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UNITED STATES: Cottonseed research focuses on shrimp

UNITED STATES: Cottonseed research focuses on shrimp | aquaculture nutrition |

New Mexico State University researchers are working to develop innovative new products using glandless cottonseed to increase profitability of the cotton plant, going beyond the traditional uses of fabric and livestock feeds.


“When cotton is running 60, 70, maybe 80 cents a pound for the lint, and if you can add a buck a pound or $2 per pound for the seed, then we’ve significantly increased the value of cotton production,” said Tracey Carrillo, assistant director of NMSU campus farm operations. “I have a unique project working on cotton, and that project is to develop high value or added value to byproducts from cotton.”


Cotton is normally grown for the fiber for fabric, but researchers are taking the byproduct — the cottonseed, which is a significant part of the boll — and creating additional products from that.


Some of the products the university is exploring use the seed as a high protein source for human consumption and also as aquaculture feeds.


“We have a product being developed now — it’s a blue cheese-black pepper salad topping,” Carrillo said. “You can just sprinkle the cottonseed that’s been flavored on your salad, and it adds a nutty flavor to the salad, kind of like a sunflower seed.”


The research that turns the most heads when mentioned, however, is the aquaculture feed program. NMSU is growing shrimp, and will be ready to begin selling them as head-on, whole shrimp in January, through a student-operated company called New Mexico Shrimp Co.


NMSU has been working closely with Cotton Inc., a national organization that supports the cotton industry, to brainstorm different possibilities for using the glandless, or gossypol-free, cottonseed. Gossypol is a natural toxin, found in most varieties of cotton that makes all of the plant’s tissue, including the seeds, inedible by humans and most animals. It acts as a natural defense mechanism, helping to limit damage from herbivores.


One of the ideas developed with Cotton Inc. being tested now is an aquaculture feed.


“Commercial aquaculture feeds contain fishmeal, so they’re not as sustainable as a plant-based protein, because they’re basically taking fish from the ocean and making a meal out of that, and then feeding it to another fish,” Carrillo said. “We chose shrimp because they’re several times more efficient at converting that protein to an edible product.”


Carrillo and his team started out raising Pacific white shrimp, a saltwater shrimp, and have studied different techniques to grow them in large indoor swimming pools, in a zero-exchange, heterotopic aquaculture system.


The system reuses water for several shrimp crops, an important consideration for exploring aquaculture production in the desert.

Proceeds from the sales of the shrimp will go back into operations and research, student salaries and to help maintain the project as it goes forward.


Other glandless cottonseed products in various phases of development and marketing related to the project include snack foods and cottonseed oils, offered from Acala Farms ( in flavors such as toasted cumin, fried shallot, fresh cilantro, hot habañero and jalapeño lime among others. Pure, unflavored cottonseed oil also is available.


The oils have a high smoke point and contain zero trans fat and zero cholesterol, so are great for frying, searing, sautéing, or for simply being used as a salad dressing.


Sodexo, NMSU’s campus dining partner, uses cottonseed oil in some of its campus fryers. When the oils are ready to be disposed of, Leyendecker employees use a machine to turn the oil into biodiesel, which is then used in vehicles at the campus farm and in campus catering operations.


“Maybe a little further down the line, as we improve the variety, and we have higher yielding varieties of this type of cotton, I think the seed could be more valuable than the lint,” Carrillo added.


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WORLDWIDE: Fishmeal producers scour for new raw material sources to meet demand

WORLDWIDE: Fishmeal producers scour for new raw material sources to meet demand | aquaculture nutrition |

Sourcing more by-products from fisheries and aquaculture was touted as a solution as speakers discussed ways to find alternative sources of raw material to produce their valuable meal and oil.


The question is a pressing one for members of IFFO, who account for around 60% of world fishmeal and fish oil production and 80% of the amount traded worldwide.


Fishmeal production amounts very roughly to five million metric tons a year, and is not set to increase based on its current raw material sources.

Yet demand is likely to keep growing, driven by aquaculture and pharmaceutical producers, said Andrew Jackson, technical director of IFFO.


“Our biggest challenge is how to meet this demand…where to find new raw materials,” said Jackson, speaking to Undercurrent News on the sidelines of the conference.


This is even more pressing as fisheries management throughout the world is becoming more precautionary, with Peru for instance drastically cutting its second season anchovy quota last year, despite the resource being considered as having a strong biomass.


Peruvian anchovy is the biggest single source of fishmeal output today, and the cut caused global production to drop by one million metric tons in 2012, to 4.5m.


Hand in hand with this, several fishmeal producers, for instance in Peru, are increasingly looking at using their small pelagic catches for human consumption products, instead of fishmeal.


Such a development would not be new to the industry — it was for instance not so long ago that mackerel and herring were considered unsuitable for human consumption in the UK, said Jackson.


Fish oil, meanwhile, is under increasing demand from the pharmaceutical and neutraceutical industries.


It is estimated their demand alone could gobble the entire fish oil production from Peru within the next five years, maybe even two-to-three years, IFFO’s director Andrew Mallison told Undercurrent.


According to Mallison, tackling this demand challenge will mean improving current production methods – with increasing use of techniques such as steam drying — while looking beyond the traditional sources to new sources, such as by-products, waste streams, or algae.


To reflect this, IFFO has changed its strapline from the “International fishmeal and fish oil organization” to “The marine ingredients organization”.


New sources could include the likes of algae and krill, which have had heavy media attention in recent times, thanks to their content of sought-after omega-3 fatty acids naturally present in fish oil and fishmeal.


In the short term, however, IFFO believes one of the most promising new sources of fishmeal and oil today is much closer to home: namely trimmings, or by-products, both from fisheries and aquaculture.


By-products, a multi-million potential


IFFO estimates that 35% of the world’s fishmeal, or 1.5m metric tons, is currently made from aquaculture and fisheries trimmings, and believes this has a potential to grow much more.


