Constructal Law of Design in Nature
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Nigel Reading's groundbreaking buildings may be coming to Hong Kong - South China Morning Post, Sunday January 19 2014

Nigel Reading's groundbreaking buildings may be coming to Hong Kong - South China Morning Post, Sunday                                       January 19 2014 | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it

Asynsis published in South China Morning Post, Sunday 19 Jan 2014

Architect's interest in ancient Greek geometry led to a new way of thinking about design - now his work may be coming to Hong Kong

Via NigelReading|ASYNSIS
Marcelo Errera's insight:

Flow of ideas, stresses and information (beauty).

 

NigelReading|ASYNSIS's curator insight, January 21, 2014 5:59 AM

There's more below on the Asynsis-principle Constructal law and how working with us, stakeholders can add world-class quality with strong Asian values to their new architecture & design projects here in Asia.
It's a compelling, universally applicable new methodology for optimising beauty in design, efficiencies in construction and operations whilst also enhancing project and brand value, in the built environment & beyond.
The Hong Kong Spin is proposed as ideally, a PPP with the government of the HK SAR and a commercial consortium, for which we seek interest.
It would also serve as a demonstration project for the new optimal, sustainable design methods of the Asynsis-Constructal paradigm. When shown to the Tourism commission and former Commerce and Economic Development secretary before, the reaction was very positive indeed.
The ideal site is WKCD, with the HKS having a value-adding catalysing "one country, two systems" (Greek letter Phi, Chinese character Zhong) symbolism.

Like the London Eye at the Culture and Arts-focused Southbank and the Eiffel Tower, it would be a bespoke-tailored city branding icon for our beautiful fusion city, giving us competitive advantage over our regional rivals like Singapore.
The original complete project delivery team for concept (first published and exhibited in 1997 via an HKIA Handover competition), delivery and engineering would again be engaged in this enterprise.

Nigel Reading RIBA LEED GA

Form follows Flow

http://about.me/asynsis

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Qualified Citations of 'constructal' publications, rising on their constructal S-curve

Qualified Citations of 'constructal' publications,     rising on their constructal S-curve | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it

The updated indices of constructal related works in

qualified peer-review publications. The chart shows the number of citations per year.

 

h-index: 65

(excerpt from Clarivate Analytics web of science with "constructal" as topic)

Marcelo Errera's insight:

The accumulated qualified citations since 1996 surpassed the 23,000 barrier. 


An essay over Constructal Theory and Philosophy of Science: 
http://www.acad.ro/sectii2002/proceedings/doc2018-1s/continut/111-116.pdf    

The next CLC conference will be held in Villanova University in May 20-21/2022: (postponed due the sanitary crisis)

(I was absent because the platform had limited the number of scoops I can post for free. We have resumed activities in scoopit early January/21).

mesrallonges's comment, September 10, 2021 9:01 AM
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DennisMiller's comment, November 15, 2021 10:54 AM
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Time and beauty reveal the physics of human perceptions

Time and beauty reveal the physics of human perceptions | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
Adrian Bejan, the J.A. Jones Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Duke University, has published a new book titled "Time and Beauty: Why Time Flies and Beauty Never Dies." This is Bejan's fourth book written for a general audience that uses his concept of constructal law—the tendency of all systems to evolve towards easier access to flow—to explain everyday phenomena that aren't traditionally tied to physics. The book was published in early February 2022 by World Scientific.
Marcelo Errera's insight:
After all, is beauty in the eyes of the beholder? How free is one to determine what is beautiful?

One more time, Prof. Bejan has provided us with a novel perspective on issues that we may take for granted or settled and even think they are out of the realm of Physics. He presents possible predictions, not just descriptions, of some universal aspects of beauty and its relation to us, to the surroundings, to nature. The book sheds light on the "je ne sais quoi " of beauty and, surprisingly, he proposes that beauty is related to time, another thing we intuitively think we know what it is. I am looking forward to receiving the hardcopy edition.
NigelReading|ASYNSIS's curator insight, February 24, 4:02 AM
#Asynsis design thinking mentor and patron Adrian Bejan publishes his new book with perfect timing, beautifully aligning with the #FormFollowsFlow #SynPlexity-curating #AsynsisPrinciple, the geometric foil to the first-principles physics of the #ConstructalLaw.
#DesignThinking #Sustainability
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Frontiers | Is the Evolution of Energy System Productive Structures Driven by a Physical Principle? | Sustainability

