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Can Neurofilament Light Chain Be Utilized as a Biomarker of Disease Severity, Activity, and Outcomes in Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis? | Neurology

Can Neurofilament Light Chain Be Utilized as a Biomarker of Disease Severity, Activity, and Outcomes in Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis? | Neurology | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
May 23, 2023; 100 (21) Editorial Can Neurofilament Light Chain Be Utilized as a Biomarker of Disease Severity, Activity, and Outcomes in Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis? Amy Kunchok, Josep Dalmau First published April 4, 2023, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000207310 Full PDF Citation Permissions Make Comment See Comments Downloads0 Share Article Info & Disclosures This article requires a subscription to view the full text. If you have a subscription you may use the login form below to view the article. Access to this article can also be purchased. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARe) is a disorder characterized by a combination of behavioral, cognitive, and psychiatric alterations along with seizures, abnormal movements, dysautonomia, or a decreased level of consciousness that sequentially develop over several weeks in association with NMDAR-IgG in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).1 This presentation is followed by weeks or months of persistent symptoms, often requiring intensive care (ICU), followed by a protracted recovery. Changes in CSF antibody titers may correlate with relapse, but serum titers are not reliable longitudinal biomarkers of disease activity.2FootnotesGo to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.See page 1006Received February 13, 2023.Accepted in final form March 3, 2023.© 2023 American Academy of NeurologyView Full Text AAN Members We have changed the login procedure to improve access between AAN.com and the Neurology journals. If you are experiencing issues, please log out of AAN.com and clear history and cookies. (For instructions by browser, please click the instruction pages below). After clearing, choose preferred Journal and select login for AAN Members. You will be redirected to a login page where you can log in with your AAN ID number and password. When you are returned to the Journal, your name should appear at the top right of the page. Google Safari Microsoft Edge Firefox Click here to login AAN Non-Member Subscribers Click here to login Purchase access For assistance, please contact: AAN Members (800) 879-1960 or (612) 928-6000 (International) Non-AAN Member subscribers (800) 638-3030 or (301) 223-2300 option 3, select 1 (international) Sign Up Information on how to subscribe to Neurology and Neurology: Clinical Practice can be found here Purchase Individual access to articles is available through the Add to Cart option on the article page. Access for 1 day (from the computer you are currently using) is US$ 39.00. Pay-per-view content is for the use of the payee only, and content may not be further distributed by print or electronic means. The payee may view, download, and/or print the article for his/her personal, scholarly, research, and educational use. Distributing copies (electronic or otherwise) of the article is not allowed. You May Also be Interested in Back to top Association Between Orthostatic Hypotension and Dementia in Patients With Parkinson Disease and Multiple System Atrophy Dr. Alberto Espay and Dr. Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann ► Watch Related Articles Predictive Value of Serum Neurofilament Light Chain Levels in Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Alert Me Alert me when eletters are published
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Family's Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Story

Family's Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Story | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Their 13-year-old daughter was irritable, hallucinating, and sometimes nonresponsive. Tests showed that she had anti-NMDR encephalitis.
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Epilepsy Associated with Systemic Autoimmune Disorders - PMC

Epilepsy Associated with Systemic Autoimmune Disorders - PMC | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Systemic autoimmune disorders affect multiple organ systems. Brain involvement commonly causes seizures, which may be the presenting symptom. Systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjorgren's syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, sarcoidsosis, celiac disease, Crohn's ...
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Navigating Rare Disease Advocacy on Social Media

Navigating Rare Disease Advocacy on Social Media | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Social media has become a crucial tool for rare disease advocacy and awareness, enabling us to connect and advocate for necessary resources and treatments for our communities. I've had first-hand experience with how social media and online support networks can galvanise a community.
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Consumer Health: What do you know about encephalitis?

Consumer Health: What do you know about encephalitis? | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
World Encephalitis Day will be observed Wednesday, Feb. 22. Encephalitis affects nearly 500,000 people of all ages worldwide each year, according to the Encephalitis Society.
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'I wouldn’t wish it on my worst enemy': Stockton mom helps 10-year-old navigate rare disease

'I wouldn’t wish it on my worst enemy': Stockton mom helps 10-year-old navigate rare disease | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Aroon Ivy is fighting a rare disease impacting brain function. His mother wrote a book to help him and others during a year-long hospital stay.
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Brain Sciences | Free Full-Text | Prevalence of Neural Autoantibodies in Epilepsy of Unknown Etiology: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Brain Sciences | Free Full-Text | Prevalence of Neural Autoantibodies in Epilepsy of Unknown Etiology: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Background: The prevalence of neural autoantibodies in epilepsy of unknown etiology varies among studies. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the pooled global prevalence and the prevalence for each antibody.
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Autoimmune encephalitis and psychiatric disorders

Autoimmune encephalitis and psychiatric disorders | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Daniela Reisz studies a rare case of autoimmune encephalitis, to develop a broader approach to psychiatric disorders.
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Teaching Video NeuroImages: Dystonic posturing in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis - Dataemia

