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Comment les abeilles arrivent à nager dans l'eau

Comment les abeilles arrivent à nager dans l'eau | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
Les abeilles sont capables, durant plusieurs minutes, de se propulser vers l'avant dans l'eau afin de s'en extraire.

 

 


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Arrêtez de mettre des ruches partout !

Arrêtez de mettre des ruches partout ! | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
Pour la première fois le mois dernier, une étude a mesuré avec précision l’effet négatif de la présence des colonies domestiques sur la fréquentation des fleurs en ville.

 

La chronique "Detox" de Caroline Tourbe, 25.10.2019

 

"... Cette étude, menée - à Paris - par Isabelle Dajoz, chercheuse en écologie à l’université Diderot, confirme que dans un rayon de 500 mètres, plus les fleurs sont visitées par les abeilles domestiques moins elles le sont par les sauvages. Surtout, l’équipe a estimé les quantités de nectars disponibles : et leur réponse est sans ambiguïté : les abeilles domestiques consomment TOUT ! Il ne reste plus rien pour les sauvages. Sur Paris, c’est simple : il ne faut évidemment plus implanter la moindre ruche mais il faudrait même envisager d’en enlever, et vite… Pour passer à moins d’une ruche au kilomètre carré (contre 15 actuellement)."

(...)

 

 

[Image] Carte des colonies d'abeilles à Paris, tirée de l'étude scientifique : Wild pollinator activity negatively related to honey bee colony densities in urban context / Ropars, Dajoz, Geslin


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Bernadette Cassel's curator insight, November 4, 12:11 PM
 
À (re)lire :
 
Dans la ville de Paris, les taux de fréquentation des pollinisateurs sauvages sont corrélés négativement aux densités de colonies d’abeilles mellifères présentes dans les environs - From www.biorxiv.org - 15 June, 12:19
 
DocBiodiv's curator insight, November 6, 4:47 AM

Ecoutez la  La chronique "Detox" de Caroline Tourbe du 25 oct 2019 https://www.franceinter.fr/emissions/la-chronique-detox-de-caroline-tourbe/la-chronique-detox-de-caroline-tourbe-25-octobre-2019

Référence scientifique donnée par B. Cassel

Wild pollinator activity negatively related to honey bee colony densities in urban contextPLoS One,12.09.2019 https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0222316

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"Patterns of nature are amazing! #FloweringPlants "

"Patterns of nature are amazing! #FloweringPlants " | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
November 3, 2019: Hashem Al-Ghaili posted on LinkedIn

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A 3,000-year-old Egyptian emmer wheat genome reveals dispersal and domestication history

A 3,000-year-old Egyptian emmer wheat genome reveals dispersal and domestication history | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
Tetraploid emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccon) is a progenitor of the world’s most widely grown crop, hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), as well as the direct ancestor of tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp. turgidum). Emmer was one of the first cereals to be domesticated in the old world; it was cultivated from around 9700 bc in the Levant1,2 and subsequently in south-western Asia, northern Africa and Europe with the spread of Neolithic agriculture3,4. Here, we report a whole-genome sequence from a museum specimen of Egyptian emmer wheat chaff, 14C dated to the New Kingdom, 1130–1000 bc. Its genome shares haplotypes with modern domesticated emmer at loci that are associated with shattering, seed size and germination, as well as within other putative domestication loci, suggesting that these traits share a common origin before the introduction of emmer to Egypt. Its genome is otherwise unusual, carrying haplotypes that are absent from modern emmer. Genetic similarity with modern Arabian and Indian emmer landraces connects ancient Egyptian emmer with early south-eastern dispersals, whereas inferred gene flow with wild emmer from the Southern Levant signals a later connection. Our results show the importance of museum collections as sources of genetic data to uncover the history and diversity of ancient cereals. A study sequenced the genome of a museum specimen of Egyptian emmer wheat chaff dated back to 3,000 years ago. The genome reveals the unique genetic diversity contained in this ancient sample as well as the domestication and dispersal history of emmer wheat.

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Création officielle de l'Université Paris-Saclay !!! 