To gauge their additional potential, IFFO asked the University of Stirling in Scotland, UK, to estimate how much aquaculture and fisheries by-products are currently untapped, and could be used for fishmeal.


The study found that 6.5 million metric tons of additional fishmeal could be created from currently unutilized processed by-products, said David Little, of Stirling. As much as 1.35m of this could be from Asia (excluding China, the Middle East and CIS countries) alone, he said.


The levels of utilization vary greatly across the industry, said Little. In Vietnam’s Mekong delta, for instance, producers recycle 100% of their pangasius by-products.


In contrast, EU fisheries, or carp farms in India, probably have a lot of untapped potential, said Little.


However, quantifying the available by-products that could be used for fishmeal is not straightforward, he said. In Asia,for instance, the potential could become much greater if cosumers end up changing their eating habits from whole fish today, to packed fish.


For instance, Chinese aquaculture is dominated by carps, which are unlikely to be processed in the short to medium term, he said.


Aquaculture on its own could supply over 18m tons by 2031, when excluding carps, or 30m when including carps, found the study.


Other grey areas include regulation — in the EU, rules preventing inter-species feeding limit the use of any by-products made from the same species that it is fed to.


The EU’s new ban on discards is also an unknown, and could possibly be significant, said Jackson.


“If fishermen are having to catch fish for which there is no market for human consumption, then there could be potential for fishmeal there,” he said. “Ultimately it’s better if it’s not caught, but if they are forced to land it, it’s a possibility.”


Then, there are issues of scalability, and the availability of fishmeal plants.


Silage is another method that could be explored further, to use by-products that are currently being left to waste.


The concept — which consists of liquifying fish by-products using natural enzyme — creates a product with lower protein levels than fishmeal, but is particularly useful in areas where there are no fishmeal plants available, including onboard vessels, as the liquid can be kept for months without putrefaction (up to two years according to the FAO).


While the concept has been around for years, production is still very low, in part because transport costs can be high, and because the product is less well established than meal.


Keeping an eye on GM oil


As the hunt for raw materials continues, competition also continues to emerge from new corners, including from the much-touted production of algae and krill.


These have a lot of potential, said Jackson, but for the moment, the economics are challenging and they cannot compete with fishmeal and oil on price.


Instead vegetable sources, such as soy-based meal, as the “biggest competition” facing fishmeal producers at the moment.


One development, however, that Jackson and Mallison are keeping an eye on is the potential onset of genetically modified oil containing the valuable omega-3 EPA and DHA fatty acids.


While no such product is on the market yet, the applications pipeline from pharmaceutical companies in the US shows research is ongoing and products could materialize in the near future, said Mallison.


Such a product “could be competitive”, said Jackson, provided there is acceptance from the market.


Eva Tallaksen, Undercurrent News

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Beta-glucan has become a natural alternative against diseases - FIS

Beta-glucan has become a natural alternative against diseases - FIS | aquaculture nutrition |
Beta-glucan has become a natural alternative against diseases FIS The introduction of alternative environmentally-friendly methods of disease control in fish through fish feed can significantly offer a significant aquaculture boost, the authors of...

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13th Practical Short Course - Trends and Markets in Aquaculture Feed Ingredients, Nutrition, Formulation and Optimized Feed Production and Quality Management - Panama - December 5-6, 2013

13th Practical Short Course - Trends and Markets in Aquaculture Feed Ingredients, Nutrition, Formulation and Optimized Feed Production and Quality Management - Panama - December 5-6, 2013 | aquaculture nutrition |
Smart Short Courses

Via Aquaculture Recruitment, Aquaculturedirectory
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Superfood: Salmon

Superfood: Salmon | aquaculture nutrition |
Rich in omega-3 fatty acids, find out why this Greatist superfood is one healthy grilling favorite.
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APC Blood Products Lead the Way in Animal and Fish Nutrition -

APC Blood Products Lead the Way in Animal and Fish Nutrition - | aquaculture nutrition |
APC Blood Products Lead the Way in Animal and Fish Nutrition APC profiles itself as the world's largest blood products producer for animal nutrition, with a decade-long presence in Europe and around the World and a proven track...

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Potential for secondary producers as shrimp disease affects largest China ... - Fish Update

Potential for secondary producers as shrimp disease affects largest China ... - Fish Update | aquaculture nutrition |
Potential for secondary producers as shrimp disease affects largest China ...

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Regarding nutrition of the deep ones and something about fish

I have been writing a custom scenario to run for my friends involving a small coastal village cult that annually or so sacrifices animals (and in very rare occasions humans) to deep ones. The village's prosperity is set around a ...
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See a Fish Think |

See a Fish Think | | aquaculture nutrition |
Technique allows researchers to watch brain activity in a zebrafish as it pursues its prey.

Via Maria Nunzia @Varvera
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BioMar and Lallemand Animal Nutrition Extend their Collaboration - FIS

FIS BioMar and Lallemand Animal Nutrition Extend their Collaboration FIS “This agreement is a natural continuation of the excellent relationship forged with Lallemand Animal Nutrition for more than 10 years, which has led to important innovative...
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AUSTRALIA: $7m for salmon hub

AUSTRALIA: $7m for salmon hub | aquaculture nutrition |

A PROPOSED $60 million Macquarie Harbour aquaculture hub has the potential to turn a multimillion-dollar business into a billion-dollar industry.


The federal government announced a $7 million contribution to the Tasmanian Salmonid Growers Association Limited project yesterday.

The Strahan  hub is set to create jobs and boost an important industry for the region.


Federal Member for Braddon and Parliamentary Secretary for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Sid Sidebottom, said the funding would help  transform the economy of the West Coast.


"It is a great example of the diversification of the Tasmanian economy that's needed and under way.


"The aquaculture industry will be able to boom and co-exist with our significant mining industry and the important tourist industry,'' Mr Sidebottom said.