Frontiers | Is the Evolution of Energy System Productive Structures Driven by a Physical Principle? | Sustainability | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
The aim of the paper is to identify the consequence of the Constructal Principle in the field of Thermoeconomics of (energy) production systems. This Principle has been recently formulated as an extension of the Maximum Entropy Production Principle and it has been used in literature to explain the shape and structure of all kind of flowing systems. First, the concept of Thermoeconomic Environment is defined consistently with the consumption of environmental resources and residual emissions, which inherently characterize every kind of production system. This approach allows to infer that the evolution of any energy system is strictly related to the exploitation of resources from the Thermoeconomic Environment. Moreover, the widely accepted assumption that energy systems have to be optimized by minimizing the specific resource (exergy) cost of products, has to be regarded as a consequence of a physical principle that tells us which energy systems can persist in time (to survive) and which others would be selected for extinction. The paper shows how the creation of a recycle may allow a reduction of the unit exergy cost of the product, obtaining a more sustainable behavior of the macro-system, made up by the production process together with its supply chains, consistently with the Constructal Principle. Finally, the definition of the Thermoeconomic Environment allows (at least in principle) to properly identify the resource (exergy) cost of disposing off residues an
Marcelo Errera's insight:
Thermoeconomics, as the scientific field that deals with the productive structures and the design of the "black-boxes" that fills the thermodynamic cycles in energy conversion is one more way that drives the design evolution of such systems. It helps deal with the impefections, the ones that are intrinsic, the ones that are avoidable, and how it ultimately reflects on the use of primary energy resources to meet human needs.


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The physics of higher-order interactions in complex systems

The physics of higher-order interactions in complex systems | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it


Federico Battiston, Enrico Amico, Alain Barrat, Ginestra Bianconi, Guilherme Ferraz de Arruda, Benedetta Franceschiello, Iacopo Iacopini, Sonia Kéfi, Vito Latora, Yamir Moreno, Micah M. Murray, Tiago P. Peixoto, Francesco Vaccarino & Giovanni Petri 
Nature Physics volume 17, pages1093–1098 (2021)

Complex networks have become the main paradigm for modelling the dynamics of interacting systems. However, networks are intrinsically limited to describing pairwise interactions, whereas real-world systems are often characterized by higher-order interactions involving groups of three or more units. Higher-order structures, such as hypergraphs and simplicial complexes, are therefore a better tool to map the real organization of many social, biological and man-made systems. Here, we highlight recent evidence of collective behaviours induced by higher-order interactions, and we outline three key challenges for the physics of higher-order systems.

Read the full article at: www.nature.com


Via Complexity Digest
Marcelo Errera's insight:
Interactions do not emerge for arbitrary reasons. They originate in order to allow flows of some sort.Then they evolve in topology, shape and form in order to provide greater access to the currents and streams that lead to the very creation of the network itself.That's the Physics behind it. That's the Constructal Law.
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How one can use the Constructal Law in order to cease undesired flow systems

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Marcelo Errera's insight:
Mr. Dave Troy introduced a new outlook on how to use the Constructal Law. He presents an argument of what if we terminate a given flow-systems that we consider prejudicial to a greater system by relying on the CL.
The CL would point to act in impeding the morphing of features by which such systems access their essential flows.  That would lead to the "death" of those systems.

Certainly, it's not a trivial task to decide objectively which systems are "bad" or "good", and who gets to decide that. However, it is possible to make predictions of the future of the greater system.

Very controversial and definitely requires a thorough analysis.



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The physics law that will help you better understand your…

The physics law that will help you better understand your… | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it

"My interview with Duke University Professor, physicist, engineer, author and multiple awards winner Adrian Bejan. 



