Coastal Restoration
24.4K views | +8 today
Rescooped by Eduardo Garcia from The EcoPlum Daily
onto Coastal Restoration!

Companies hoping to grow carbon-sucking kelp may be rushing ahead of the science

Companies hoping to grow carbon-sucking kelp may be rushing ahead of the science | Coastal Restoration |
Sinking seaweed could sequester a lot of carbon, but researchers are still grappling with basic questions about reliability, scalability and risks.

Via EcoPlum
Eduardo Garcia's insight:
This article stated the importance of gathering enough scientific data before implementing a coastal management plan. Many times implementing "carbon credits" or other preventative measures create unintended consequences with a host of new problems. The complexity of carbon sequestration through aquatic vegetation is much harder to monitor than terrestrial vegetation. However the industry for carbon sequestration has several prototypes currently running with predictive models on how to reduce our carbon footprint according to projected growth. 
Suzanne Bergantzel's comment, September 23, 9:14 PM
Great read! I'm all for doing what we can to alleviate the pressures causing climate change, but we NEED to do the research before we jump on a bandwagon. I love that this article points out the dangers of running forward without thinking about the consequences first.
Coastal Restoration
Coastal management and restoration of our planet's coastlines with a particular focus on California, Louisiana and the Pacific.  Emphasizing wetland restoration, aspects of agriculture in the coastal plain, fisheries, dealing with coastal hazards, and effective governance.
Curated by PIRatE Lab
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Careli Velazquez!

Port of Hueneme helps ease congestion of LA County ports

Port of Hueneme helps ease congestion of LA County ports | Coastal Restoration |
The Port of Hueneme has seen its container vessels jam-packed with merchandise as shippers look to avoid Los Angeles and Long Beach ports.
Careli Velazquez's insight:
The Port of Hueneme is helping by allowing the cargo ships that are waiting in LA. The port allows them to unload a portion of their containers before it continues out to LA county to avoid the backlog of ships, however the Port of Hueneme is limited by the types of cargo it can unload. 
No comment yet.
Scooped by Allison Cooley!

Scripps to conduct realignment study of Carlsbad Boulevard

Scripps to conduct realignment study of Carlsbad Boulevard | Coastal Restoration |

"The city is preparing for sea-level rise by partnering with a prominent local research organization to perform a realignment study on a portion of Carlsbad Boulevard to help mitigate any future structural damage due to climate change."

Allison Cooley's insight:
The Carlsbad City Council has approved a grant this last September for Scripps Insitute of Ocean Ography to conduct a realignment study for Carlsbad Boulevard to retreat the southbound lane eastward. The study is in preparation for sea-level rise and bluff erosion as the boulevard is just barely above sea level. The study is predicted to take about six months for this inspection and the council is supposed to reconvene in the year 2023 about the results. Although there is a natural bluff area in between the north and southbound lanes and the land is available to adjust the south lane eastward, the plan must fall in the General Plan mobility and multi-modal components of the city. I do agree with the retreat that is planned, I question the money that will go into the additions of the plan, as the sea will only keep rising. Will it be worth it to invest multi-modal components with tax dollars? 
Kurt Skowronski's comment, Today, 5:55 PM
Having grown up in SD, I am familiar with this stretch of road. This will be a difficult project as the north side of the proposal area is a mess of bridges and corkscrews that are all on one-lane and one-way that regularly gets botched with traffic. I agree that the managed retreat is necessary now that the edge of the bluffs is nearing the road. What it should have been from the start is a road with two lanes in each direction and a simple 3-way intersection. This way drivers can easily get to the I-5 without the maze.
Scooped by Charles Seamus O'Connor IV!

U.S. Coast Guard boards ship in connection with California oil spill

U.S. Coast Guard boards ship in connection with California oil spill | Coastal Restoration |
The U.S. Coast Guard boarded a container ship on Saturday in the Port of Long Beach that dragged its anchor close to a subsea pipeline found to be the source of an oil spill off Orange County, California, it said in a press release.
Charles Seamus O'Connor IV's insight:
This article provides more information on the recent Huntington Beach oil spill, and designates a possible responsible party for the spill, allowing for potential compensation and fines for the oil spill, and a possible reason for the spill occuring.
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Eduardo Garcia from Amazing Science!