The Minister for Regional Development and Local Government, Anthony Albanese, said the funding would make it possible for the major Tasmanian salmon growers to turn their vision into a reality.


"The aquaculture hub will include wharves, buildings and associated infrastructure which will enable these Tasmanian companies to double their production of salmon and trout at the harbour.


"The project will create 100 jobs during the construction phase and a further 163 jobs on completion in November 2016,'' Mr Albanese said.


"Businesses that support aquaculture such as ship chandlers, ship builders and repairers, and logistics operations have all expressed an interest in establishing new operations at the hub,'' he said.


Funding for the project was provided through round four of the Regional Development Australia Fund.

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Andrew Sharpless: The Perfect Protein: The Fish Lover's Guide to ...

Andrew Sharpless: The Perfect Protein: The Fish Lover's Guide to ... | aquaculture nutrition |
When people ask us which seafood is sustainable, it's hard to give such a pithy response. But if you really pressed us for it, this is what we might say: "Eat wild seafood. Not too much of the big fish.
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Human absorption and metabolism of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol ingested as olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract - Bock - 2013 - Molecular Nutrition & Food Research - Wiley Online Library

Human absorption and metabolism of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol ingested as olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract - Bock - 2013 - Molecular Nutrition & Food Research - Wiley Online Library | aquaculture nutrition |

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EVENT: 25–30 May 2014, Queensland, Australia - International Symposium o Fish Nutrition and Feeding (ISFNF2014)

EVENT: 25–30 May 2014, Queensland, Australia - International Symposium o Fish Nutrition and Feeding (ISFNF2014) | aquaculture nutrition |
Welcome to ISFNF 2014


Australia is proud to be hosting the 16th International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding (ISFNF XVI), the premier international forum for researchers, academics and industry concerned with the nutrition and feeding of aquatic animals. This biennial event will see several hundred attendees from around the world converge on the tropical city of Cairns for five days between 25–30 May 2014, adjacent to Australia’s magnificent Great Barrier Reef and the fabulous Daintree Rainforest.

High quality contributions are now being sought on key ‘Themes’ that progress the development of science in the nutrition and feeding of aquatic animals and that stimulate innovation in the world’s growing aquaculture industries. As aquaculture now supplies more than half the world’s edible seafood, development of sustainable feeds that support the growth of this industry and the ever present challenges of global food security will become increasingly important. Symposia such as the ISFNF are critical in meeting these challenges as they provide a forum for contributors to present research and innovative technologies that will ultimately play an important role in meeting the challenge of supplying increasing quantities of feed to the burgeoning aquaculture sector.

An event not to be missed by researchers, academics and industry – ISFNF XVI will be an opportunity to discuss and debate the current and looming issues faced by the fish nutrition sector and to develop innovative and novel ways to overcome them.

As with most ISFNF events there will be plenty of opportunity to network, socialise and collaborate during both formal and informal functions. We consider this element of the Symposium to be so important that we have planned a ‘gap day’ in the middle of the structured program to encourage all participants to network and to provide an opportunity to explore this amazing part of the world.

So, on behalf of the ISFNF 2014 Organising Committee, we look forward to seeing you in Cairns, on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef.

Brett Glencross

Chair—ISFNF 2014



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FAO GLOBEFISH: Market Reports - Salmon, September 2013

FAO GLOBEFISH: Market Reports - Salmon, September 2013 | aquaculture nutrition |

Norwegian salmon producers in particular have benefitted enormously from impressive export price performance on EU markets, where the foreseeable future looks positive. Chilean farmers have not fared quite so well, and many are facing losses for the first quarter of 2013 as the improved market situation in the USA failed to compensate for weaker prices and unfavourable trade conditions in Japan. The persistent threat of disease in Chile and much higher feed costs this year present additional challenges for producers, while widespread industry consolidation continues.




The strong upward price trend that began in late 2012 continued unabated throughout the first five months of 2013, defying industry expectations and approaching record levels on EU markets in late May. For Chilean producers, low frozen coho prices in the first few months were beginning to pick up in Japan in May, and the positive trend continues in the USA.  The delayed consumer response to more expensive raw material prices, together with a rise in harvest volumes, is predicted to see prices fall back again somewhat in many markets in the second half of the year. However, with the present market balance, analysts are not predicting a major decline, and most put average 2013 NOK/kg export prices in the mid-30s.  






Although export prices for farmed salmon rose steadily throughout the first quarter and broke through the NOK 40/kg mark in April for the first time in 2 years, importers were seemingly undeterred. Norwegian salmon producers posted a record export value of NOK 8.2 billion from January to March, representing a 22% increase compared with the first quarter of 2012, even though a year-on-year reduction in total export volume of 4% to 217 000 tonnes (product weight) was recorded for the same period. The drop in supply is primarily the result of lower water temperatures in 2013 together with maximum biomass restrictions.


The biggest market for Norwegian salmon is the EU, which imported 147 422 tonnes in the first quarter at NOK 5.51 billion, increases of 3% and 32% respectively compared with 2012. Poland is now the top destination for Norwegian exports, where a growing domestic market competes with a large processing industry exporting smoked product. Norwegian exports to France, the biggest consumer market in the EU (mainly whole fresh Atlantics), were flat in terms of volume versus 2012, but higher prices saw the total value increase to NOK 1.14 billion, 27% more than last year.  Demand for Norwegian salmon is also strong on the UK market: first quarter results were 12 050 tonnes at NOK 403 million, increases of 36% and 44% respectively.  


It was mainly on the non-EU markets where the reduced supply saw export volumes drop. Exports to Asia were down by 5 520 tonnes, mainly attributable to a decline in exports to Japan, Viet Nam and Taiwan PC. Meanwhile, Norway posted lower first quarter export volumes to Russia for the first time since 2006, with 26 321 tonnes representing a 19% decrease. Total value, however, was up 11% to NOK 922 million. Like the majority of non-EU markets, firm underlying demand meant that the lower volumes were absorbed at sufficiently high prices for increased revenues. 