The constructal law works ‘in reverse’ as well. It cannot just predict how a system will evolve, but also how a system will become toxic when it isolates itself and the natural flow and the access are willingly limited. This will eventually lead it to fossilize and die. I had to think about filter bubbles in social media, of course, where the free movement of information is limited and instead orchestrated by algorithms that push ‘sameness’ and commercial content. The result is a design that nurtures polarization, extremism in any form and capitalism. It might have taken a while before the public caught on (but remember, the natural tendency of a flow system is not necessarily fast), but Facebook, for instance, is now confronted with an enormous image problem and the younger generation shies away from it. Obstructing the natural flow comes at a cost."

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Measuring regenerative economics: 10 principles and measures undergirding systemic economic health - ScienceDirect

Measuring regenerative economics: 10 principles and measures undergirding systemic economic health - ScienceDirect | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
Applying network science concepts and methods to economic systems is not a new idea. In the last few decades, however, advances in non-equilibrium the…

Via june holley
Marcelo Errera's insight:
Interesting take on the means by which the level of economic activity can regenerate from a reference "configuration" to new ones.

Three  articles are worth reading on the subject:

1) A. Bejan and M. R. Errera , "Wealth inequality: The physics basis", Journal of Applied Physics 121, 124903 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4977962 ;

2) Adrian Bejan, Marcelo R. Errera, Umit Gunes. (2020) Energy theory of periodic economic growth. International Journal of Energy Research 44:7, 5231-5242. https://doi.org/10.1002/er.5267 ;

3) Bejan, A, Gunes, U, Errera, MR, Sahin, B. Social organization: The thermodynamic basis. Int J Energy Res. 2018; 42: 3770– 3779. https://doi.org/10.1002/er.4093

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Novel Aspects of Constructal Law: Four Distinct and Competing Goals in Flow Channels Design

Novel Aspects of Constructal Law: Four Distinct and Competing Goals in Flow Channels Design | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
Constructal law explains the sense of evolution (morphing to get access to flows) of finite size systems, but paradoxes do exist as not all vegetables have a tree form. Also, nature does not improve all animals for displacement. This work aims at creating a model to explain those paradoxes about constructal law. It adopted the system engineering technique of segregation between functions (abstract goals) and solutions (physical entities). Further, this work introduced the assumptions of flow under external threats and imperfect channels (subject to leakages and suboptimal form). Results showed that there are always elements doing four functions in all types of channels: to reduce entropy, to protect channel, to retain integrity and to drive flow. Although the four functions are always present, natural systems typically privilege one function over others, depending on environmental demands. As a solution to improve flows, animal brains also fit in the model of four functions. Human mind seems to have groups of instincts associated with each of the four channel design functions, leading to four behavior phenotypes and four motivations (prominence, inclusiveness, negativity prevention and tradition). Finally, this model (channels need to meet four goals) unified physics and animal psychology and extended applications of Constructal law to the fields of systems engineering methods, management, and psychological science.
Marcelo Errera's insight:
Interesting take on the Constructal Law that builds on the theory framework. The author's claim of existing paradoxes in the Constructal Law statement is actually a misreading of the assertions of  "constraints", "finite-size", the available degrees of freedom and so on. The constructal law statement is general and reduced to a minimal set of assertions that explains the phenomenon. From that, theories for each specific situation can be devised and itself tested.

In line with Thomas Kuhn, the advancement of the knowledge or scientific revolutions goes through a process of testing and questioning current paradigms, proposing new ones until a shift takes place.

One last point worth considering,  is the theories based on constructal law are subject to their own testing. Should they fail, a new theory is needed, not a law
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Freedom and Evolution: Hierarchy in Nature, Society and Science, by Adrian Bejan | J. Energy Resour. Technol. | ASME Digital Collection

This is an exceptionally entertaining and engaging book about freedom and evolution, with the subtitle hierarchy in nature, society, and science. In his new book, Adrian Bejan covers a wide range of topics such as thermodynamics, freedom and evolution, diversity and hierarchy, as well as science and freedom.