Teaching Video NeuroImages: Dystonic posturing in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis - Dataemia | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Teaching Video NeuroImages: Dystonic posturing in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis Source link...
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ExTINGUISH: A Beacon of Hope for NMDAR Encephalitis

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Teaching NeuroImages: Prosopagnosia heralding anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis - Dataemia

Teaching NeuroImages: Prosopagnosia heralding anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis - Dataemia | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
A 23-year-old right-hand-dominant woman presented with 3 weeks of progressive difficulty recognizing faces, including her own, subsequently developing psychosis. Noncontrast CT head and MRI brain with contrast revealed a nonenhancing lesion of the right posterior temporal lobe and fusiform gyrus,...
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Prolonged Corticosteroids Without Maintenance Immunotherapy for Treatment of Anti-LGI1 Encephalitis | Neurology Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation

Prolonged Corticosteroids Without Maintenance Immunotherapy for Treatment of Anti-LGI1 Encephalitis | Neurology Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
AbstractObjectives To analyze outcomes and relapse rate of patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis referred to the London Health Sciences Centre Autoimmune Neurology Clinic, where prolonged (≥3 months) corticosteroids without steroid-sparing maintenance immunotherapy are the typical treatment approach.Methods Retrospective chart review.Results Eighteen patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis were identified. The median age at symptom onset was 65 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 62–70 years), and 13 (72%) were men. All patients received corticosteroids, with a median treatment duration of 6.3 months (IQR: 3.8–9.6 months). Other first-line immunotherapies used included IV immunoglobulin (n = 11, 61%) and plasma exchange (n = 2, 11%). Three patients referred for refractory disease received rituximab as second-line immunotherapy. No other steroid-sparing maintenance immunotherapies for anti-LGI1 encephalitis were prescribed. At last follow-up, 16/18 (89%) achieved seizure freedom, and 16/18 (89%) had a favorable modified Rankin Scale score. Among 9 patients who had ≥2 years of follow-up from symptom onset, there was disease relapse in 3 (33%), 2 of whom had been referred for refractory disease.Discussion Among our patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis who typically received prolonged corticosteroids without steroid-sparing maintenance immunotherapy, outcomes were generally favorable, and relapses were uncommon outside of refractory disease. Further investigation is needed to clarify the optimal corticosteroid regimen and role of steroid-sparing maintenance immunotherapy in anti-LGI1 encephalitis.Despite dramatic advancements in the diagnosis of anti–leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis,1,-,3 the optimal treatment approach remains uncertain. A retrospective study found better acute treatment responses with corticosteroids compared with IV immunoglobulin (IVIG), indicating that corticosteroids are the preferred acute immunotherapy.4,5 However, the optimal dose and duration of corticosteroids is unclear, as evidenced by the substantial heterogeneity of corticosteroid regimens used among patients in this study.4 What is also unclear is whether steroid-sparing maintenance immunotherapy (e.g., mycophenolate and azathioprine) should routinely be started to prevent relapse, which has been reported to occur in 27%–41%.6,-,8 Another retrospective study from the same center found that steroid-sparing maintenance immunotherapy in anti-LGI1 encephalitis was associated with significantly reduced risk of relapse.8 This finding, coupled with the fact that approximately two-thirds of patients in this study were initially treated with steroid-sparing maintenance immunotherapy, raised the question of whether routine use of such therapy is becoming standard of practice.8 However, determinations of the need for steroid-sparing maintenance immunotherapy in neural antibody-associated disease are exceptionally challenging to make when there is variability in the approach to acute immunotherapy, such as the corticosteroid regimen used. This is because the corticosteroid regimen used acutely can itself affect the risk of relapse, as demonstrated by the association between longer duration of corticosteroids and lower risk of relapse in pediatric myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody–associated disease.9In contrast to the substantial heterogeneity in corticosteroid regimen and high frequency of steroid-sparing maintenance immunotherapy used in the abovementioned studies, patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis at our center typically receive prolonged corticosteroids without steroid-sparing maintenance immunotherapy. We herein describe our experience with this relatively homogeneous treatment approach to provide a differing perspective on disease management and highlight aspects of treatment that should be a focus of future studies.MethodsWe retrospectively identified all patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis referred to the LHSC Autoimmune Neurology Clinic from September 1, 2020, to September 1, 2022. Inclusion criteria were (1) anti-LGI1 positivity in serum and/or CSF by EUROIMMUN fixed cell-based assay included in comprehensive autoimmune encephalitis panel testing as described previously,10 (2) symptoms compatible with anti-LGI1 encephalitis, and (3) no more likely alternative diagnosis.Charts