As the positive market performance continued into April, Norwegian exporters were again setting new records for export revenues, which totaled NOK 3 billion for the month. This is an increase of 38% over April 2012. 


Fjord trout export values also reached record levels in the first quarter of 2013, to a total of NOK 482 million, a 20% increase compared with last year. Again, it is a case of higher prices rather than greater volumes, with only a 4% rise in total export quantity to 13 000 tonnes for the first quarter. Export volumes to the two biggest markets, Russia and Japan, were down by 4% and 9% respectively. The export figures for April were 4 535 tonnes (2% down) at NOK 194 million (37% up), with an average export price of NOK 44.29 for fresh whole fjord trout, NOK 14.82 more than April 2012. 




According to SalmonEx, the price of Chilean fresh salmon sold in the USA continues to rise. So far this year, the price for the 2-3 Trim D category has risen by 45%, reaching USD 5.25 in mid-May, while in early January the price was USD 3.62. On the Brazilian market the most popular category was HG 10-12, with a price that has stabilized at USD 7.3 per kilo. As for frozen salmon exports to the Japanese market, different products are performing in different ways. While trout prices have stabilized and the product is sold at JPY 600 per kilo at present, coho salmon prices continue to recover from low levels in the first quarter, reaching JPY 550 per kilo.


During the period from January to March 2013, total exports of salmonids came to 180 400 tonnes, which means an 18% rise when compared with the same time in 2012. Average FOB prices for salmonid exports went down by 23% in relation to the same period of 2012, scoring a very low USD 4 650/tonne. 

Atlantic salmon was the most exported species throughout the first quarter with 73 480 tonnes for a total of USD 438 million, with an average FOB price of USD 5 960/tonne. In terms of quantity, a significant increase of 57% was generated. Overall an increase of 36% in total value was registered. Coho salmon was the second most important species exported, with 68 670 tonnes (5% increase in relation to 2012) traded for USD 220 million (a decline of 39%) with an average FOB price of USD 3 210/tonne. In the first quarter last year, more coho salmon was exported than Atlantic salmon. Total harvests of Atlantic salmon in the first quarter of 2013 were 52% higher than in the same period of 2012. In the case of the rainbow trout, exports during the quarter reached 38 870 tonnes, a decrease of almost 6% in comparison with 2012. In terms of value, a 31% decrease was registered, a consequence of the low international prices. 


Frozen salmon and trout were the main production lines exported in the first quarter of 2013, followed by fresh and chilled products. The cumulative exports for frozen salmon and trout between January and March were 137 100 tonnes (a 17% rise in comparison with 2012) for a total value of USD 585 million  (19% decline) with an average FOB price of USD 4 270/tonne (FOB price for 2012 was USD 6 180/tonne). Fresh and chilled salmon and trout registered exports of 39 670 tonnes for USD 245 million, with the average FOB price being USD 6 200/tonne. This production line shows a 26% increase in terms of quantity and a 19% improvement in value compared with the same period in 2012. 


Japan was the main destination during the first quarter for Chilean salmon and trout, importing approximately 77 000 tonnes for a total value of USD 297 million. USA followed with 32 000 tonnes worth USD 232 million.


Chilean salmon producers are confident that prices in the international markets will remain firm, while some sanitary problems still have to be addressed. However, according to recent reports, less than 1% of the biomass of Chilean salmon is affected by the infectious anemia virus. The president of the union, Maria Eugenia Wagner, said that the presence of the virus is normal in the aquaculture industry and that it is something that producers will have to learn to cope with. Chilean farmers are fighting the virus through the development of vaccines, drugs and management of crops, although salmon mortality remains stable at present. 




The total value of UK salmon exports in the first quarter was USD 179 million, on a par with the figures for the same period in 2012 and 2011. Volumes were down 12% to 22 175 tonnes. UK exporters are steadily shifting their focus from traditional markets in the EU and the US to East Asia, particularly China and Taiwan PC. First quarter export volumes to these two countries have tripled since 2011, up to 3 191 tonnes in 2013 at a total value of USD 23.6 million. Meanwhile exports to the EU decreased by 19% in quantity terms (18% by value) over the same period, to 8 117 tonnes worth USD 63.5 million. The UK is exploiting the competitive advantage it has over Norway, which has an uneasy trading relationship with China, and over Japanese seafood suppliers who have had to contend with health concerns related to the Fukushima nuclear disaster.


The UK domestic market is showing strong growth, and import volume in Q1 2013 was 19% higher than last year at 21 614 tonnes worth USD 168 million (34% higher). The major exporter to the UK is the Faroe Islands, with a 40% share (whole fresh Atlantics) of first quarter import volume. 




Demand in most markets has shown considerable resilience in the face of rapidly rising prices, with the EU and the US posting increased year-on-year volumes in the first quarter. France, Germany and the UK in particular are performing well, as are key emerging markets such as Brazil and China. This is at least partly due to the similarly high prices of meat, forecast to persist in the medium term, which mean limited availability of cheaper basket alternatives for the consumer. However, the full impact of the high raw material prices that processors are paying is only just beginning to be felt at the consumer end, and demand is likely to suffer. Nevertheless, this could also be an important opportunity for Chilean producers, who are now trying to use the relatively more attractive prices of frozen, valued-added product to increase their market share in the EU. 




The inflated price levels slowed salmon import growth in France, and first quarter volumes were more or less flat compared with Q1 2012 at 36 283 tonnes, with total import value up 16% to USD 272 million. Product and supplier composition have shifted somewhat, however, and imports of frozen Pacific fillets were up 12% to 5 508 tonnes, with Chile as the major supplier. Overall in Q1 2013, France imported 55% more Chilean salmon by volume, and 19% more by value, at 1 954 tonnes worth USD 13.4 million. Meanwhile imports of fresh Pacific fillets, mainly from Norway, were up 30% to 5 003 tonnes. 