This highly original book has 11 chapters. The first chapter is Nature and Power. Adrian Bejan shows that nature consists of two systems. The first system is the one chosen by the human observer to analyze and discuss. It can be an open system where there is mass flow across the boundary or a closed system where there is no mass flow across the boundary, such as engines and brakes. The second system is the surroundings, or the environment, which opposes the flow system movement. The movement on the earth surface is due to power. The power is dissipated promptly into heat that is transmitted to the ambient.
Marcelo Errera's insight:
Another fascinating book that raises questions, put forth possible answers and entice us to think about great issues of our time. Freedom is of paramount importance to improve our world.
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Emergence of Structural Inequalities in Scientific Citation Networks

Buddhika Nettasinghe, Nazanin Alipourfard, Vikram Krishnamurthy, Kristina Lerman
Structural inequalities persist in society, conferring systematic advantages to one group of people, for example, by giving them substantially more influence and opportunities than others. Using bibliometric data about authors of scientific publications from six different disciplines, we first present evidence for the existence of two types of citation inequalities. First, female authors, who represent a minority in each discipline, receive less recognition for their work relative to male authors; second, authors affiliated with top-ranked institutions, who are also a minority in each discipline, receive substantially more recognition compared to other authors. We then present a dynamic model of the growth of directed citation networks and show that such systematic disparities in citations can arise from individual preferences to cite authors in the same group (homophily) or the other group (heterophily), highly cited or active authors (preferential attachment), as well as the size of the group and how frequently new authors join. We analyze the model theoretically and show that its predictions align well with real-world observations. Our theoretical and empirical analysis sheds light on potential strategies to mitigate structural inequalities in science. In particular, we find that merely making group sizes equal does little to narrow the disparities. Instead, reducing the homophily of each group, frequently adding new authors to a research field while providing them an accessible platform among existing, established authors, together with balanced group sizes can have the largest impact on reducing inequality. Our work highlights additional complexities of mitigating structural disparities stemming from asymmetric relations (e.g., directed citations) compared to symmetric relations (e.g., collaborations).

Read the full article at: arxiv.org


Via Complexity Digest
Marcelo Errera's insight:
Interesting survey and modelling. The issue of prevalence o hierarchy in Higher Education, mainly, in ranks of productivity and recognition has been addressed in  2007 by Prof. Bejan with constructal theory[1]. While losses may occur, the natural emergence of hierarchy  is spontaneous, and one that has produced great deal of knowledge and its flow, a "flow of science".

"These hierarchical flow designs serve everybody well. They are much older and more perfect (polished) than a new design that someone may promise to put in place today. The highly ranked and the lowly ranked go together. The flow of science improves in time because each school improves while maintaining the place that it has earned in the global structure."

"The university administrator who hopes to change the rank of his university by simply stealing one top name from a highly ranked school is defeated by nature, every time. The same fate awaits the one who promises to change rankings by building something artificially big – artificial, because it is not demanded by the natural evolutionary history and geography that created our world aca- demic weave. Such wishes are analogous to damming, blocking, or digging river channels."

"The university is the professors, their disciples, and the disciples’ disciples. It is the ideas that flow through these human links and into the books of our evolving (morphing) science and culture. In time, this global vasculature evolves like a river basin during the rainy season: all the streams swell, but their hierarchy remains the same."

[1] Adrian Bejan, Int. Journal of Design & Nature. Vol. 2, No. 4 (2007) 319–327 http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.736.1895&rep=rep1&type=pdf
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Why does time move more quickly as we age? | Adrian Bejan | TEDxMidAtlantic

If you've ever noticed that time seems to move more quickly the older you are, you've caught a glimpse of one of the effects of what Adrian Bejan calls the "Constructal Law." Bejan is noted for having described the law, one which he believes to be a "first principle" of physics and describes how systems of energy persist throughout time. Bejan has identified data which suggests that time perception depends on the way our eyes and brain send and perceive images — at first very quickly, and then more slowly as we age, giving the impression that time itself moves more rapidly when we get older. Adrian Bejan received the Benjamin Franklin Medal for “Thermodynamics and constructal theory, which predicts natural design and its evolution in engineering, scientific, and social systems.” All his degrees are from MIT. At Duke University he is the J.A. Jones Distinguished Professor. He authored 30 books and 650 peer-refereed journal articles, and was awarded 18 honorary doctorates from universities in 11 countries. His latest book is The Physics of Life (St. Martin’s Press 2016), and his most recent work focuses on how the human mind perceives time. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at https://www.ted.com/tedx
Marcelo Errera's insight:
Another great opportunity to grasp the main points of constructal law reach over domains -- from so close to us to the largest planetary scale.
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Researchers Imitate Natural Vascular Structures to 3D Print New Systems for Self-Healing in Cement