Création officielle de l'Université Paris-Saclay !!!  | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
Décret n° 2019-1131 du 5 novembre 2019 portant création de l'université Paris-Saclay et approbation de ses statuts

NOR: ESRS1927436D
ELI: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/decret/2019/11/5/ESRS1927436D/jo/texte
Alias: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/decret/2019/11/5/2019-1131/jo/texte


Publics concernés : usagers et personnels de la communauté d'universités et établissements « Université Paris-Saclay », de l'université Paris-XI, de l'Institut des sciences et industries du vivant et de l'environnement (Agro Paris Tech), de CentraleSupélec, de l'Ecole normale supérieure Paris-Saclay, de l'Institut d'Optique Graduate School, de l'Institut des hautes études scientifiques ainsi que des universités Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines et Evry-Val-d'Essonne.
Objet : création de l'université Paris-Saclay, établissement public à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel.
Entrée en vigueur : les dispositions transitoires nécessaires à la mise en place des organes de gouvernance de l'université Paris-Saclay entrent en vigueur le lendemain de la publication du décret. Les articles 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 et 9, les 1° et 2° de l'article 15, les articles 16, 17 et 18 entrent en vigueur le 1er janvier 2020 .
Notice : le décret crée l'université Paris-Saclay, un établissement public à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel, au sens de l'ordonnance n° 2018-1131 du 12 décembre 2018, et approuve ses statuts.
A compter du 1er janvier 2020, l'université Paris-Saclay se substitue à l'université Paris-XI et à la communauté d'universités et établissements « Université Paris-Saclay » et intègre en tant qu'établissements-composantes qui conservent leur personnalité morale, dans les conditions précisées dans ses statuts, l'Institut des sciences et industries du vivant et de l'environnement (Agro Paris Tech), CentraleSupélec, l'Ecole normale supérieure Paris-Saclay et l'Institut d'Optique Graduate School.
Elle regroupe, en tant qu'universités membres-associées par convention, les universités de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines et Evry-Val-d'Essonne qui participent à sa gouvernance dans une perspective de fusion.
Elle intègre également l'Institut des hautes études scientifiques, organisme de recherche - fondation reconnue d'utilité publique.
Le périmètre scientifique intègre les laboratoires des organismes nationaux de recherche sur le périmètre de l'université Paris-Saclay, listés par convention. Les organismes nationaux de recherche sont associés à la gouvernance de l'établissement.
Références : le décret peut être consulté sur le site Légifrance (https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr).


Le Premier ministre,


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Relationship Between Polyamines and Osmoprotectants in the Response to Salinity of the Legume–Rhizobia Symbiosis

Relationship Between Polyamines and Osmoprotectants in the Response to Salinity of the Legume–Rhizobia Symbiosis | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
Polyamines (PAs) are hormonal compounds and growth regulators, with low molecular weight, aliphatic nature, and polycationic character at physiological pH, present in different types of organisms and particularly in plants, where they are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes related to growth and development as well as in responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. One of the strategies of plants to cope with salt stress is the accumulation of PAs since they have the capacity to stabilize macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins and phospholipids, as well as free radical scavenging activity. Alterations of PAs metabolism constitute a strategy to increment salinity tolerance in plants, not only by the direct implication of PAs but also by the link between PAs and the synthesis of proline and γ-aminobutiric acid (GABA), key osmoprotectants in salt stress responses. Legumes have the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil nitrogen-fixing bacteria known as rhizobia that provide this nutrient to the plant. The symbiosis induces the formation of root nodules where the nitrogen fixation occurs; however, this process is extremely sensitive to salinity. Polyamines metabolism has an active role in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis, and in addition, PAs metabolism in root nodules of legumes is the result of the plant and rhizobia interaction with nodule-specific PAs involved in mechanisms of tolerance to salinity in the symbiosis. Therefore, the gain of knowledge in the alterations of the metabolism of PAs in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis and its interaction with other molecules involved in salt stress tolerance is of great interest to improve the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen of legumes under salinity.


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Du pétrole à la plante. Energie, chimie, matériaux : quelles cultures pour quels usages ?" - Herman Höfte Vendredi 22 novembre 2019 – 13h > 14h - IPS2, Gif-sur-Yvette + En ligne !

Du pétrole à la plante. Energie, chimie, matériaux : quelles cultures pour quels usages ?" - Herman Höfte Vendredi 22 novembre 2019 – 13h > 14h - IPS2, Gif-sur-Yvette + En ligne ! | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it

Du pétrole à la plante. Energie, chimie, matériaux : quelles cultures pour quels usages ?" - Herman Höfte
Vendredi 22 novembre 2019 – 13h > 14h - IPS2, Gif-sur-Yvette / En ligne

Conférences "Plantes et Société" du réseau Sciences des Plantes de Saclay

Alors que le changement climatique s'emballe, il est impératif de remplacer les ressources fossiles pour alimenter les secteurs de l’énergie et de la chimie. L’exploitation de la biomasse végétale, composée en majorité de lignine et de cellulose, offre des solutions durables qui n'empiètent pas sur les productions agricoles dédiées à l’alimentation. Avec le bois et les résidus issus de l'agriculture, des cultures dédiées permettront d’optimiser la disponibilité en biomasse lorsqu'elles sont adaptées aux conditions pédoclimatiques et aux structures économiques locales. La domestication d'espèces végétales alternatives peut être mise à profit pour faciliter l’émergence de nouvelles filières respectueuses de l’environnement.