Germany imported 29 887 tonnes in the first 3 months of 2013, 4% more than last year.  Total import value was up to USD 28.2 million, an 11% increase. Imports of whole fresh Atlantics from Norway were down 6% to 9 597 tonnes, while smoked and frozen fillet imports were up 10% and 11% to 9 475 tonnes and 7 581 tonnes respectively. These figures reflect the large growth in imports from Chile, Germany’s main supplier of frozen fillets. Chilean-origin import volumes have tripled compared with Q1 2012, and, although the relative share is still small at 4.6%, it seems that Chilean producers are taking advantage of high Norwegian prices and the greater quantities they have available. Poland, Germany’s major supplier, also saw increased first quarter volumes of 8 900 tonnes (23% up) at USD 121 million (28% up), almost entirely smoked salmon. 




In terms of volume, Japan imported 3% less salmon (85 331 tonnes) in the first 4 months of 2013 than in 2012, but the decrease in value was 36% (USD 343 million). The large drop is mainly the result of weaker early-year prices – now recovering somewhat – for frozen Pacific salmon from Chile, which is meeting with lukewarm demand this year. This is partly due to poor trade conditions, specifically a weak yen and high freight costs, as well as left over inventories from 2012. Chile still supplies the vast majority of Japan’s salmon imports, although the 2013 January to April volume of 69 502 tonnes represents an 8% drop compared with last year. Meanwhile, Norwegian-origin imports dropped by 27% to 5 373 tonnes over the same period, further evidence that overall demand in Japan is not robust enough to absorb large volumes at current prices. In response to the high prices of Norwegian and Chilean farmed, Japan imported five times more salmon from Russia, New Zealand and Canada, to a total of 7 803 tonnes. 




The USA imported salmon during this period mainly from Chile with 30 269 tonnes for a total value of USD 256 million and Canada with 22 364 tonnes worth USD 142 million. Overall the market situation has improved since last year, and in the first quarter of 2013 USA imported 77 000 tonnes of salmon products, representing an increase of 14% compared with the same period in 2012. The total value of exports between January and March rose by 15% totalling over USD 578 million. 


In terms of exports, there was a 5.2% decrease in quantity and a 2% drop in the value of total exports, in comparison with the same period in 2012.




Brazil is one of the world’s fastest growing markets for salmon, importing almost 9 times more salmon products in 2012 (63 300 tonnes) than in 2000 (7 300 tonnes). The total value of these imports in 2012 was USD 296.5 million. Continued economic growth, only briefly slowed by the financial crisis, combined with an increasing population, has seen a rapid expansion of the target middle class demographic seeking higher quality seafood products. This trend should see sustained growth in salmon demand over the coming years, and it is Chilean producers that will be able to take advantage. Chile supplies 100% of Brazilian salmon imports, of which 78% were fresh whole Atlantics in 2012.  Frozen whole salmon made up 9% of the total volume, while frozen fillets accounted for 11%. Export prices to the Brazilian market generally follow the US market trend but are lower overall - average FOB price for fresh Atlantics in 2012 was USD 5.46 per kg. This is compensated for, to an extent, by lower transport costs and logistical conveniences resulting from the geographic proximity of the two countries.


Chilean trout competes with salmon for market share, with import volumes peaking in 2010 at 6 630 tonnes when Chilean salmon farmers were hit by the ISA outbreak. By 2012, volumes had declined to 4 270 tonnes for the year, worth approximately USD 17 million. Frozen whole trout made up 64% of these imports by volume, while frozen fillets took a 28% share.  


In the first 5 months of 2013, the Brazilian salmon market continued on its upward trajectory, importing 31 600 tonnes of salmon worth USD 170.7 million, increases of 32% and 41% respectively. Prices are also rising, recovering from significantly lower levels in 2012.  Meanwhile, trout imports fell by 35% to only 963 tonnes compared with the same 5 months last year. 




Although still strong in most markets, underlying demand is not expected to sustain prices at current levels once intermediaries in the value chain begin to pass costs onto the consumer. Supply is still likely to be inadequate to push prices very far down, however, particularly if wild harvests are low or disease spreads. If the supply pressure persists for too long, the high cost of salmon may result in a loss of some of the valuable ground gained last year in terms of market penetration. Chile can take advantage of the price situation, however, in order to gain a foothold in traditionally Norwegian markets, while wild salmon producers are now in a good position to expand supply to farmed-dominated markets. Meanwhile, feed prices will continue to put pressure on margins.



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Carlos Monteiro's curator insight, October 2, 2014 7:17 PM

Are you in the fish industry? Great!

This article gives a good clue on the consumption and market for Salmon in the main world markets.

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WORLDWIDE: : EMS Causing Shrimp Aquaculture Market Shifts

WORLDWIDE: : EMS Causing Shrimp Aquaculture Market Shifts | aquaculture nutrition |

Knowledge about Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS) has come a long way since the first outbreak in China in 2009. Now that the bacteria causing the disease is known, experts presenting at the Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA) GOAL conference in Paris, discuss where research currently stands and how the shrimp market has been affected, writes Lucy Towers, The FishSite Editor, live from the show.


Starting off the discussion, Dr George Chamberlin, President of GAA, gave an overview of the path that the disease has taken from China to Thailand.


Dr Donald Lightner, University of Arizona, was involved early on in identifying the disease, said Dr Chamberlin.


The breakthrough then came in July 2012, when one of Dr Lightner’s team members, Loc Tran, found that feeding infected shrimp to healthy shrimp caused the disease.


The disease was then identified as a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP).


The bacterial disease was found to transmit orally, colonising in the stomach where it produces toxins causing the hepatopancreas (HP) dysfunction.