Scientists discover the biggest seaweed bloom in the world

Scientists discover the biggest seaweed bloom in the world | Coastal Restoration |
Scientists led by the USF College of Marine Science used NASA satellite observations to discover the largest bloom of macroalgae in the world called the Great Atlantic Sargassum Belt (GASB), as reported in Science.


They confirmed that the belt of brown macroalgae called Sargassum forms its shape in response to ocean currents, based on numerical simulations. It can grow so large that it blankets the surface of the tropical Atlantic Ocean from the west coast of Africa to the Gulf of Mexico. This happened last year when more than 20 million tons of it—heavier than 200 fully loaded aircraft carriers—floated in surface waters and some of which wreaked havoc on shorelines lining the tropical Atlantic, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and east coast of Florida.


The team also used environmental and field data to suggest that the belt forms seasonally in response to two key nutrient inputs: one human-derived, and one natural. In the spring and summer, Amazon River discharge adds nutrients to the ocean, and such discharged nutrients may have increased in recent years due to increased deforestation and fertilizer use. In the winter, upwelling off the West African coast delivers nutrients from deep waters to the ocean surface where the Sargassum grows.


"The evidence for nutrient enrichment is preliminary and based on limited field data and other environmental data, and we need more research to confirm this hypothesis," said Dr. Chuanmin Hu of the USF College of Marine Science, who led the study and has studied Sargassum using satellites since 2006. "On the other hand, based on the last 20 years of data, I can say that the belt is very likely to be a new normal," said Hu.

Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Eduardo Garcia's insight:
This article had great visual aids explaining the recent increase in sargassum blooms for the tropical Atlantic Ocean. After reading it one can take a way that the increase use of fertilizers has intensified and increased eutrophication of our coastal watersheds.  
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ariana Arias!

Climate Change and Fire Suppression

Climate Change and Fire Suppression | Coastal Restoration |
Researchers investigate the complex factors that will fuel the wildfires of the 21st century
Ariana Arias's insight:
Our coast deals with a lot of environmental factors, and one of them is fires. Just 5 days ago or so Santa Barbara residents had to evacuate their homes due to the fire. What is interesting is that news articles are actually mentioning climate change and how that is fueling drier and warmer winds from the West and as a result we have been having more frequent fires. This article does a nice job describing how for some locations, climate change does increase fire activities.
No comment yet.
Scooped by Suzanne Bergantzel!

Aksa beach in Mumbai to get an anti-erosion wall; environmentalists remain vigilant | Mumbai news

Aksa beach in Mumbai to get an anti-erosion wall; environmentalists remain vigilant | Mumbai news | Coastal Restoration |
A year after it was deferred by the Maharashtra Coastal Zone Management Authority (MCZMA) last year, a proposal by the Maharashtra Maritime Board (MMB) for “sea front development and beatification at Aksa beach” was given limited nod in June, with permissions granted only for construction of an anti-sea erosion wall and parks and recreational grounds, as per the provisions of Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ), 2011 | Mumbai news
Suzanne Bergantzel's insight:
The intention of these permits is great, but the fact that the developers aren't being punished for violating the conditions of the permits makes any permission granted to development difficult to get behind. Construction violations have happened twice in Mumbai so far & I have a feeling it will happen again with this new permit. However, I am happy to see local environmentalists getting involved & attempting to keep these developers honest.
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tyler J Campbell!

California's new plan to protect marine life may be model for world

California's new plan to protect marine life may be model for world | Coastal Restoration |
California has a network of 124 Marine Protected Areas, which is the second-largest MPA network in the world behind Australia's Great Barrier Reef.
Tyler J Campbell's insight:
I thought this was timely(while a little old) in light of the recent oil spill as we are trying to assess and reassess our practices that are causing so much damage. There's a review coming up on coastal research that has been occurring for 10 years. Hopefully in light of the destruction that the spill/spills have caused, the juxtaposed reality of caring for and protecting our environment for the sake of its health will shine. But hey a healthy environment doesn't make us money right this instant so who knows. 
No comment yet.
Scooped by Alex Guzman!

Alex Guzman's insight:
"If one more named storm forms this season — Wanda — experts say 2021 will rank third in the record books for the number of named storms generated in one hurricane season" (Webb and DiMichele). For 2021 to be ranked third for most names storms in a season is a great example of how climate change is amplifying natural disasters. For reference in first and second place is 2005 with 28 storms, and 1933 with 20 storms. 
No comment yet.
Scooped by Alejandro Velazquez!

