to find vein for lethal injection | Alabama | The Guardian

Alabama abandons execution after failing to find vein for lethal injection | Alabama | The Guardian | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Alan Miller’s judicial killing called off two months after execution of Joe Nathan James took three hours
Kylie Lambries's comment, September 29, 3:15 AM
Trying to find a vein for 3 hours can be classified as cruel and unusual punishment. The IV's that take a long time can be considered torture, which is why some states have stopped using them. Halting the execution was the right choice, torture is not something executions should include. Basic human rights have to be protected and protecting against "cruel and unusual punishments" is one of them. Many people are trying to have the state's use a different method for execution, or just not have the death penalty. It may take some time before this method is fairly accurate, but this is the system we have now, and with the sentencing, the criminals punishment for their crimes is death.
Paityn Taylor's comment, September 29, 7:29 PM
I think they were right for calling off the execution after the IV took three hours to do. I don't think that someone waiting to die should be tortured sitting in a chair that long to wait for their death I think this is wrong. Also, it should not take that long to find a vein to stick the IV in, so something with the people finding the vein needs to change, and maybe they should have better training on doing so. Also, since they have had to call off multiple executions, for this reason, that leads to more people in prison that were supposed to be executed, and that line of people will just keep filling up and backing up further until they figure out what is going wrong.
Jackson Magie ID#31278143's comment, October 1, 9:12 PM
I have no qualms with the death penalty, and I support its use in many situations. However, I find it unfair how long it takes for death penalties to be carried out in the U.S. For example, in this story, the man was convicted in 2000 and the death penalty was not carried out until 22 years later. Lethal injection does seem like one of the most humane ways to execute someone, but it still is unjust from how long it takes to enact. I can actually somewhat relate to this story because my mom used to talk to me about how she and her mother’s side of the family has weak veins and has told me about how it’s been difficult for her to get shots and to draw blood because of that. So it is understandable how this situation in the story can occur, but I think it’s stupid to completely call off an execution because they failed to find a vein. Just blow the dust off the electric chair and stick him in it or something. There should be a much quicker and more effective way to execute prisoners, but obviously, stay humane.
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NTSB Wants All New Vehicles To Check Drivers for Alcohol Use - NowThis

NTSB Wants All New Vehicles To Check Drivers for Alcohol Use - NowThis | Criminology and Economic Theory |
DETROIT (AP) — The National Transportation Safety Board is recommending that all new vehicles in the U.S. be required to have blood alcohol monitoring systems that can stop an intoxicated person from driving.
Kylie Lambries's comment, September 29, 2:38 AM
I think this is a good idea. I know some people who has died too soon because of drunk drivers. This is also enforcing a law, and trying to keep people safe. These tragedies can stop happening, or be reduced if these technologies are created. While this technology may take a while to get spread everywhere, I believe it is worth it, with preventing deaths and the grief that comes with that, protecting citizens from injuries, and saving billions with treatment costs. While the government is taking control, I believe it is important for the government to step in for this case.
Paityn Taylor's comment, September 29, 7:40 PM
They seem to be overstepping some boundaries here. Yes, drinking and driving are already illegal to do, but I don't think they should put this technology in a car computer system to tell you when you can or can't drive and not be able to leave where your car is parked. Also, there could be a lot of flaws to go wrong with this system. What if the passenger is drunk and the driver is completely sober, and the car picks up on the passenger's breath? Then what would you do; you wouldn't be able to go anywhere. Yes, there are a lot of accidents a year with drunk drivers, but there are a lot of accidents with texting and driving. What are they going to do about that? Have your car shut your phone off while driving because that would be the equivalent of what they are trying to do now. The government should not be allowed this and should stick to what they have been doing, and the people who get in accidents after drinking and driving should get their punishment for it.
Kenton Mayfield's comment, October 1, 4:18 PM
While I can understand the thought process of the NTSB to try to implement something like this, they would be greatly overstepping their powers. Even if this was implemented on a mass scale, it would only be a matter of time before a technologically savvy individual would invent a workaround for this computer system that he could sell to millions of people. Maybe instead of the NTSB focusing on this, they can provide more funding to police resources so they are better able to enforce DUI laws.
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Sniper denied parole, 20 years after terrorizing D.C. area

Sniper denied parole, 20 years after terrorizing D.C. area | Criminology and Economic Theory |

RICHMOND, Va. (AP) — Virginia has denied parole to convicted sniper killer Lee Boyd Malvo, ruling that he is still a risk to the community two decades after he and his partner terrorized the Washington, D.C., region with a series of random shootings. Malvo was 17 when he and John Allen Muhammad shot and killed 10 people and wounded three others over a three-week span in October 2002. Multiple other victims were shot and killed across the region.

