SWHS Biomolecules
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SWHS Biomolecules
Use the links below to answer the questions about biomolecules on your menu.
Curated by Ellen Lynch
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Nucleic Acids

Nucleic Acids | SWHS Biomolecules | Scoop.it

Our buddies DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, and RNA, ribonucleic acid—consist of long chains of nucleotides, which are monomers. (Sensing a pattern yet? Good. Biology is all about patterns.)


Every nucleotide has three parts:
1. A sugar

2. A phosphate group

3. A nitrogen-containing base


DNA and RNA contain the instructions for a cell's structure and function. DNA is the blueprint for how the cell runs, reproduces, builds and repairs itself, and every other function necessary for cell life.






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Lipids | SWHS Biomolecules | Scoop.it

Lipids are the masters of energy storage, and some have important structural roles or serve as hormones, among other things. You may be most familiar with lipids as fat, but every one of the cells in your body has a membrane, or layer, of lipids that protects it from its environment. So don't diss lipids too much. They do not solely strive to pack pounds onto that gorgeous frame of yours.


Lipids are an eclectic bunch of biomolecules, but all are hydrophobic and therefore do not dissolve in water.


There are three kinds of lipids, and each one has a different function:


1. Fats/oils/waxes

2. Phospholipids

3. Steroids


The first group of lipids includes fats, oils, and waxes. Slippery. They are composed exclusively of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, or CHO, and usually do not roll into little rings like the monosaccharides we talked about earlier. The monomer, so to speak, is a fatty acid. Your cell membranes are made of lipids.


Fats and oils store a ton of energy. They store over twice as much energy as carbs or proteins. Fats are clearly a more efficient way to keep energy for long-term use.


Lipids are found in fatty foods like butter and oils.






Miriam Viramontes's curator insight, March 6, 2014 1:33 PM

Lipids are the masters of energy storage, and some have important structural roles or serve as hormones, among other things. The first group of lipids includes fats, oils, and waxes. Similar to fats, oils, and waxes, phospholipids have a glycerol backbone, which is bound to fatty acids. All steroids are composed of carbon rings stuck together four of them, to be exact. Your cell membranes are made of lipids.

Jessica J. Herrera's curator insight, March 6, 2014 2:02 PM

Lipids are the masters of energy storage.We are familiar that lipids may be considered as fats.Lipids are an electic bunch of biomolecules.There are three kinds of lipids fats,phospholipids,andsteriods

Oscar Omar Ortega's curator insight, March 7, 2014 10:54 AM

Lipids are not as bad as they are portrayed to be, because they give off energy to the people consuming them. They do have some negative aspects towards them but it all matters to how you use them. Lipids are considered protein so they are not all that bad.

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Proteins | SWHS Biomolecules | Scoop.it

Now that we have left Lipid Town, we move on to the big city, Proteinopolis. Proteins do all sorts of nifty things. For instance, they may provide structure, increase the speed of chemical reactions, or allow movement of molecules. They may also transport other substances from place to place, facilitate cellular communication (probably better than your local cell phone company), or help to defend against harmful invaders. You’ll learn about all of these kinds of proteins eventually, but for now, you must be wondering, "If proteins are incredibly diverse in function, what makes them all proteins?" Glad you asked.


Proteins are all made of monomers—we knew that word would come in handy—called amino acids. There are 22 different kinds of naturally occurring amino acids, and each one is made of four components:

1. A central carbon with one hydrogen

2. One carboxyl group (–COOH)

3. One amino group (–NH2)

4. One R group (–R; Mr. Anonymous is back!)


Protein is found in beans, meat, green leafy vegetables. Most people think of meat
when protein is discussed. True as that may be, there are other means of
obtaining your protein. There’s an array of beans, all of which have protein.
Everything from kidney beans to peanuts. We need proteins to maintain our
muscles and the components of proteins help us put together almost
everything in our bodies – from something as small as markers on our cells
and antibodies, to steroid hormones, muscle tissue, hair and nails







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Carbohydrates | SWHS Biomolecules | Scoop.it

The carbohydrate's claim to fame is its ability to act as a good source of energy, but carbohydrates are also decent for energy storage and transport, and in some cases, for structural support. You know the deal: Carbs give you the physical and mental energy that helps you out when you need to work out, play that afterschool game, or take your SATs and APs.


Carbs are awesome, and not because they’re responsible for some of the tastiest comfort foods known to humankind. To quote Homer Simpson, "Mmmmmm. Donuts." Carbohydrates are an important source of energy for cells and provide a means of transporting and storing that energy. They are also good for other things, like providing structural support.


If you remember anything about carbohydrates, it should be these three things:

1. Carbohydrates = energy for cells.


2. Carbohydrates are made of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O), or CHO, in an approximate ratio of 1:2:1.


3. All sugars are carbohydrates. Another word for sugar is saccharide. Now the following paragraph will make sense. Please proceed.

Monosaccharides (mono = one, saccharide = sugar, aka "one sugar") are monomers of carbohydrates; they are small sugars, and when they dissolve in water, they form little rings. Monosaccharides vary in how many carbons they contain, but most commonly, they have three, five, or six, and as many as seven carbons.


Bread, pasta, beans, potatoes, bran, rice and cereals are carbohydrate-rich foods. Most carbohydrate rich foods have a high starch content.






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