Empty description
Alejandro Velazquez's insight:
I am one hundred percent on the side of these residents in that the length of time it took for the oil spill to be reported is simply unacceptable. Amplify Energy's had claimed that their equipment and control centers would be able to detect a small leak within an hour of the leak occurring, yet it took almost 12 hours for anything to be done even with people calling in about it. However, I disagree with the idea that we should completely ban oil drilling off the coast of California. We still consume massive amounts of oil and off-loading operations like these that take massive tolls on the environment, workers, and local populations to places that have weaker regulations, poorer safety standards, and inefficient processes would just lead to a net negative for the worlds' push towards sustainability.
No comment yet.
Scooped by Michelle Gados!

New kind of killer whale discovered by B.C. researchers

New kind of killer whale discovered by B.C. researchers | Coastal Restoration |
Researchers have found a new type of killer whale in west coast waters that lives offshore. Tess van Straaten reports.
Michelle Gados's insight:
Researchers are calling this new pod of 155 killer whales the "outer coast killer whales" because they don't travel to coastal areas as often as other pods, remaining in deeper waters. These transient whales were believed to have belonged to a single west coast population but by looking through photos, researchers now believe they are a subset of Bigg's killer whales. 

Joong Soo Kim's comment, October 6, 11:09 PM
Interesting story. As far as I know, almost 70 to 80 percent of the ocean
has never been mapped, explored, or even seen by humans yet. I am shocked
at how vast and big our ocean is. There are a lot of species that we have
not found yet like the killer whales on the article. I hope we could
discover more about our oceans in the near future.
Suzanne Bergantzel's comment, October 8, 2:05 AM
Super cool story! I'm hesitant to agree that this is a single pod of oceanic orcas since the largest known pods have been around 50 individuals & usually don't break 30-40 unless several calves are born around the same time. It is more likely that these 115 individual orcas were spotted in the same general vicinity, but weren't necessarily associated with each other. Its really cool to think that there are pods out in our oceans that are able to sustain themselves out in the open ocean. That gives me hope that we aren't over harvesting fish populations as badly as we believe we are.
Rescooped by evelyn leal from @The Convergence of ICT, Climate Change & Distributed Renewable Energy!

Some 14% Of The World's Coral Reefs Were Lost Between 2008 And 2019, Report Says |

Some 14% Of The World's Coral Reefs Were Lost Between 2008 And 2019, Report Says | | Coastal Restoration |

Rising ocean temperatures killed about 14% of the world's coral reefs in just under a decade, according to a new analysis from the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network.


Put another way: The amount of coral lost between 2008 and 2019 is equivalent to more than all of the living coral in Australia.


The report — the first of its kind since 2008 — found that warming caused by climate change, overfishing, coastal development and declining water quality has placed coral reefs around the world under "relentless stress."

Via Chuck Sherwood, Former Senior Associate, TeleDimensions, Inc
evelyn leal's insight:
NOAA calls this the largest global analysis of coral reef health ever undertaken. The study covers 10 coral reef-bearing regions around the world, and identifies "coral bleaching events caused by elevated sea surface temperatures" as the biggest driver of coral loss.
Brittany Ruffner's comment, October 8, 6:12 PM
This is so saddening but why am I not surprised... We have learned throughout the ESRM program at CI that our oceans have been beaten up by humans and that they are essentially dying. Now that this study has come out with significant numbers, I hope this will urge people and large companies to make a change for the sake of our oceans. It is crazy to think about how 14% of coral reefs have perished in our lifetime. I just hope that some major change is done so that we have something to pass on to future generations.
Scooped by Melissa Ruiz!