Herman Höfte
Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin (IJPB)
Versailles
France

Conférence diffusée en ligne et en direct :
https://mediaserver.ips2.upsaclay.fr/permalink/l125ce6e584064ds7a2t

Amphithéâtre de l’Institut de Sciences des Plantes - Paris-Saclay (IPS2)
Bâtiment 630,
rue de Noetzlin
Plateau du Moulon
91190 Gif-sur-Yvette


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Separable regulation of POW1 in TAF2-mediated grain development and BR-mediated leaf angle formation in rice - Preprint

Separable regulation of POW1 in TAF2-mediated grain development and BR-mediated leaf angle formation in rice - Preprint | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it

Authors: Li Zhang, View ORCID ProfileRuci Wang, Yueming Wang, Yufang Xu, Shuang Fang, Jinfang Chu and Shanguo Yao.


bioRxiv (2019)


Abstract: "Leaf angle is one of the key factors determining rice plant architecture. However, improvement of the leaf angle appears to be unsuccessful in practical breeding because of the simultaneous occurrence of unfavorable traits such as grain size reduction. In this study, we identified the pow1 (put on weight 1) mutant with enlarged grain size and leaf angle, typical brassinosteroid (BR)-related phenotypes caused by excessive cell proliferation and cell expansion. We show that POW1 encodes a novel protein functioning in grain size regulation by repressing the transcription activity of the interacting protein TAF2, a highly conserved member of the transcription initiation complex TFIID. Loss of function of POW1 increases the phosphorylation of OsBZR1 and decreases the inhibitory effect of OsBZR1 on the transcription of BR biosynthesis genes OsDWARF4 (D4) and D11, thus participates in BR-mediated leaf angle regulation. The separable functions of POW1 in grain size and leaf angle control provide a promising strategy to design high-yielding varieties in which both traits would be favorably developed, i.e., compact plant architecture and increased grain size, thus would promote the high-yield breeding a step forward in rice."


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Bruno Robert: when plants inspire solar technologies | Université Paris-Saclay

Bruno Robert: when plants inspire solar technologies | Université Paris-Saclay | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
Bruno Robert is head of the biochemistry, biophysics and structural biology department of the Institute of Integrative Cell Biology (I2BC - Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud) and director of the Bioenergetics, Metalloproteins and Stress Laboratory (Institut Joliot at the CEA) since 2004. A physicist at the interface of biology, he has been studying for thirty years the extraordinary capacity of plants to convert light energy into chemical energy. His unique methods allow him to unravel the mysteries of photosynthesis from the very first stages and to imagine new sources of sustainable energy.

Studies on the mechanisms of photosynthesis have taken a step forward in recent years, particularly due to global warming and the search for alternative energies such as solar energy. This bioenergetic reaction, which takes place in plants and consists in the conversion of the sun's light energy into chemical energy, has been at the heart of Bruno Robert's work since the 1980s. “To meet humanity's energy needs in 2050, we need solar energy,” he says. “Plants do a better job at converting light energy into chemical energy than we do in the laboratory, especially in the first few steps, which are extremely fast.”

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Enhancement of Pathogen Resistance in Common Bean Plants by Inoculation With Rhizobium etli

Enhancement of Pathogen Resistance in Common Bean Plants by Inoculation With Rhizobium etli | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
Symbiotic Rhizobium-legume associations are mediated by exchange of chemical signals that eventually result in the development of a nitrogen-fixing nodule. Such signal interactions are thought to be at the center of the plants’ capacity either to activate a defense response or to suppress the defense response to allow colonization by symbiotic bacteria. In addition, the colonization of plant roots by rhizobacteria activates an induced condition of improved defensive capacity in plants known as induced systemic resistance, based on “defense priming,” which protects unexposed plant tissues from biotic stress.Here, we demonstrate that inoculation of common bean plants with Rhizobium etli resulted in a robust resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. Indeed, inoculation with R. etli was associated with a reduction in the lesion size caused by the pathogen and lower colony forming units compared to mock-inoculated plants. Activation of the induced resistance was associated with an accumulation of the reactive oxygen species superoxide anion (O2 −) and a faster and stronger callose deposition. Transcription of defense related genes in plants treated with R. etli exhibit a pattern that is typical of the priming response. In addition, R. etli–primed plants developed a transgenerational defense memory and could produce offspring that were more resistant to halo blight disease. R. etli is a rhizobacteria that could reduce the proliferation of the virulent strain P. syringae pv. phaseolicola in common bean plants and should be considered as a potentially beneficial and eco-friendly tool in plant disease management.