Researchers Imitate Natural Vascular Structures to 3D Print New Systems for Self-Healing in Cement | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
UK researchers from the Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge are studying new systems for construction materials, outlining their results in the recently published ‘A novel biomimetic design of a...
Marcelo Errera's insight:
"The emergence of such vasculatures for turbulent flow is compared with the corresponding phenomenon when the flow is laminar. To predict this design generation phenomenon is essential to being able to scale up the designs of complex flow structures, from small scale models to life size models. The constructal law is a bridge between the principles of physics and biology."[1]

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The Physics Behind Freedom

The Physics Behind Freedom | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it

The Physics Behind Freedom


"Bejan’s book shows that freedom is actually scientifically good for society. It truly is a groundbreaking fusion of physics and economics. Bejan isn’t a political philosopher or an economist; he’s just a scientist charting out the laws of physics and nature. However, his thoughts are actually pretty similar to the Austrian School of Economics which employs praxeology, or a theory of human action. In his case, he sees things through the lens of energy movement and evolution, the literal workings of the universe. Economists call prosperity the result of free people and free markets. He calls it a force of nature."


Marcelo Errera's insight:
Economics is the set of human actions related to our survival and betterment of our lives that we came to call it that way. If we haven't assigned such set to be a discipline of Science, it would take place any way as it does in ecosystems. 

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Kimberly-Clark Distinguished Lectureship Award 2023 - Prof. Adrian Bejan

Kimberly-Clark Distinguished Lectureship Award 2023 - Prof. Adrian Bejan | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it

Lecturer 2023:

Professor Adrian Bejan J.A. Jones Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering Duke University, NC, USA


His lecture, entitled: Vascular materials: Predicting Design Evolution, will focus on one of his major contributions: evolutionary design illustrated in the case of multiscale vasculature, a methodology that can be used generally to predict the evolution toward flow access, miniaturization, high density of heat transfer, and the scaling up (or down) of an existing design. Abstract Porous materials are usually thought of as amorphous mixtures of two or more things, solids, fluids, and voids. The research field started that way, and so did my own activity in it. Along the way, I was drawn to the part of nature (the physics) that was missing from the amorphous view: the structure, flow, configuration, drawing (design), purpose, and evolution. The lecture is pictorial. It begins with defining the terms, because words have meaning: vascular, design, evolution, and prediction (theory). Next, the lecture shows that vascular (tree shaped) architectures flow more easily than parallel channels with only one length scale (the wall to wall spacing). Transport across channels is facilitated when the spacing is such that the channel flow length matches the entrance (developing) length of the flow. The tendency to evolve with freedom toward flow configurations that provide greater access is universal in nature, bio, and non-bio. This tendency is the Constructal Law, which empowers us to predict the evolution toward flow access, miniaturization, high density of heat transfer, and the scaling up (or down) of an existing design. Multiscale vasculatures occur naturally because they flow more easily than their counterparts with a few length scales. The future of evolutionary design everywhere points toward vascular, hierarchical flow architectures that will continue to morph with freedom and directionality. 

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Snowflake Still-Life –

To take these high-resolution images of individual snowflakes, Nathan Myhrvold and his collaborators built a special camera. Their apparatus keeps the snowflake
Marcelo Errera's insight:
To know the difference between circunstancial random factor that affects the outcome of a natural phenomenon and the driving laws of nature is essential
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BJNANO - Colloidal particle aggregation: mechanism of assembly studied via constructal theory modeling

BJNANO - Colloidal particle aggregation: mechanism of assembly studied via constructal theory modeling | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it


The assembly of colloidal particles into ordered structures is of great importance to a variety of nanoscale applications where the precise control and placement of particles is essential. A fundamental understanding of this assembly mechanism is necessary to not only predict, but also to tune the desired properties of a given system. Here, we use constructal theory to develop a theoretical model to explain this mechanism with respect to van der Waals and double layer interactions. Preliminary results show that the particle aggregation behavior depends on the initial lattice configuration and solvent properties. Ultimately, our model provides the first constructal framework for predicting the self-assembly of particles and could be expanded upon to fit a range of colloidal systems.Colloidal particle aggregation: mechanism of assembly studied via constructal theory modeling 

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Quanta Magazine

Quanta Magazine | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it

Researchers have discovered that environments favoring clumpy growth are all that’s needed to quickly transform single-celled yeast into complex multicellular organisms.