Sparking Wonderment, Creativity, and Solving Real-World Problems using Design Thinking

Sparking Wonderment, Creativity, and Solving Real-World Problems using Design Thinking | Coastal Restoration |
/PRNewswire/ -- Middle school students in Long Beach engaged in solving real-world problems in a series of week-long STEAM-based art programs at the U
Melissa Ruiz's insight:
Some light hearted news. These students were tasked to build their own floating city given rising sea level projections in the Belmont Shore area as part of the Art of Building a City Project. Their designs contained solutions specific to community issues by utilizing 5 stages of design thinking. It is so awesome to see programs like these develop and create future scientist in underrepresented communities!!
Jenifer Foote's comment, October 6, 8:02 PM
Great choice this week! Among all the negative news, I love hearing about the positive, impactful news pertaining to coastal management. What an incredible story of team-based efforts to combat climate change using sustainable materials! The world needs innovative individuals and teams to think outside the box to create solutions for current problems. We, as a society, need to celebrate and spotlight these stories more often to create a positive ripple effect of enlightenment rather than depression. Overall, good story and thanks for sharing!
Eli Lew's comment, October 8, 12:25 PM
It's great to see these students get involved with environmental issues at such a young age and actually acting upon it. They didn't tell us about these things when I was in middle school perhaps because they were too afraid to admit it.
Scooped by Joong Soo Kim!

Joong Soo Kim's insight:
Plastics enter into the world's oceans every year, and only 1% of them is found floating on the surface of oceans. Then, where is the rest of all the plastics that we have thrown away? So far, researchers and scientists have focused on oceanic gyres, the water column, the botton of the ocean, and the stomachs of marine wildlife to find the 'missing' plastics. However, plastics in oceans are pushed back onshore and even further to land often trapped in vegetation.
Jada Gaines's comment, October 6, 4:54 PM
This is a really important article for people to read right now to help understand how plastics are harming the environment. A better understanding of how the tides and the winds move the trash can help volunteers for nonprofits better utilize beach clean up times, and it helps scientists understand how to better monitor the amount of plastic that is actually harming different ecosystems. This trash that is able to move is potentially harming more dense ecosystems in the vegetation surrounding the sandy beach.
Michael Boyd's comment, October 6, 5:01 PM
I really enjoyed this article because it seem like most of our plastic pollution media is focused on ocean pollution and it's really nice to sea a news article that focuses on the land impacts that come from coastal contamination. It's much easier for someone from a landlocked state that has never seen the ocean to care about ocean contaminants when they learn that it will also come back onshore and could affect them.
Scooped by Kurt Skowronski!

Plant-based jet fuel could reduce emissions by 68%

Plant-based jet fuel could reduce emissions by 68% | Coastal Restoration |
The sustainable aviation fuel is derived from a type of mustard plant called carinata.
Kurt Skowronski's insight:
After the recent Orange County oil blowout, more calls for the end of offshore drilling to end have been heard. A possible alternative is to store energy in lithium batteries; however, there is not a robust supply chain that can support the mass shifting to this method. A possible fuel source to aid in the transition is derived from the oils of mustard plants. 
No comment yet.
Scooped by Joong Soo Kim!

Microplastics in belugas worked their way up food chain, researchers find

Microplastics in belugas worked their way up food chain, researchers find | Coastal Restoration |
Microplastics are being found in even the most remote waters, say Simon Fraser University researchers who studied how the particles ended up in the stomachs of beluga whales through prey.
Joong Soo Kim's insight:
Researchers have discovered micoplastics in the stomach of beluga whales. This finding shows us how pervasive microplastics are because beluga whales live in remote northern areas. Various types of microplasics are found in their stomachs and it is estimated that they eat about 145,000 particles of microplastics a year.
Careli Velazquez's comment, Today, 10:32 PM
This is such a surprising number of plastics that are being found in belugas. I think that we do need a better method of discarding our plastics so the plastics do not making to the microplastic level. Its also quite surprising that 78% of the particles found in the stomach of fish come from microplastic fibers found in textiles and clothing.
Scooped by Bryan Loya!

Coast Guard cleans La Jolla beach of tar balls from oil spill

Coast Guard cleans La Jolla beach of tar balls from oil spill | Coastal Restoration |
A 17-member crew from the Coast Guard was seen cleaning Windansea Beach on Monday.
Bryan Loya's insight:
After 2 weeks, tar balls from the O.C. spill are showing up in La Jolla beach. Although a 17-man coast guard crew was sent to clean up the tar. One resident in San Diego recalled collecting up to 50 piece of tar. Although the tar is just now appearing, the beaches are still to remain open and there is no apparent risk to public health. However, I do feel that this story plays into the bigger picture of the oil spill and its long lasting effects. Even if the estimated release of oil was lower than first reported, it goes to show how the spill never truly goes away.
No comment yet.
Scooped by Brennan LaMont!