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Independent control of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of aptamer switches

Independent control of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of aptamer switches | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
Molecular switches that change their conformation upon target binding offer powerful capabilities for biotechnology and synthetic biology. Aptamers are useful as molecular switches because they offer excellent binding properties, undergo reversible folding, and can be engineered into many nanostructures. Unfortunately, the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the aptamer switches developed to date are intrinsically coupled, such that high temporal resolution can only be achieved at the cost of lower sensitivity or high background. Here, we describe a design strategy that decouples and enables independent control over the thermodynamics and kinetics of aptamer switches. Starting from a single aptamer, we create an array of aptamer switches with effective dissociation constants ranging from 10 μM to 40 mM and binding kinetics ranging from 170 ms to 3 s. Our strategy is broadly applicable to other aptamers, enabling the development of switches suitable for a diverse range of biotechnology applications. Aptamer switches are promising biotechnological tools but coupling of their affinity and temporal response limits their versatility. Here, the authors developed an intramolecular strand-displacement strategy that allows for independent fine-tuning of thermodynamics and kinetics of aptamer switches.

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Improved Cas9 activity by specific modifications of the tracrRNA - Scientific reports

Improved Cas9 activity by specific modifications of the tracrRNA - Scientific reports | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it

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BigField GEG Tech's curator insight, November 12, 10:13 AM

Researchers may have found a way to sharpen the fastest, cheapest and most accurate gene editing technique, CRISPR-Cas9, so that it can more successfully cut out undesirable genetic information. This improved cutting ability could one day fast-track potential therapies for HIV, sickle cell disease and, potentially, other immune conditions.

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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate phosphorus limitation by reducing plant N:P ratios under warming and nitrogen addition in a temperate meadow ecosystem

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate phosphorus limitation by reducing plant N:P ratios under warming and nitrogen addition in a temperate meadow ecosystem | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
Global change apart from ecosystem processes also influences the community structure of key organisms, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We conducted a 3-year experiment where we suppressed with benomyl mycorrhiza to understand how AMF alter the plant community structure under warming and nitrogen (N) addition. The elemental content and foliar tissue stoichiometry of the dominant species Leymus chinensis and the subordinate species Puccinellia tenuiflora were studied along with soil nutrient stoichiometries. Overall, N addition enhanced plant N: phosphorus (P) ratios at a greater level than experimental warming did. Under global change conditions, AMF symbionts significantly increased soil available P concentrations, promoted plant P absorption and decreased the plant N:P ratios. AMF alleviate P limitation by reducing plant N:P ratios. Our results highlight that the negative influence of global change on plant productivity might cancel each other out through the additive effects of AMF and that global change will increase the dependency of plants on their mycorrhizal symbionts.


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Fluzone® High-Dose Quadrivalent vaccine receives FDA approval for use in adults 65 years of age and older

Fluzone® High-Dose Quadrivalent vaccine receives FDA approval for use in adults 65 years of age and older | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a supplemental Biologics License Application for Fluzone® High-Dose Quadrivalent (Influenza Vaccine) for use in adults 65 years of age and older.

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Metabolites of endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from leaves of Carica papaya

ABSTRACT:Endophytic fungi associated with Nigerian plants have recently generated significant interest in drug discovery programmes due to their immense potential to contribute to the discovery of new bioactive compounds. This study was carried out to investigate the secondary metabolites of endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioidesisolated from leaves of Carica papaya. The plants were collected from Agulu, Anambra State, Nigeria. Endophytic fungal isolation; identification by DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region; fungal fermentation; and extraction of secondary metabolites were carried out using standard methods. The crude extract was tested for antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Also, the extract was subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis to identify its constituents. In the bioassay, C. gloeosporioidesextract only exhibited antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae. The extract showed moderate antioxidant activity in the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay with an inhibition of 28.2% at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. At a concentration of 100 µg/mL, the fungal extract showed moderate cytotoxic activity against cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer cell line 2780 (sens) and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line 2780 (CisR) with growth inhibitions of 35.42 and 15.7% respectively. HPLC analysis of the extract revealed the presence of 3 bioactive compounds Aureonitol, protocathechuic acid, and Glucobrassicin in the crude extract of C. gloeosporioides. The findings of this study revealed the potentials possessed by C. papaya as source of entophytes that express biological active compounds. These endophytes hold key of possibilities to the discovery of novel molecules for pharmaceutical, agricultural and applications.