(...)

Now, the biologist William Ratcliff at the Georgia Institute of Technology and his colleagues report that over the course of nearly two years of evolution, they have induced unicellular yeasts to grow into multicellular clusters of immense size, going from microscopic to branching structures visible to the naked eye. The findings illustrate how such a transition can happen, and they imply intriguing future experiments to see whether these structures develop differentiation — whether cells start to play specialized roles in the drama of life lived together."

Marcelo Errera's insight:
The resulting design (configuration) of this system that is shown is one that "survived' out of many that didn't.
Emergence of design follows the constructal law. This new  empirical evidence of the law shows that if one considers that the original culture was a living finite-size system that or evolved to grant greater access to the essential streams (nutrients) in the surroundings or it would die off.  
The branching resulted from the combination of "fast-slow", "few large, many small" trend that is predicted by the Constructal Law.
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Age of Invention: Knowledge Lost and Found - by Anton Howes - Age of Invention, by Anton Howes

Age of Invention: Knowledge Lost and Found - by Anton Howes - Age of Invention, by Anton Howes | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it

"Was medicine in the past really quite so bad?


We’re very used to mocking the obscure-sounding remedies of our distant ancestors. It’s hard to take them seriously when their go-to remedies were to remove some blood or take a horoscope. Or, if you were wealthy, to swallow concoctions containing emeralds, sapphires, or obscure animal parts. With the benefit of hindsight, the trajectory of medical improvement seems obvious and linear, as we became attuned to the benefits of hygiene, introduced anaesthetics, and identified the real causes of disease.

But in some ways hindsight is misleading. Our ancestors may not have always understood why things worked, but they were often surprisingly good at finding things that actually did work — but which were discarded prematurely by the onward march of science, when everything we thought we knew was put to the test."



Marcelo Errera's insight:
The constructal law is always in action whether we are aware of it or not.

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A network model of labor market dynamics

A network model of labor market dynamics | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it


Oxford Mathematicians and Economists Maria del Rio-Chanona, Penny Mealy, Mariano Beguerisse-Díaz, François Lafond, and J. Doyne Farmer discuss their network model of labor market dynamics.

"Mathematics has explained many physical, chemical, and biological phenomena, but can it explain how the economy works? It is challenging because the economy is highly diverse, and ever-changing, with both short term fluctuations - it goes through recession and recovery periods - and long-term structural change - innovation transforms the scope and diversity of what we do.

Take the labor market, for example. Figure 1 shows what we call the occupational mobility network (1) - each node is an occupation, and the links show how likely it is that a worker in an occupation moves to another occupation. Clearly, there are many different occupations, and some occupational transitions are more likely than others. How can we model the dynamics of the labor market while taking this into account (click figure to enlarge)?

Read the full article at: www.maths.ox.ac.uk


Via Complexity Digest
Marcelo Errera's insight:
Interesting take. There is freedom of morphing under constraints in order to maximize the flow of income. It's constructal
equatecompare's comment, August 1, 2021 12:47 AM
nice
vandrinexaley's curator insight, November 28, 2021 5:07 PM

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CHF - Swiss Franc
CNY - Chinese Yuan Renminbi
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THB - Thai Baht
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SAR - Saudi Arabian Riyal
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Fungi embrace fundamental economic theory as they engage in trading

Fungi embrace fundamental economic theory as they engage in trading | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
When you think about trade and market relationships, you might think about brokers yelling at each other on the floor of a stock exchange on Wall Street. But it seems one of the basic functions of a free market is quietly practiced by fungi.
Marcelo Errera's insight:
The plant and the fungi form a living finite-size system through which flows carbon. The whole system is constrained by metabolic demands and the surroundings and enjoy degrees of freedom to morph. The configurations and designs that prevail are the ones that provide greater and greater access to what flows.
It seems to be one more case that Constructal theory applies.
The "Walrus Equilibrium" is likely to be  consequence of the Constructal Law
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Structural Design According to Constructal Theory in Architecture - IOPscience