1,200-foot ship dragged California oil pipeline, Coast Guard says

1,200-foot ship dragged California oil pipeline, Coast Guard says | Coastal Restoration |
Investigators believe a 1,200-foot cargo ship dragging anchor pulled an underwater oil pipeline across the seafloor months before a leak from the line fouled the Southern California coastline with crude.
Brennan LaMont's insight:
More information is coming to light regarding the Huntington Beach oil spill and its cause. It is now almost assuredly known that this oil spill was caused by a ship's anchor. Federal investigators now believe the MSC DANIT, a 1,200-foot Panamanian-registered cargo ship, was that ship. DANIT's anchor is expected to have pulled the pipeline over 100 feet before it cracked and began to leak. This is a new issue that the public will now likely consider for some time when looking at issues related to the international market and the pile-up of ships waiting to drop goods in our ports.
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jenifer Foote!

Wildfire rages in Southern California coastal mountains

Wildfire rages in Southern California coastal mountains | Coastal Restoration |
A wildfire raging through Southern California coastal mountains is a threat to ranches and rural homes and is keeping a major highway shut down
Jenifer Foote's insight:
California has been suffering through this plague of drought for several years. The Alisal Fire, a product of the drought, has signaled Red Flag warnings in the Northern part of the transverse mountain ranges near Santa Barbara. The fire has killed vast amounts of flora and fauna in the area. Due to high winds, communities will endure power outages while firefighters try to contain the fire (over 80% is contained currently).
Ariana Arias's comment, October 18, 5:08 PM
Jenifer, I am glad to see that this fire is now 80% contained. Our coast faces a lot of threats, and fires is one of them. It was interesting to see how not only this news article, but most are mentioning climate change as the source for these frequent fires. I think that is a good step towards the right direction of public awareness.
Scooped by jack weissman!

‘Heat dome’ probably killed 1bn marine animals on Canada coast, experts say | Canada | The Guardian

‘Heat dome’ probably killed 1bn marine animals on Canada coast, experts say | Canada | The Guardian | Coastal Restoration |
British Columbia scientist says heat essentially cooked mussels: ‘The shore doesn’t usually crunch when you walk’
jack weissman's insight:
A record breaking heat wave has been pressing down on Canada and the Pacific Northwest. Along the coast, populations of oysters, mussels and many other intertidal critters are unable to survive.
Allison Cooley's comment, October 8, 1:25 AM
This is absolutely terrible, but with the heatwave that occurred in Oregon over the summer, I'm not surprised that the heat has escalated so much more north. The temperature that these mussels reached was truly shocking. The effects of heatwaves like these, especially in the north, will only continue to happen and I am worried that recovery in this area will never restore. Although the interviewee stated that likely the mussels will self populated much quicker, the chances of a heatwave happening again will hinder the growth rates. Possible baring the rocky shoreline.
Alex Guzman's comment, October 8, 3:46 PM
When we think of climate change, we thing of the big picture that the media usually focuses on such as melting icebergs, fires in the forests, and the decrease of polar bear populations. This is one of those effects climate change will have that we think don't have a huge difference but they do, the article states how mussels filters the sea. This is a terrible event, and I was in shock to hear the amount of marine life that died.
faith rodriguez's comment, October 8, 8:02 PM
This is so sad! These circumstances reflect that areas are not recovering properly or quickly, if at all. I also wonder if the loss of these species will affect the local area and their food chains/ecosystems.
Scooped by Brittany Ruffner!

Brittany Ruffner's insight:
The oil spill that occurred this past week will be without a doubt devastating to the affected environment. I am pleased to see that the company Amplify Energy is "doing everything in their power" to help the issue but in my opinion it is a little too late. It was neat to see Dr. Anderson's input on this situation in this article. We discussed in lecture how the toxins in oil can very easily move up the food chain which will negatively and unintentionally effect other animals who might have avoided the oil originally which he acknowledged in his interview.

No comment yet.
Scooped by Jenifer Foote!

Some oil from the California spill breaks up in ocean currents

Some oil from the California spill breaks up in ocean currents | Coastal Restoration |
Some oil from the California spill breaks up in ocean currents
Jenifer Foote's insight:
Due to storms earlier in the week, oil seems to be dispersing further south which makes it harder for cleanup crews. Amplify Energy Corporation publicly stated the maximum amount of heavy crude oil that was leaked is 126,000 gallons. As of today, the beaches surrounding the zone are still closed to the public. Food for thought, there is speculation that Amplify Energy Corporation was negligent on the response as the alarm went off at 2:30 am and the pipeline did not get shut off until 6:30 am.
No comment yet.
Scooped by Eli Lew!