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EMBL spins the Sleeping Beauty transposase - Nature Biotech

EMBL spins the Sleeping Beauty transposase - Nature Biotech | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
EMBL scientists have developed a new variant of the Sleeping Beauty transposase.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41587-019-0291-z


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BigField GEG Tech's curator insight, November 5, 11:39 AM

EMBL scientists have developed a new variant of the Sleeping Beauty transposase which could be used for genome engineering of stem cells and therapeutic T cells. As such it is extremely valuable for use in regenerative medicine and cancer immunotherapy. The underlying genome engineering procedures will in the future also reduce costs and improve the safety of genome modifications.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41587-019-0291-z

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CDD chargé(e) de mission en support aux activités de formation du réseau Sciences des Plantes de Saclay (SPS) 

CDD chargé(e) de mission en support aux activités de formation du réseau Sciences des Plantes de Saclay (SPS)  | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it

Localisation du poste : Institut de Sciences des Plantes de Paris Saclay (IPS2), Gif-sur- Yvette, France – Déplacements en Île-de-France (régulièrement), en France et à l’étranger (ponctuellement).

Statut : CDD
Durée : 12 mois renouvelables
Fonction: IE
Niveau d'étude attendu : BAC + 5 minimum
Salaire: selon expérience professionnelle antérieure, entre 2000 euros et 2300 euros brut.

Contacts

 

- Marianne Delarue (marianne.delarue@ips2.universite-paris-saclay.fr)

- Alia Dellagi (alia.dellagi@inra.fr)
- Marie-Dufresne (marie.dufresne@ips2.universite-paris-saclay.fr)
- Marie-Jeanne Sellier (marie-jeanne.sellier@inra.fr)

 

Modalités de candidature :
Le dossier de candidature doit comporter un CV, une lettre de motivation, ainsi que deux lettres de recommandation ou les coordonnées de 2 personnes pouvant servir de références.
Tout email doit être adressé aux 4 contacts mentionnés ci-dessus.
Date limite d’envoi des candidatures : 15/12/2019
Prise de fonction : Février 2020

 

Contexte et environnement du poste :

Le réseau Sciences des Plantes de Saclay (www.saclayplantsciences.fr) regroupe une cinquantaine d'équipes de recherche spécialisées dans les sciences du végétal appartenant à 5 instituts de la région parisienne et représente près de 700 personnes. Les activités de recherche des équipes SPS portent sur la compréhension des mécanismes génétiques, moléculaires et cellulaires qui contrôlent le développement et la physiologie des plantes, et leurs interactions avec l’environnement biotique et abiotique.

 

Le projet Formation de SPS est conçu pour promouvoir les sciences végétales fondamentales et appliquées et préparer l’avenir en formant les scientifiques de demain. Parmi ses objectifs phares, on trouve l’ouverture à l’international, la promotion de la formation par la recherche, l’augmentation de l’attractivité étudiante et post-doctorante et de l’attractivité à l’international. Une équipe pédagogique travaille dans le cadre d’un groupe de travail « Formation SPS » pour réaliser ces objectifs.

Les membres du réseau SPS réalisent environ 12 000 heures d’enseignement et de formation, non seulement en biologie végétale, mais également dans d’autres domaines de la biologie, la biochimie ou la génétique moléculaire. La Formation SPS couvre tous les domaines de la biologie végétale depuis les bases cellulaires du développement des plantes jusqu'à la réponse des plantes aux stress biotiques et abiotiques. Elle implique un éventail très large d’expertise, incluant génétique, génomique structurelle et fonctionnelle, épigénétique, protéomique, cytologie, physiologie moléculaire et bioinformatique.

 

Missions

Appui aux équipes pédagogiques sur les actions en lien avec la formation SPS, notamment en ce qui concerne l’attractivité des formations du périmètre SPS et leur internationalisation.

 

Activités (liste non exhaustive)

 

Communication à l’échelle nationale et internationale

- Prise de contact avec des universités internationales, promotion de nos formations auprès de ces universités dans le but de créer des liens / partenariats avec nos formations - Participation à des rencontres avec des représentants de ces universités (missions en France ou à l’étranger, accueil de ces représentants en Île-de-France)

- Participation à des salons étudiants en France et à l’étranger
- Création et diffusion de supports de communication pour augmenter la visibilité des formations SPS auprès des étudiants (en particulier étrangers)
- Gestion / administration / aide à l’alimentation du site web du Master Sciences du Végétal (https://www.master-sciences-du-vegetal.fr/)

 

Administration / Collecte d’informations

- Gestion du processus de sélection et du suivi des bourses de vie SPS pour les étudiants de niveau master
- Gestion du processus de sélection et du suivi des contrats doctoraux SPS
- Gestion des 2 appels à projets liés à la Formation SPS

- Récolte des offres de stages et des offres d’emplois pour diffusion aux étudiants - Collecte d’informations / d’indicateurs auprès des étudiants et des institutions

 

Logistique

- Participation à l’organisation d’évènements (colloques, séminaires)
- Organisation de réunions du Groupe Formation SPS (environ 5 à 6 réunions par an)
- Support à l’organisation des missions liées aux actions de formation SPS (en particulier dans le cadre de la mise en place de partenariat avec des universités internationales)

 

Profil recherché

Formation : bac + 5 minimum

Compétences requises : 1. Obligatoires

 Connaissances en biologie (de préférence en biologie végétale)  Maîtrise des outils informatiques de bureautique
 Maîtrise des réseaux sociaux
 Parfaite maîtrise de l’anglais (parlé et écrit)

2. Souhaitées
 Utilisation d’un CMS
 Maîtrise des outils de PAO (type InDesign, Photoshop)
 Maîtrise des techniques de communication
 La maîtrise d’autres langues étrangères que l’anglais serait un plus.