Dr Chamberlin also noted that we now know that there are two phases of EMS:



- Acute phase – where the toxin is released, causing damage (sloughing) to cells in the HP


- Terminal phase – destruction of the HP by opportunistic VP


Discussing what may help prevent the disease, Noriaki Akazawa, Managing Director of an Agrobest shrimp farm, Malaysia, noted that he has found that p. monodon shrimp showed resistance to the disease, even though they were raised in the same ponds as p. Vannamei shrimp which did become infected.


He also identified that an environmental parameter must be involved as not all ponds had EMS outbreaks, despite them all containing VP.


The Perfect Killer


Reflecting on how EMS has affected Thailand, Robins McIntosh, Charoen Pokphand Foods (CPF), said that EMS has hit the shrimp industry hard and Thailand has lost production for three years.

Mr McIntosh described EMS as the perfect killer. The bacteria grows very fast and colonises in the stomach, producing a potent toxin.


Adding to ways in which EMS can be prevented, Mr McIntosh said that growing tilapia in the same ponds as shrimp and using freshwater/groundwater can all reduce the chance of EMS. Low salinity ponds also tend to have less problems.


Current Research


Speaking about where we are now with EMS, Dr Lightner presented to the conference the development of a PCR technique for the disease.

It is hoped that this new PCR technique will lead to diagnostic kits being distributed to EMS affected regions. PCR positive broodstock will then be destroyed or placed on a regime of approved antibiotics, in an attempt to clear them of EMS.


China a New Importer


EMS is having an effect on global markets. Gorjan Nikolik, Rabobank International, stated that EMS has caused a tradeflow shift from west to east, with China now emerging as a new net importer.


Loses are now seen in the US and EU markets where demand is contracting. Mr Nikolik said that he expects this contraction to increase, as prices remain high.


Looking forward, Mr Nikolik stated that there may be new leading shrimp producing countries in the picture when the disease is solved, as countries who have been unaffected by EMS have generated capital to re-invest into improving and expanding production.


Mr McIntosh also expects the recovery of the industry to be U shaped, signifying a gradual, not sharp, increase in production. This is because it will take time to communicate and implement solutions and training with farmers.


- See more at:



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BRAZIL: Brazilian aquaculture to boost tilapia breeding with Israeli technology

BRAZIL: Brazilian aquaculture to boost tilapia breeding with Israeli technology | aquaculture nutrition |

The region Norte Pioneiro, in the state of Paraná, located in the South of the massive country of Brazil, bordered to the north by São Paulo state and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, has been chosen by the Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture (MPA) as the ideal region to develop an initiative, in conjunction with Mitrelli Israel that, if all goes according to plan, is liable to revolutionize the fish breeding industry in the area, which the Brazilian Government intend to base around the Tilapia.


Tilapia are mainly freshwater fish, that traditionally inhabit shallow streams, ponds, rivers and lakes, and have become, over the last few years, increasingly important in the aquaculture and Aquaponics industries.


Mitrelli Israel’s representative in Brazil, Eliezer Levin, has been active in the last few months, putting together the details of the proposed fish farming project, which is now at scheduled to be launched in five dams located along the region’s Paranapanema River, running between the states of Parana and Sao Paulo.


The local branch of the Brazilian Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture based in the Paraná had been made aware of Mitrelli’s success in aquaculture and were confident that Israeli technology was who to call on to see them make a successful breakthrough into the industry.


Mitrelli will be working in close cooperation with the Brazilian MPA, operating an entire turnkey service, starting farming to rearing the fish until filleting stages as well as providing hands-on guidance on how to market the final products, both locally as well for the international market.


Accordingly the MPA as well as the state legislature of Paraná will be hoping the success of the joint aquaculture initiative will act as a model for similar initiatives throughout Brazil.


Brazil’s Agriculture Secretary, Norberto Ortigara expressed his office’s interest in the project and will be following its progress in order to assess to what extent the ministry will be able to encourage and subsidize a similar project in the event that the projection figures supplied by Mitrelli and backed up by the authorities at Paraná prove to be accurate.


“Fish is an important source of income for farmers’ families. We want to develop new actions to further increase our production and transform fish into cheap protein for consumption.” Mr. Ortigara According to Eliezer Levin, one of the principal characteristics of the technology that will be used by the Israeli group in the project will enable the breeders to substantially improve feed conversion rates that will in turn increase productivity levels. This method alleviates the need to introduce hormones into the Tilapia’s diet, a breeding method which is banned by the Israeli Ministry of Agriculture.


To do away with the need for introducing hormones, and instead while to develop the Tilapia naturally, Mitrelli have invested considerable research in the development of special feeding methods for fish production systems, carried out in large-scale projects of a similar nature.


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INDIA: Scientists develop eco-friendly prawn feed from grass  

INDIA: Scientists develop eco-friendly prawn feed from grass   | aquaculture nutrition |

Kolkata - A species of mangrove grass, which has so far been left unused by islanders in the Sundarbans, can now be utilised to prepare a cheap and eco-friendly feed for freshwater prawns, a team of scientists from Kolkata has recently demonstrated.

To prove how floral feed can offer better aquaculture nutrition and eco-friendly prawn farming, a pilot project led by Calcutta University's marine biologist Abhijit Mitra was executed at Swarupnagar village of North 24 Parganas district, few kilometres from here.

Mitra said the formulated feed from salt marsh grass Porteresia coarctata, available naturally in the Sundarbans, not only improves the aquatic health of ponds but also increases the growth and protein level of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a species of prawn.

It is estimated that annually India produces over 30,000 tonnes of the giant fresh water prawn, the export prices of which range between Rs 500-600 a kg. Prawns reared on floral feed exhibit greater weights and redder colouring (both attributes with high consumer appeal), and grow more quickly than those surviving on commercial feed. Besides mangrove grass, the other ingredients of the scampi feed preparation includes soybean dust, muster oil cake, rice bran and wheat bran.
"If adopted by the people of Sundarbans, the technology can aid their livelihood. Presently they are buying an imported commercial feed which costs them Rs 52 per kg but this new herbal feed will cost them only Rs 28," Mitra told. Besides using these feed at their ponds, farmers can also sell the feed itself to other aquaculture farmers.