Malaika Reyes's comment, September 27, 12:47 AM
When teen suspects are sentenced to life without parole, it should be for the most serious of crimes. A failed conviction is not the same as a failed result. The defendant's fate is simply being reevaluated by the courts. I think that the courts made the right decision by denying him parole. There is no telling that if he were to be released that he would commit the same or similar offense(s).
Emely Martinez's comment, September 28, 5:06 AM
The United States courts do not take terrorism offenders, or criminal acitivities lightly. I am not shocked at all that he was denied even if he committed these offenses when he was a minor. I think this offender still is not safe to live in society, and can potentially risk other people's lives. I think the courts made the right decision to deny parole. I do think it’s interesting that they added the reason for his denial was from the seriousness of his crimes and does need to spend more of his sentence before getting granted parole. I do think their reasoning leads to hope for him to be granted parole in the future, but that doesn’t mean it should be granted.
Leonard Lovett's comment, September 28, 10:39 PM
being a juvenile should have no effect on his prison sentence, he knew what he did and what he did was horrible.
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How softer non-policing strategies might help

How softer non-policing strategies might help | Criminology and Economic Theory |
On a basketball court just north of Atlanta’s city centre, on a hot summer’s day in July, Ricky Usher (generally known as Dip) is busy organising his charges. Several teams from around the city are lined up; a sound system blasts out music; groups of teenagers of both sexes sit on stands consuming burgers and tins of sugary pop. Dip, a large man with a gold tooth, who coaches the home side, roams between the young men and teenagers passing out advice and blue t-shirts advertising Atlanta Teen Leaders, the city-funded after-school programme.

Coaching basketball is Dip’s main job. But it helps with his other, as an “interrupter” for Cure Violence Global, an organisation based in Chicago that has programmes in 20 American cities, and in a dozen or so other countries around the world. Its model, explains Fredrick Echols, the ceo, is built round the idea that violence spreads in a community like a communicable disease. For a disease to spread, “there has to be an environment that supports the growth of the bacteria or virus,” says Dr Echols. Just as cholera spreads in overcrowded slums without clean water, violence spreads most in places where jobs are few, access to good education limited and inequality rampant.

Violence spreads where jobs are few, access to good education limited and inequality rampant

Following this logic, Cure Violence programmes hire “violence interrupters”, who do a job not unlike health workers in a slum. Violence interrupters cannot undo inequality. But they can identify those most at risk of falling into violent behaviour and step in before it happens, rather as health workers identify people likely to get sick and treat them before they infect others. “I got relationships with a lot of these people,” says Dip, of young men involved in crime. “And if not them, I got their uncles, their aunties, their cousins.” Around the neighbourhood, “everybody knows somebody who knows me.”

Stopping a young man from shooting somebody else by power of persuasion is not easy. But Dip does “whatever it takes”. If he hears that two men have had an argument, he will find them. “That shit be like, disputes over money, disputes over love interests,” he says. If he can find a young man before he starts a fight, he persuades him to come for a drive, or takes him to a restaurant to chill out. Sometimes he pays for groceries or other essentials, since financial difficulty can drive violence. “If you’ve got a pocket full of money, you’re less willing to do some bullshit,” he says. Most young men do not really want to kill, he reckons. Rather, they’re traumatised, often from having been victims themselves, and turn to violence out of stress. Carrying a gun and using it is “a defence mechanism, most of the time”, he says.

According to Aric Johnson, Dip’s supervisor in Atlanta, successful violence interrupters need credibility most of all. They are usually men in their 30s or 40s who might have a history of violence and share (or at least understand) the mistrust of the police and formal institutions. “You can’t be no stool pigeon, you can’t be no snitch,” he says. But they also have to have moved on from violent crime. “Even in the dirt you’ve got to be stand up. You can’t be moving packages or calling shots.” Before becoming a Cure Violence supervisor, Mr Johnson was a violence interrupter, having got out of prison in his late 20s. He worked at a hospital in Atlanta, where he talked to gunshot victims to persuade them not to take revenge on those who shot them.