Qualités attendues :
 Dynamisme, grande autonomie, organisation, méthode et rigueur  Aptitude au travail en équipe, très bonnes qualités relationnelles  Capacité à travailler sous la responsabilité d’acteurs multiples
 Grande capacités rédactionnelles et de communication

 


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« Rescapées du trou soviétique », un million d’ouvrières s’échappent et retrouvent leurs consœurs grâce à des entomologistes

« Rescapées du trou soviétique », un million d’ouvrières s’échappent et retrouvent leurs consœurs grâce à des entomologistes | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it

Par Alain Fraval. OPIE-Insectes. Les Épingles entomologiques - En épingle en 2019 : Novembre


"En 2016, une Épingle titrée « Au fond du trou soviétique » alertait sur les conditions à peine vivables d’un million d’ouvrières, emprisonnées dans un ancien silo à missile nucléaire en Pologne, sans rien à manger, sans espoir.

 

Après avoir extrait une poignée d’entre elles et vérifié qu’elles s’entendaient bien avec leurs sœurs de la colonie en surface (hydrocarbures cuticulaires reconnus), des entomologistes secourables et surtout curieux leur ont offert un chemin vers la liberté. Ils ont installé un poteau en bois entre le sol de la prison et le trou d’aération au milieu du plafond en béton que nos Fourmis rousses des bois ne pouvaient atteindre. À la suite de courageuses et surtout curieuses pionnières, toutes les ouvrières sont sorties et ont rejoint le nid en dôme de leur naissance.

 

En bas, les fourmis n’ont produit aucun couvain, l’effectif se maintenant par la chute d’individus de la surface. Si exceptionnellement elles ont pu se régaler d’une chauve-souris morte, leur ordinaire était fait des cadavres de leurs consœurs, ce qu’atteste l’examen des dépouilles entassées dans leur cimetière : toutes avaient l’abdomen troué.

 

On corrigera donc la dernière phrase de l’Épingle de 2016 – elles sont finalement toutes parvenues à la surface, grâce à un deus ex machina en forme d’entomologiste -, en saluant leur ténacité et leur faculté de survivre dans des conditions si terribles."


Article source (en anglais, gratuit) 

 

Photo : ouvrières de Formica polyctena, juste avant la pose du poteau. Cliché Wojciech Stephan

 

À (re)lire : Les insectes sociaux et leurs morts, par Alain Fraval. Insectes n° 194 (2019-3). En ligne ultérieurement.

 

NDLR : si le trou n’a pas été bouché, d’autres (ou certaines des mêmes ?) se feront prendre… À suivre.


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New Insight into the Evolution of Symbiotic Genes in Black Locust-Associated Rhizobia

New Insight into the Evolution of Symbiotic Genes in Black Locust-Associated Rhizobia | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
Nitrogen fixation in legumes occurs via symbiosis with rhizobia. This process involves packages of symbiotic genes on mobile genetic elements that are readily transferred within or between rhizobial species, furnishing the recipient with the ability to interact with plant hosts. However, it remains elusive whether plant host migration has played a role in shaping the current distribution of genetic variation in symbiotic genes. Herein, we examined the genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern of symbiotic genes in 286 symbiotic strains of Mesorhizobium nodulating black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), a cross-continental invasive legume species that is native to North America. We conducted detailed phylogeographic analysis and approximate Bayesian computation to unravel the complex demographic history of five key symbiotic genes. The sequencing results indicate an origin of symbiotic genes in Germany rather than North America. Our findings provide strong evidence of prehistoric lineage splitting and spatial expansion events resulting in multiple radiations of descendent clones from founding sequence types worldwide. Estimates of the timescale of divergence in North American and Chinese subclades suggest that black locust-specific symbiotic genes have been present in these continent many thousands of years before recent migration of plant host. Although numerous crop plants, including legumes, have found their centers of origin as centers of evolution and diversity, the number of legume-specific symbiotic genes with a known geographic origin is limited. This work sheds light on the coevolution of legumes and rhizobia.