"Our investigation also shows that prawn farming in the freshwater system of Indian Sundarbans is an economically feasible project and the return can be enhanced if specially formulated herbal feed is provided to the culture species instead of the traditional one," says the biologist.
Other researchers in the project included scientists Sufia Zaman and Subhrabikas Bhattacharyya.

Besides being economical, the new herbal feed also has ecological benefits as it produces less waste and so helps to improve water quality.

"Commercial feed contains trash fish and shrimp dust as a source of protein. The residual commercial feed degrades water quality by increasing the organic carbon, nutrient load, biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, and total coliform bacteria," says Mitra.

As the water quality of the pond is enhanced, it also removes the need to clear mangroves for wastewater removal systems such as canals and ditches.



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Tilapia fish output increases 35-fold in a decade - Financial Express Bangladesh

Tilapia fish output increases 35-fold in a decade - Financial Express Bangladesh | aquaculture nutrition |
Tilapia fish output increases 35-fold in a decade
Financial Express Bangladesh
Dr Hussain said Bangladesh is one of the top freshwater aquaculture producers in the world, but currently facing problems over its tilapia seed quality.

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ARGENTINA: Over USD 700,000 invested to develop inland aquaculture

ARGENTINA: Over USD 700,000 invested to develop inland aquaculture | aquaculture nutrition |

With an investment exceeding ARS 40 million (USD 718,500), the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (Minagri) aims to support the development of small and medium scale aquaculture farms in the northeast.


The Government plans to encourage the expansion and diversification of aquaculture production in the Argentinean northeastern area (NEA), through "improved and expanded” public goods and services.


To this end, a project will be implemented focusing on:


- Improving the research infrastructure of the species with commercial potential;


- Training and technical assistance for the promotion of good farm practices;


- Promotion of the strengthening of value chains, through direct support related to the adoption of technology by producers and other actors of the aquaculture activity.

In Argentina there are about 2,000 farmers in the northeastern provinces (Chaco, Corrientes, Formosa and Misiones) producing subtropical species.

The sector is mainly engaged in breeding pacu and to a lesser extent rainbow trout, stated the Ministry.


Some preliminary studies indicate that in the country there is a small capitalization in this sector, with few financing sources, and that marketing is done through informal non-consolidated channels.


"The NEA's aquaculture subsector faces inefficiencies in the supply of inputs and services, volatility in the offer and quality problems, which has restricted its commercial growth," the Minagri pointed out.


Several official boosted initiatives, including those related to training the NEA Aquaculture Cluster, aim to promote the development of aquaculture in this region of the country.

By Analia Murias,

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Spicing Up Your Fish Fillets With Science - Science Daily (press release)

Spicing Up Your Fish Fillets With Science - Science Daily (press release) | aquaculture nutrition |
Spicing Up Your Fish Fillets With Science Science Daily (press release) As wild fish stocks decline, the aquaculture industry has become one of the fastest growing animal production sectors; this growth has increased demand for aquaculture feed...

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NORWAY: “Wow, sea urchin roe, what a taste of the coast”

NORWAY: “Wow, sea urchin roe, what a taste of the coast” | aquaculture nutrition |

“This should definitely be a candidate as a seafood souvenir in the Norwegian tourism market.” That’s roughly how Trude Borch, Scientist at the food research institute Nofima, expressed herself.


This comment was made during a recent event organized by “Taste the Coast” and Nofima where Borch, along with food producers, chefs, research colleagues and others, was served tasty salty-sweet sea urchin roe by sea urchin entrepreneur Øyvind Jørgensen.


Like Russian caviar


Troms Kråkeboller produces the sea urchins from eggs in order to achieve predictable quality. They produce around two million sea urchins per annum, fed with a special feed developed by Nofima. “In this way we achieve gold standard,” says Jørgensen. He emphasizes that sea urchin roe is as close as we get to a Norwegian variant of Russian caviar.


“The price of the roe can vary from NOK 500 to NOK 12,000 per kilo in special cases. These are not meals that are measured in kilos. We’re talking about small appetizers that are measured in grams,” says Jørgensen.


Simple sea urchin trap


When the chefs prepared a table full of seafood delicacies towards the end of last week’s event, they used roe both from farmed and wild sea urchins.

“It’s great that the industry is getting a production facility for sea urchin farming because this can provide stable supplies to buyers in Norway and overseas. However, since such large stocks of wild sea urchins are available, it’s important not to forget that there are alternatives,” says Nofima Scientist Philip James.


He points out that Nofima, in collaboration with private companies and the Norwegian Seafood Research Fund (FHF), has been working to develop a remotely-operated underwater vehicle (ROV) that efficiently harvests wild sea urchins.


There are also low technology alternatives. “Fisherman can easily make a sea urchin trap consisting of a round trampoline comprising of a plastic ring and a tight net. You fasten cod heads or a bouquet of seaweed in the middle of the trap before lowering it down to the seabed on a rope. It’s possible to harvest a full net of sea urchins overnight.”


Conquered Northern Norway


It was during the record warm last week of May at the culinary network ”Taste the Coast”, which until that point had been an organisation for Western Norway, went the whole way and conquered Northern Norway with its distinctive Arctic species right outside the kitchen door.


The arena was Skarven’s Culinary Theatre. Project Manager Alexandra Krage Angell from the Norwegian Seafood Centre and adviser Annbjørg Reiersen from Tromsø invited seafood suppliers, cooks, chefs and four Nofima scientists to a tasty, informative and interesting meeting.


Debut for snow crab


”At this meeting between the seafood industry, restaurant industry and scientists, we have seen several examples of what can be good culinary souvenirs,” says Trude Borch. In addition to the forecast of stable sea urchin production from the coming winter, the Director of Vardø Hotell, Tor-Emil Sivertsen, contributed the first samples of Norwegian-captured snow crab.