Structural Design According to Constructal Theory in Architecture - IOPscience | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
Constructal theory plays a major role in the conceptual design stage of the structural system in architecture. It provides a conceptual framework for predicting the form depending on natural systems to model those systems geometrically according to the constructal law that works in two directions: the first is towards predicting the general form of the structural system, and the second is the physical application of the law in the process of detailed design of the parts of the system. The aim of this paper is to determine the mechanism adopted in the structural design according to the constructal theory, assuming that the structural design according to the constructal theory achieves high structural efficiency. The paper depends in its theoretical framework on the clarification of the concepts of constructal theory, the mechanism of constructal law work, and then the verification of its compliance with the applicable rules to achieve high efficiency. The paper concludes a set of indicators that can be adopted in assessing the level of structural efficiency - at the level of form and material - of architecturally designed structures according to the constructal theory. The research concluded that constructal theory contributes significantly to research on the origins of living systems, and to employ them in the process of creating the architectural form on one hand, and enhancing the structural efficiency of the structural performance on the other hand
Marcelo Errera's insight:
Even unwittingly, the constructal law of design evolution of flow systems holds.  The evolution of structural designs, which can be seen as a "stress flow system" moves towards greater access of loads and they look beautiful
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Hexagonal and mixed arrays of flow channel design in counterflow heat exchanger - ScienceDirect

Hexagonal and mixed arrays of flow channel design in counterflow heat exchanger - ScienceDirect | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it

"Heat exchanging is one of the critical process in a thermal system and requires in depth optimization of equipment configuration. In this study, the advantage of morphing the flow channel design to more complicated configuration is shown for the purpose of enhancing the flow and thermal characteristics of counterflow heat exchanger. The free pursuit for the optimal geometry of flow channel cross-sections will be investigated toward meeting two objectives simultaneously: lower longitudinal (along the flow direction) flow resistances and lower perpendicular (channel to channel) thermal resistance. For hexagonal, square, and triangular ducts, an analytical model is used to evaluate the fluid flow and heat transfer relative performances. The hexagonal array can be packed tightly without leaving spaces in between, such as in packing circular tubes. However, having inactive channels within the hexagonal bundle is one of the main challenges that reduce the thermal performance of counterflow heat exchanger. Thus, a hybrid packing of mixed configurations is considered in this paper for which a 3D numerical model (CFD) is used to analyze its thermal and fluid flow features. The findings reveal that the triangular array offers higher thermal performance as compared to that of the competitive arrays. However, when heating and flow effects are considered simultaneously, the hybrid array provides the improved performance among the other configurations considered."

Marcelo Errera's insight:
The landscape of design possibilities is the main outcome one obtains when applies the method do constructal design.  The "facilitation of the flow" or "greater access" under given constraints and degrees of freedom is what takes place in Nature and human-made world.
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Life as a self-referential deep learning system: A quantum-like Boltzmann machine model

Life as a self-referential deep learning system: A quantum-like Boltzmann machine model | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it

It has been empirically found that the income structure of market-economy societies obeys a Boltzmann-like income distribution. The empirical evidence…


Highlights 

• Boltzmann-like income distribution emerges spontaneously in a market economy. 

• Technological progress is equivalent to the information entropy of an economic society. 

• The entropy in a human society is self-referential. 

• Self-reference changes a classical physical system into a quantum-like system.


Marcelo Errera's insight:
New studies show that emergency of structures and hierarchy in market-economy (pure or strongly driven) is a natural expected phenomenon as well as the creation of wealth associated to movement over the planet.