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Initiation and regulation of vascular tissue identity in the Arabidopsis embryo - Preprint

Initiation and regulation of vascular tissue identity in the Arabidopsis embryo - Preprint | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it

Authors: Margot Smit, Cristina Llavata-Peris, Mark Roosjen, Henriette van Beijnum, Daria Novikova, Victor Levitsky, Daniel Slane, Gerd Jurgens, Victoria Mironova, Siobhan Brady and Dolf Weijers.


bioRxiv (2019)


Abstract: "Development of plant vascular tissues involves tissue specification, growth, pattern formation and cell type differentiation. While later steps are understood in some detail, it is still largely unknown how the tissue is initially specified. We have used the early Arabidopsis embryo as a simple model to study this process. Using a large collection of marker genes, we find that vascular identity is established in the 16-cell embryo. After a transient precursor state however, there is no persistent uniform tissue identity. Auxin is intimately connected to vascular tissue development. We find that while AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR5/MONOPTEROS/ (ARF5/MP)-dependent auxin response is required, it is not sufficient for tissue establishment. We therefore used a large-scale enhanced Yeast One Hybrid assay to identify potential regulators of vascular identity. Network and functional analysis of suggest that vascular identity is under robust, complex control. We found that one candidate regulator, the G-class bZIP transcription factor GBF2, modulates vascular gene expression, along with its homolog GBF1. Furthermore, GBFs bind to MP and modulate its activity. Our work uncovers components of a gene regulatory network that controls the initiation of vascular tissue identity, one of which involves the interaction of MP and GBF2 proteins."


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Les fongicides SDHI sont toxiques pour les vers de terre, les abeilles et les cellules humaines

Les fongicides SDHI sont toxiques pour les vers de terre, les abeilles et les cellules humaines | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
... Des scientifiques français viennent de mettre en évidence que huit molécules fongicides SDHI commercialisées en France ne se contentent pas d’inhiber l’activité de la SDH des champignons, mais sont aussi capables de bloquer celle du ver de terre, de l’abeille et de cellules humaines, dans des proportions variables.

 

Les fongicides SDHI sont toxiques pour les cellules humaines. CNRS, 07.11.2019

 

"En effet, l’équipe de recherche dirigée par Pierre Rustin, directeur de recherche émérite du CNRS, a montré que les SDH de 22 espèces différentes étaient très similaires, en particulier dans les zones ciblées par les SDHI. Enfin, les chercheurs et chercheuses ont montré que les conditions des tests réglementaires actuels de toxicité masquent un effet très important des SDHI sur des cellules humaines : les fongicides induisent un stress oxydatif dans ces cellules, menant à leur mort. Cette étude est publiée dans la revue PLOS ONE le 7 novembre 2019."

 

  • Evolutionarily conserved susceptibility of the mitochondrial respiratory chain to SDHI pesticides and its consequence on the impact of SDHIs on human cultured cells. Paule Bénit, Agathe Kahn, Dominique Chrétien, Sylvie Bortoli, Laurence Huc, Manuel Schiff, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, Judith Favier, Pierre Gressens, Malgorzata Rak et Pierre Rustin. PLOS ONE, le 7 novembre 2019. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0224132

 


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Bernadette Cassel's curator insight, November 10, 6:23 AM

 

À (re)lire :

 

→ Alerte scientifique sur les fongicides - From www.liberation.fr - 17 April 2018, 17:45

 

→ 700 ruches mortes en Dordogne fin mars, 3 000 aujourd'hui... - From france3-regions.francetvinfo.fr - 13 May 2018, 18:12

 

→ « Il faut stopper au plus vite l’usage des pesticides » - From www.lemonde.fr - 7 June, 16:58

 

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Polyamines and Legumes: Joint Stories of Stress, Nitrogen Fixation and Environment

Polyamines and Legumes: Joint Stories of Stress, Nitrogen Fixation and Environment | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
Polyamines (PAs) are natural aliphatic amines involved in many physiological processes in almost all living organisms, including responses to abiotic stresses and microbial interactions. On other hand, the family Leguminosae constitutes an economically and ecologically key botanical group for humans, being also regarded as the most important protein source for livestock. This review presents the profuse evidence that relates changes in PAs levels during responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in model and cultivable species within Leguminosae and examines the unreviewed information regarding their potential roles in the functioning of symbiotic interactions with nitrogen-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizae in this family. As linking plant physiological behavior with “big data” available in “omics” is an essential step to improve our understanding of legumes responses to global change, we also examined integrative MultiOmics approaches available to decrypt the interface legumes-PAs-abiotic and biotic stress interactions. These approaches are expected to accelerate the identification of stress tolerant phenotypes and the design of new biotechnological strategies to increase their yield and adaptation to marginal environments, making better use of available plant genetic resources.