The vessel Arctic Wolf had caught 27 tonnes of snow crab and the cooks participating at Skarven immediately found superb applications for the new arrival in Norwegian waters.


This crab species is considerably smaller than the king crab, but the meat is particularly tender and tasty. The king crabs circulated at “Taste the Coast” had roe and, at one time or another, the snow crab will also have roe that may be used as caviar.


The secrets of the king crab


The Managing Director of Vertshuset Skarven, Gunnar Andersen, has waited a long time for stable supplies of sea urchin roe. But the king crab also has news to offer.


“As the capture of female crabs is banned in ordinary king crab capture, there has been little commercial utilization of the roe. However, this crab we have here today was captured in the free catch area west of North Cape.


The king crab has another hidden delicacy,” says Nofima Senior Scientist Sten Siikavuopio: The medallion of meat that lies inside the tail under the king crab’s body.


Chef Morten Rasmussen from Emma’s Drømmekjøkken says that the king crab roe and medallion will go straight onto his menu.


The king crab is originally a Pacific Ocean species that was introduced to the Barents Sea by the Russians in the 1950s. The crab thrived and in time spread westwards to Norway in search of more food. The first examples of the king crab were caught by Norwegian fishermen in nets in 1978 and, along with cod, saithe and haddock, the king crab has played an important role on the Finnmark Coast and in Norwegian kitchens for 30 years. The most exclusive crabs are air freighted live to restaurants in the Far East.


Food and tourism same story


Siikavuopio informed the gathering about the exclusive Arctic charr – the world’s northernmost and particularly adaptable freshwater fish – that is also supplied from fish farms in Norway, Sweden and Iceland.


“This is very exciting and it is excellent that “Taste the Coast” is coming northwards where we not only have a significant supply of Arctic seafood, but where we actually get new species such as king crab and snow crab,” says Borch, whose research includes Norwegian food souvenirs.


“Food and tourism are two sides of the same story. There is a limit to how many books and souvenirs you can take home from your holiday trip. Food is not only an important aspect of travelling, taking food home is also becoming steadily more important as a way of extending the travel experience,” says Borch. “For food producers, a well formed food souvenir will have double effect. It will provide additional sales and will be a way of profiling Norwegian seafood.”


She credits Hurtigruten, food producers and several restaurants for prioritizing seafood in relation to tourists.


“But we need more of this. Within agriculture, people have been better at thinking tourism. The blue sector must take the challenge and exploit the opportunities that lie in the tourism market. After all, foreigners think of Norway as a coastal and seafood nation, and the cooks here today demonstrate in a brilliant way the enormous opportunities we have,” says Borch.


Halibut must be stored


In his presentation of halibut, Nofima Senior Scientist Kjell Midling made a tremendous effort to ensure the ”Taste the Coast” event did not miss out on the traditional species. For this species, the cooks commented that they are particularly interested in relatively small halibut, from 5 kg up to 10-20 kg.


“After having been a ‘threatened species’, the halibut stocks have experienced an incredible growth in North Norwegian waters over the past decade,” says Midling, who warned the cooks and others against serving fish such as halibut, monkfish and redfish in fresh condition. These species tolerate extremely well being stored on ice for one or two weeks. Cod, saithe and haddock are species that tolerate being served fresh, but also being stored on ice.


Live quality raise


As Head of the National Centre for Capture-based Aquaculture, Midling, on behalf of Nofima and the Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs, has a central role in raising the quality of Northeast Arctic cod for which Norway and Russia have this year set the total quota at a record high 1 million tonnes.


In brief, it is a quality challenge with abundances of easily accessible cod that graze on herring and capelin through winter and spring. This applies particularly to large catches where the catch is not handled in the optimal manner.


“There are now significant efforts to keep large proportions of the cod alive and store it from the spring fishery until the autumn when the industry has a shortage of raw materials. The price of the fish rises too,” says Midling, who showed photos of cod from capture-based aquaculture that was hung on drying racks as stockfish.


“This was the first time in the 1000-year history of stockfish, and the fish buyer who produced the fish has said ‘it’s not possible to get better stockfish than this’. Via Halvors Tradisjonsfisk, the product will be on the menu of an Italian restaurant that features in the Michelin guide.”


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Investing in small-scale farmers can help lift over 1 billion people out of poverty

Investing in small-scale farmers can help lift over 1 billion people out of poverty | aquaculture nutrition |

According to a new report, Smallholders, Food Security and the Environment, an estimated 2.5 billion people who manage 500 million smallholder farm households provide over 80 per cent of the food consumed in much of the developing world, particularly Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa


The report, commissioned by the UN Environment Programme’s World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), also shows that most of the 1.4 billion people living on less than $1.25 a day live in rural areas and depend largely on agriculture for their livelihoods.

Via Robin Landis
Anna V. A. Resurreccion's curator insight, June 14, 2013 6:53 PM

Already, 1 billion people go to sleep hungry each night.  Food security after all not only covers availability, accessibility and a safe food supply but it should be available at all times.


In 2050 when the world poppulation increases to 9 billion, we will need double the food supply we have today. 


Alleviating poverty is one way to help.    


Roy D Palmer's curator insight, June 16, 2013 10:33 PM

Sounds like a plan!

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Purina Animal Nutrition launches enhanced pig starter feed

Purina Animal Nutrition launches enhanced pig starter feed | aquaculture nutrition |
Purina Animal Nutrition has launched a newly reformulated line of the UltraCare pig starter feed products – and showcases this at this year’s World Pork Expo.
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Protein for All: Fish and the Future of Food - National Geographic

Protein for All: Fish and the Future of Food - National Geographic | aquaculture nutrition |
National Geographic
Protein for All: Fish and the Future of Food
National Geographic
The seas that swirl around us are actually pretty resilient—despite what we often hear about the ocean and the ways it is imperiled.
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