Further on that:
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Viral Flows – John Hagel

Viral Flows – John Hagel | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it

Viral Flows Category:Crisis,Emotions,Flow,Institutional Innovation,Learning,Narratives,Strategy For over a decade, I’ve been writing about the Big Shift. There are many dimensions to this shift, but our current crisis highlights the role of flows. In this post, I want to explore the paradox of flows – flows can be both a source of exponential growth and a source of severe regression. We need to understand both dimensions of flows if we want to flourish. What are flows? Flows take many different forms. My focus has been on the flows of knowledge that feed learning by helping to create new knowledge at an accelerating pace. At their foundation, these flows involve connections across people, including serendipitous connections that weren’t anticipated. Urbanization around the world has been accelerating for decades precisely because we have an intuitive sense that we will learn faster in densely populated areas than we ever could, even with all our digital infrastructures and connectivity, in small towns or rural areas. The flows of people, and the knowledge we all possess, including tacit knowledge, are augmented by other kinds of flows – data, goods and money. These flows have expanded globally for decades and are supporting the flows of knowledge that help us to accelerate learning. They have been a key driver of increasing global prosperity and the rapid reduction in poverty in more and more countries. There’s a growing realization that, the more of us who participate in these flows, the faster we will all learn. The more inclusive the flows become, the more we will all prosper, as the learning goes exponential. Systems that thrive are ones that increase the flows over time – here I have been very much influenced by the work of Adrian Bejan and his Constructal Law:  there is a universal tendency toward design in nature, in the physics of everything, to evolve configurations so that they flow more easily, to create greater access to the currents they move. The dark side of flows But not all flows accelerate learning. Some flows become significant barriers to learning. What do I mean? Let me start with something that has increasingly occupied my attention. Emotions tend to spread virally. If many people are feeling a certain way, other people around them become susceptible to the same feelings. As I’ve written elsewhere, I am struck by the spread of fear as the dominant emotion globally – and that was before the current crisis! Fear can be contagious – if everyone around me is afraid, I am more likely to become afraid as well. Emotions tend to cascade on their own, but they spread even more rapidly when amplified by news media that tend to focus on the latest disaster or crisis. When was the last time you heard a good news story (and I’m talking about even before the current crisis)? And, let’s not even mention the spread of fake news designed to amplify fear. Emotions differ in terms of their impact on learning, but fear is one that has great potential to inhibit learning. If I’m afraid, I shorten my time horizons, I become much more risk averse and I become much less trusting of others. I’m much more likely to block the flows that will help me to learn faster because they increase uncertainty. Instead of flows, I seek stability. 

Marcelo Errera's insight:
Hagel raises the fundamental issue "We need to understand both dimensions of flows if we want to flourish. What are flows?" since flows are everywhere that is alive.

Worth stressing is "People with passion flourish in flows while those without passion can be overwhelmed. Flows and filters Flows can become overwhelming if we don’t have a way to focus" 

Also relevant:  "Emotions differ in terms of their impact on learning, but fear is one that has great potential to inhibit learning. If I’m afraid, I shorten my time horizons, I become much more risk averse and I become much less trusting of others. I’m much more likely to block the flows that will help me to learn faster because they increase uncertainty. Instead of flows, I seek stability."
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The golden ratio is everywhere in Nature, Science, Music, Art and Architecture

The golden ratio is everywhere in Nature, Science, Music, Art and Architecture | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it
The golden ratio is everywhere in Nature, Science, Music, Art and Architecture and even in The Da Vinci Code. But what's behind that divine proportion?
Marcelo Errera's insight:
It's good to have more and more confirmations that the so-called golden ratio is ubiquitous. That in turn raises the issue of why, not how, but why it happens.  One reasonable argument of Physics that underlies such strong trend is presented in:

A. Bejan, THE GOLDEN RATIO PREDICTED: VISION, COGNITION AND LOCOMOTION AS A SINGLE DESIGN IN NATURE. International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics.  Volume 4 (2009), Issue 2 Pages 97 - 104. DOI 10.2495/DNE-V4-N2-97-104


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The Physics Behind Tumor Growth

The Physics Behind Tumor Growth | Constructal Law of Design in Nature | Scoop.it

"New theory uses physics to predict the growth stages of cancerous tumors


In the paper, Bejan, Samei and doctoral student Thomas Sauer demonstrate how a tumor’s growth and internal reorganization as it grows are directly tied to its need to create greater access to flowing nutrients as well as conduits for removing refuse. They use these insights to predict the growth of cell clusters as a function of structure, and also to predict the critical cluster sizes that mark the transitions from one distinct configuration to the next."

Marcelo Errera's insight:
Cancer tumors not only cannot escape the Constructal Law but they benefit from it
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