In the past few years, investment in such programmes, known as “Group Violence Interruption”, has soared. Cure Violence, which began as a project called Ceasefire in Chicago around 20 years ago, is one of the biggest providers. But many local organisations are working on variants of the same model, trying to identify violent young men and divert them. In Chicago cred, a group founded by Arne Duncan, Barack Obama’s former education secretary, pays a small stipend (starting at around $125 a week) to persuade clients to take classes in group trauma counselling, history and financial literacy. cred will sometimes take young men out on trips over weekends when violence is most likely.

A policeman’s lot is not a happy one
Cities are turning to such models partly out of desperation. Almost every urban police department across America has suffered from high attrition recently. Chicago has 1,500 fewer officers than in 2019. Violence interrupters can be hired more quickly than cops can be trained. The federal government has dished out plenty of cash through the American Rescue Plan, so it does not cost cities much of their own revenue. Among liberal politicians there is a growing belief that police have been asked to do too much, and are not best able to prevent violent crime, rather than respond to it. As Tamara Mahal, boss of Chicago’s Community Safety Co-ordination Centre, says: “Police have gotten into a lot of jobs that were not necessarily designed for law enforcement.”

Violence interruption is not the only model. Minneapolis has experimented with opening secure places where police can take people experiencing mental-health crises. Cops sometimes respond to calls by sending a counsellor trained in de-escalation. Chicago is pouring money into community groups that clean up derelict lots, plant trees or just provide portaloos for community concerts and the like. These projects might seem petty, says Ms Mahal, but the idea is to foster a belief that the city government is there for people, so reducing mistrust in institutions like the police.

Taken together, these programmes are sometimes said to amount to an “alternative to policing”. Occasionally they have been funded partly out of police budgets, a sort of “defund” by stealth. But senior police officers are mostly in favour. In some cities the police share information with interrupters, to help identify potential flare-ups. The question is, do they work? Anecdotally, the effect seems strong. Dip claims: “I’ve put a dent in a lot of the crime,” and his neighbours agree. But the academic evidence for their effectiveness is thin, partly because the models are still new, and partly because scientifically judging their effectiveness is extraordinarily difficult and expensive.

Yet studies that have been done show some positive effect. One in 2012 of an early Cure Violence programme in Baltimore, Safe Streets, found that it “showed statistically significant reductions in non-fatal shootings after programme implementation”, in some cases of over 50%. A University of Chicago study of readi, another programme in Chicago that selected clients from a pool of young men deemed vulnerable via a lottery, found that those chosen were 63% less likely to be arrested for a shooting or homicide than those not selected. They were also 19% less likely to be shot. The study could not prove with 95% statistical confidence that these results did not arise by chance. But it did find an 85% chance that the reduction in shootings was due to the programme.

Given how inexpensive such programmes are compared with the cost of running a police department, investing in them is a good idea, says Jens Ludwig, of the Chicago Crime Lab. But he warns that what they do not constitute is a true “alternative” to policing. In reality, they work best as a complement not an alternative. Having high clear-up rates helps violence interrupters, because they can tell clients that if they do not change their behaviour they will eventually go to prison. Charlie Beck, a former Chicago and Los Angeles police chief, says the programmes work best “when combined with smart, gang enforcement, not blanketing a major area—which creates a lot of tension—but targeting those that are actively involved in the violence.”

As Brandon Scott, mayor of Baltimore, puts it, his city needs a “carrot and stick approach”. Workers should be able to say to violent young men: “We know what you’re doing, and your life is in danger, and we’re going to give you the opportunity to change it.” But they also need the stick: “If you don’t, we’re going to bring the full force of the law to bear on you.” Violence-interruption models may not be able to deliver what police abolitionists want, which is a total removal of the stick. But for too long American cities have tried to control violent crime with sticks alone.
Hannah Hausmann's comment, September 17, 6:30 PM
While the evidence in these strategies is still cumulating, I am glad that they are being implemented. By creating connections with at-risk people and deterring them from violence not only helps prevent crime but can help a person contribute to their community in a way they cannot if they are imprisoned. This also could relieve some of the tension in law enforcement.
Cherie's comment, September 18, 11:19 PM
These community Cure Violence programmes seem to be an inexpensive, community-inclusive way to help reduce violent crime and lessen pressure on local police forces. Not only does it strengthen community ties, it works as a crime deterrent and as a bridge of communication and information between the community and law enforcement, building trust. I think more good than harm comes from these programs although it remains to be seen whether they will have a substantial impact on reducing crime. It has to be better than what is currently being done because a lot of public trust has been lost in the police.
Tiffany Hiett's curator insight, September 19, 12:21 AM
I think it is interesting that they are trying to stop valance with non volante ways. Cops in other countries don't even use guns not saying that getting rid of those is a good solution, but if other places can combat valance without it we can as well. 
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The Mystery Behind the Crime Wave at 312 Riverside Drive - The New York Times