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The Genome of the Charophyte Alga Penium margaritaceum Bears Footprints of the Evolutionary Origins of Land Plants

The colonization of land by plants was a pivotal event in the history of the biosphere, and yet the underlying evolutionary features and innovations of the first land plant ancestors are not well understood. Here we present the genome sequence of the unicellular alga Penium margaritaceum, a member of the Zygnematophyceae, the sister lineage to land plants. The P. margaritaceum genome has a high proportion of repeat sequences, which are associated with massive segmental gene duplications, likely facilitating neofunctionalization. Compared with earlier diverging plant lineages, P. margaritaceum has uniquely expanded repertoires of gene families, signaling networks and adaptive responses, supporting its phylogenetic placement and highlighting the evolutionary trajectory towards terrestrialization. These encompass a broad range of physiological processes and cellular structures, such as large families of extracellular polymer biosynthetic and modifying enzymes involved in cell wall assembly and remodeling. Transcriptome profiling of cells exposed to conditions that are common in terrestrial habitats, namely high light and desiccation, further elucidated key adaptations to the semi-aquatic ecosystems that are home to the Zygnematophyceae. Such habitats, in which a simpler body plan would be advantageous, likely provided the evolutionary crucible in which selective pressures shaped the transition to land. Earlier diverging charophyte lineages that are characterized by more complex land plant-like anatomies have either remained exclusively aquatic, or developed alternative life styles that allow periods of desiccation.


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NODULE INCEPTION Recruits the Lateral Root Developmental Program for Symbiotic Nodule Organogenesis in Medicago truncatula - ScienceDirect

NODULE INCEPTION Recruits the Lateral Root Developmental Program for Symbiotic Nodule Organogenesis in Medicago truncatula - ScienceDirect | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
To overcome nitrogen deficiencies in the soil, legumes enter symbioses with rhizobial bacteria that convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium. Rhizobia are accommodated as endosymbionts within lateral root organs called nodules that initiate from the inner layers of Medicago truncatula roots in response to rhizobial perception. In contrast, lateral roots emerge from predefined founder cells as an adaptive response to environmental stimuli, including water and nutrient availability. CYTOKININ RESPONSE 1 (CRE1)-mediated signaling in the pericycle and in the cortex is necessary and sufficient for nodulation, whereas cytokinin is antagonistic to lateral root development, with cre1 showing increased lateral root emergence and decreased nodulation. To better understand the relatedness between nodule and lateral root development, we undertook a comparative analysis of these two root developmental programs. Here, we demonstrate that despite differential induction, lateral roots and nodules share overlapping developmental programs, with mutants in LOB-DOMAIN PROTEIN 16 (LBD16) showing equivalent defects in nodule and lateral root initiation. The cytokinin-inducible transcription factor NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) allows induction of this program during nodulation through activation of LBD16 that promotes auxin biosynthesis via transcriptional induction of STYLISH (STY) and YUCCAs (YUC). We conclude that cytokinin facilitates local auxin accumulation through NIN promotion of LBD16, which activates a nodule developmental program overlapping with that induced during lateral root initiation.

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Not Just a Pathogen? Description of a Plant-Beneficial Pseudomonas syringae Strain

Not Just a Pathogen? Description of a Plant-Beneficial Pseudomonas syringae Strain | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
Plants develop in a microbe-rich environment and must interact with a plethora of microorganisms, both pathogenic and beneficial. Indeed, such is the case of Pseudomonas, and its model organisms P. fluorescens and P. syringae, a bacterial genus that has received particular attention because of its beneficial effect on plants and its pathogenic strains. The present study aims to compare plant-beneficial and pathogenic strains belonging to the P. syringae species to get new insights into the distinction between the two types of plant–microbe interactions. In assays carried out under greenhouse conditions, P. syringae pv. syringae strain 260-02 was shown to promote plant-growth and to exert biocontrol of P. syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000, against the Botrytis cinerea fungus and the Cymbidium Ringspot Virus. This P. syringae strain also had a distinct volatile emission profile, as well as a different plant-colonization pattern, visualized by confocal microscopy and gfp labeled strains, compared to strain DC3000. Despite the different behavior, the P. syringae strain 260-02 showed great similarity to pathogenic strains at a genomic level. However, genome analyses highlighted a few differences that form the basis for the following hypotheses regarding strain 260-02. P. syringae strain 260-02: (i) possesses non-functional virulence genes, like the mangotoxin-producing operon Mbo; (ii) has different regulation pathways, suggested by the difference in the autoinducer system and the lack of a virulence activator gene; (iii) has genes encoding DNA methylases different from those found in other P. syringae strains, suggested by the presence of horizontal-gene-transfer-obtained methylases that could affect gene expression.


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Samoa measles epidemic: Immunologist furious at NZ | RNZ News

Samoa measles epidemic: Immunologist furious at NZ | RNZ News | Breeding and sales of Livestock animals | Scoop.it
An immunologist and vaccine specialist at Auckland University is furious New Zealand has "exported" measles to Samoa.

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