Coca-Cola turns to bulk vessels normally used for grain and coal to transport manufacturing materials amid shipping crisis

Coca-Cola is going to great lengths to transport materials by using bulk shipping vessels. Bulk shipping vessels are typically used for raw materials like grain and coal. The ongoing shipping crisis has caused major supply chain disruptions, making many goods harder to find and more expensive.
Eli Lew's insight:
It baffling to me how far companies will go to ship their materials even if the vessels were not meant for it. Due to the global shipping crisis, companies were trying to come up with ways to work around this problem. I think this tweet fits the situation pretty well, "No container, no problem. Coca-Cola is sending 60k tonnes of material via bulk vessel to keep production lines running. No, this isn't normal and it isn't really a great sign either."
Brittany Ruffner's comment, October 8, 6:05 PM
I agree with you Eli. Even though large companies like Coca-Cola are already worth over $200 billion dollars they will still jump through hoops to make even more money. It is definitely a creative way to go about shipping products during this crisis but I am curious to what the effects of this strategy will be.
Scooped by Jada Gaines!

Coastal 'Blue Carbon': An Important Tool for Combating Climate Change | The Pew Charitable Trusts

Coastal 'Blue Carbon': An Important Tool for Combating Climate Change | The Pew Charitable Trusts | Coastal Restoration |
Coastal wetlands, including salt marshes, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows, are among the most productive—and threatened—ecosystems on the planet.
Jada Gaines's insight:
This article was really interesting to me because it focused on the use of restoration and conservation of lands to combat climate change. The article included a specific example of the country of Seychelles in order to explain how this conservation can be done. I like the idea of conserving salt marsh ecosystems as it also serves the many species that live there and can help the environment in many ways. Adding more protected lands to the list is always beneficial to the environment, this is just an extra bonus.
evelyn leal's comment, October 7, 12:38 AM
It is amazing how all these natural processes occur for our benefit. Coastal wetlands, including salt marshes, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows provide many benefits to people and nature, unfortunately they are among the most threatened.
Scooped by Michael Boyd!

Before California oil spill, Amplify Energy had other issues

Before California oil spill, Amplify Energy had other issues | Coastal Restoration |
Amplify Energy Corp., the owner of the offshore oil operation, had recently emerged from bankruptcy, while a subsidiary amassed numerous federal noncompliance incidents.
Michael Boyd's insight:
This is an interesting piece made by the LA times talking indirectly about the current oil spill in Huntington beach. They decided to focus on the background of the company that owns the oil rig, and at the time that it was published we didn't have a clear picture of why the oil was leaking. 
No comment yet.
Scooped by Lewis Adnan!

Huntington Beach Oil Spill: Section Of Pipeline Found Damaged, Moved More Than 100 Feet Along Ocean Floor – CBS Los Angeles

Huntington Beach Oil Spill: Section Of Pipeline Found Damaged, Moved More Than 100 Feet Along Ocean Floor – CBS Los Angeles | Coastal Restoration |
A section of oil pipeline was confirmed to have been damaged and moved more than 100 feet along the ocean floor, another indication that a ship’s anchor may have caused the oil spill in Huntington Beach.
Lewis Adnan's insight:
A section of the pipeline has been moved over 100ft, opening up a facture in the pipeline where the oil escaped from. It is hypothesized a ship anchor is what dragged the pipeline. I have never heard of this happening before. If it has I wonder how frequently an event like this takes place. 
Brennan LaMont's comment, October 7, 1:56 PM
Lewis, Based on what I've heard, this seems to be due to the overwhelming back-up of ships waiting to drop goods off in Southern California. While we have long had a dependance on East Asian markets, we have historically only looked at the economic loss to US companies when work is sent abroad. Hopefully this oil spill will make it clear that our absolute reliance on East Asia for the goods we purchase and have manufactured has an environmental impact as well. And now that cost has shown to expand beyond moving things literally across an ocean, but damage to infrastructure, such as this oil pipeline, with an increase in transatlantic trade.