The Mystery Behind the Crime Wave at 312 Riverside Drive - The New York Times | Criminology and Economic Theory |
In thousands of 911 calls, one man has reported murders, fights, bombs and hostage situations at a Manhattan address that does not exist. Why?
Rob Duke's insight:

Crime analysis would have this on the "top-10" list and the Problem-Oriented Policing (POP) team would have gone after this address and made an attempt to solve this months ago.  It's a good tactic and cuts down on problem addresses.

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Bail reform: California lawmakers decline to overhaul criminal justice program

Bail reform: California lawmakers decline to overhaul criminal justice program | Criminology and Economic Theory |
California lawmakers balked at a scaled-back attempt at reforming the state's cash bail system Wednesday, a year after a more expansive effort also stalled amid headlines over a gruesome killing.
Jessica Schwankl's comment, September 16, 2:45 AM
If this bill ended up passing, it would mean that less wealthy criminals would have the chance to roam the streets again after committing crimes. If criminals are not held accountable----in this case with paying bail, showing up in court, etc--- they are not going to realize that they are doing bad things. Without learning that they are doing bad things and being punished for those things, they're going to do them again.
Joezen Ortiz's comment, September 16, 3:27 AM
This is a tough one for me. I believe a crime is a crime, but different people have different needs. While I do agree that this bill is a terrible idea, I also think that criminals who want to re-commit crimes are going to do just that... re-commit crimes, regardless of their financial standing. That said, I do think that two people who commit the same exact crime, rich or less wealthy, should be held to the same appropriate bail standards based on the severity of the crime committed. In short, judges should make bail decisions based on the individual person, their criminal history, their flight risk, etc. instead of allowing criminals to use their financial standing as a "crutch" throughout the criminal justice process.
Jackson Magie ID#31278143's comment, September 18, 2:02 AM
I have always seen the bail system as a scapegoat for punishment for those who are rich enough they get away with their crimes. The only justifiable reason for bail I see would be that someone convicted could put in all their effort into fighting their case, such as putting in the effort to hire a decent lawyer or trying to gather people for testimonies. However, many people view bail as a way to flee the country and avoid the consequences of their actions, putting a hold on their punishment as they go on about their daily life while awaiting trial. The bail system is flawed and needs reform, however, such a new system would surely have to take time to be perfected.
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Unreasonable Mistake of Fact Negates Criminality—S.C.

A man who went into the backyard of a home, tried unsuccessfully to break in, and was sitting on a bench when police encountered him, might actually have thought, as he claimed, that the house belonged to his cousin, the California Supreme Court held yesterday in a unanimous decision, criticizing the Court of Appeal’s majority for usurping the function of a jury by factually finding that the account lacked credibility.

Justice Leondra Kruger authored the high court opinion. It reverses the decision rendered on Oct. 19, 2020, by this district’s Div. Six.

Acting Presiding Justice Kenneth Yegan wrote for Div. Six’s majority in saying that Ventura Superior Court Judge Paul W. Baelly erred in instructing jurors that a mistake of fact on the part of defendant Isaiah Hendrix had to be “reasonable” to exonerate him on a charge of first-decree burglary, but that the instructional error was harmless because the defendant’s tale was implausible.

Justice Steven Z. Perren joined in that opinion, and then-Justice Martin J. Tangeman (who has returned to law practice) dissented.
DannyMac's comment, September 15, 8:00 PM
The inclusion of the jury trial was significant to the original framers of the constitution. Section 2 of Article III states, "The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.",may%20by%20law%20have%20directed

There is also the sixth amendment of the constitution that says, "In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence."

This requirement of a jury trial in a criminal matter is a core concept of a fair trial. What will happen if every judge decides they have the right to bypass a jury?
Rob Duke's comment, September 15, 8:11 PM
Yes, and jury nullification, like the referendum, is a powerful tool that gives "the people" additional opportunities to ensure that tyrants never rule. We need only use these tools.
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Studies Show 'Proactive Policing' Works, But Social Cost Less Clear : NPR

Studies Show 'Proactive Policing' Works, But Social Cost Less Clear : NPR | Criminology and Economic Theory |
A sweeping new report surveys what's known about the effectiveness of policing strategies. It's crucial information for cities such as Chicago and Baltimore, as they cope with surging violence.
Kenton Mayfield's comment, September 16, 11:15 PM
While research shows there are definitely benefits to proactive policing, it is only effective if the proactive policies are utilized in areas that would benefit the most from them. For example, while the "stop-and-frisk" method could be beneficial in an area that experiences high rates of violent crimes, it would be less likely to be effective in an upscale suburban area where there is much less crime.
Jesica Lawson's comment, September 18, 11:11 PM
Yes, the solution regarding crime and policing is not a one-size-fits-all practice. Do communities respond more appropriately to law enforcement they can relate to?
Jesica Lawson's comment, September 18, 11:16 PM
Look, trust has to flow in both directions.
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Tacoma police working with criminologists on crime reduction plan

Tacoma police working with criminologists on crime reduction plan | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Tacoma police will be working with criminologists from the University of Texas, San Antonio to develop and evaluate a strategic approach to reducing violent crime.
Emma.O's comment, September 12, 1:59 AM
It will be interesting to see a partnership between a police force and an university that focuses on decreasing crime without using techniques that are considered to result in racial profiling or violence. Mixing criminology as a study with active crime might also produce positive results for the Tacoma communities.
Wesley McIntosh's comment, September 12, 2:10 AM
I think that maintaining a strong police presence is important but prosecutions cannot just be thrown out whenever there is a petty theft or small misdemeanor. Doing so makes those crimes, no longer crimes and no one will care if they get arrested because they know that they’ll get a free place to stay and a free meal then be out the door the next day. I know that’s not literally what happens but the point is that the prosecutions like police, is a deterrence and needs to be strong.
Jessica Williamson's comment, September 19, 12:54 AM
I believe that there will always be a push to bring crimes down, but it will always be there. Putting more police and forces out for the public to see may bring it down a bit, but there will always be individuals that are drive by publicity and hating the world and just wand mayhem. But I feel that if more places start bringing stronger forces out for the eye, it will get more of a point across that behavior such as committing crimes will not be tolerated.
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Saudi PhD Student Given 34 Years in Prison for Retweeting Dissidents

Saudi PhD Student Given 34 Years in Prison for Retweeting Dissidents | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Salma al-Shehab was accused of helping people who want to hurt national security. It shows MBS' crackdown on dissidents isn't stopping.
Tammi Jepsen's curator insight, September 12, 3:05 PM
34 years for voicing her opinion - advocating that women should be allowed to drive, and calling for the release of political prisoners.

I've read about people voice their opinions against the US on Facebook, and how much they hate it here and want to move to another country. Perhaps they should give Saudi Arabia a try and see what happens when they publicly complain.

I do hope that Salma al-Shehab is able to appeal her case. Ridiculous punishment, and a very steep price she has had to pay for wanting equality, and freedom for political prisoners, which then ironically happens to her.
Kylie Lambries's comment, September 13, 2:13 AM
I really hate it when stuff like that is on the news, makes me so glad I am an US citizen. I hope she gets out, and I hope the country finally see how important freedom of speech is. I hope she can go back to the UK and tell her story while trying to change how her home country is run, giving people a voice that doesn't have to agree with the government. Twitter is trying to not back either side, which is good from a busines standpoint but bad from. a moral standpoint. I hope Salma al-Shehab can appeal her case, and I hope she sins. Her tweets got her to prison, it's a scary world these days.
Emely Martinez's comment, September 14, 2:14 AM
Personally when someone trashes America regarding freedom of speech I just remember this happens all the time in other countries. It’s extremely sad the power that’s taken in other countries for just following something on social media to following something that’s against the government. It just shows the power that they abuse in order to have constraints on their citizens instead of their power. This is what’s scary and what people have to live in fear of, and the abuse of power grows everyday. It’s heartbreaking and reading to find out she’s a mother just shows the amount of empathy they lacked to sentence her 34 years.