were reviewed for clinical and ancillary test data, treatments, and outcomes including seizure freedom, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA),11 modified Rankin Scale (mRS),12 and relapse. Refractory disease was defined as ongoing seizures and/or cognitive decline attributed to active neuroinflammation despite first-line immunotherapy. Relapse was defined as recurrence or clear worsening of symptoms after 3 months of complete resolution or plateau from prior symptoms with no more likely explanation, as described previously.8Descriptive data were reported using medians, interquartile ranges, and percentages. The Western University Health Science Research Ethics Board approved this study (Project ID: 121644).Data AvailabilityDeidentified patient data are available to any qualified investigator on reasonable request.ResultsAmong 18 patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis, the median age at symptom onset was 65 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 62–70 years), and 13 (72%) were men. All had focal-onset seizures and cognitive complaints, although only 11/18 (61%) had cognitive impairment (MoCA ≤25) on initial testing. Cohort characteristics are summarized in Table 1 and outlined below.View inline View popup Table 1 Summary of Anti-LGI1 Encephalitis Patient Cohort (N = 18)All Patients Were Treated With Corticosteroids, Which Was Typically of Prolonged (≥3 Months) DurationAll patients received immunotherapy, with a median time from symptom onset to treatment of 4.0 months (IQR: 3.1–8.3 months). All received corticosteroids, which typically consisted of pulse dosing with IV methylprednisolone 1,000 mg daily or PO prednisone 1,250 mg daily for 3–5 days, followed by PO prednisone 1 mg/kg (up to 60 mg) daily for 1–3 months and then a slow taper over months (eTable 1, links.lww.com/NXI/A820). The median duration of corticosteroids was 6.3 months (IQR: 3.8–9.6 months). Sixteen (89%) completed a prolonged (≥3 months) corticosteroid course. Other first-line immunotherapies administered included IVIG (n = 11, 61%) and plasma exchange (n = 2, 11%).Corticosteroid-Related Adverse Effects Were Common but Typically Improved With Corticosteroid TaperingCorticosteroid-related adverse effects occurred in 13/18 (72%) and included behavioral change (n = 9, 50%), hyperglycemia (n = 3, 17%), high appetite (n = 2, 11%), minor infection (n = 2, 11%), osteopenia (n = 2, 11%), and gastric upset (n = 1, 6%). All adverse effects improved with tapering except for osteopenia, which was managed pharmacologically.Steroid-Sparing Maintenance Immunotherapy Was Typically Not Prescribed, With the Exception of Rituximab for Refractory DiseaseThree patients (17%) were referred for refractory disease, all of whom received rituximab as second-line immunotherapy. Two received repeated courses of rituximab as maintenance immunotherapy due to relapsing disease. In one, maintenance IVIG alongside rituximab was administered for improved disease control. Outside of these cases, steroid-sparing maintenance immunotherapy for anti-LGI1 encephalitis was not prescribed; 1 patient was prescribed mycophenolate for a separate autoimmune disease (idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis) that predated anti-LGI1 encephalitis and relapsed after prolonged corticosteroids in the absence of symptoms to suggest encephalitis recurrence (patient 5, eTable 1, links.lww.com/NXI/A820).At Last Follow-up, Nearly 90% Achieved Seizure Freedom and a Favorable mRS Score, Although One-Third Had Evidence of Cognitive ImpairmentAt last follow-up, 16/18 (89%) patients were seizure-free, and 16/18 (89%) had a favorable mRS score (0–2). On MoCA, 6/17 (35%) had cognitive impairment, all of whom had cognitive impairment at initial assessment.Relapse Occurred in 3/9 Patients With ≥2 Years of Follow-up (33%), 2 of Whom Were Referred for Refractory DiseaseAmong 9 patients who had follow-up ≥2 years from symptom onset, relapse occurred in 3 (33%). Two were referred for refractory disease and treated with rituximab as both second-line and maintenance immunotherapy. None of the 9 patients with follow-up <2 years from symptom onset had evidence of relapse.DiscussionAmong our patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis who typically received prolonged corticosteroids without steroid-sparing maintenance immunotherapy, outcomes were generally favorable. Nearly 90% achieved seizure freedom and favorable mRS score, consistent with previous studies.4,8 Despite the high frequency of good outcomes, one-third had cognitive impairment at last follow-up, in line with previous reports.4,13 All patients with cognitive impairment at last follow-up had cognitive impairment at initial assessment, underlining the importance of early treatment before development of cognitive difficulties.14With regard to the relapse rate, relapse occurred in 3/9 patients with ≥2 years of follow-up (33%). This is similar to previous findings,6,-,8 although several points bear emphasizing. First, our patients typically did not receive steroid-sparing maintenance immunotherapy, in contrast to a recent study with a comparable relapse rate (41%) in which approximately two-thirds of patients initially received such therapy.8 Although there are many possible explanations for the comparable relapse rate despite divergent prescribing of steroid-sparing maintenance immunotherapy, one consideration may be the more homogeneous use of prolonged corticosteroids at our center. Second, 2 of our patients with relapse were referred for refractory disease, resulting in administration of rituximab as both an acute second-line and maintenance immunotherapy. This suggests that the risk of relapse could be higher in those with refractory disease leading to subspecialty referral, creating potential referral bias that may be particularly relevant when examining relapse rates at quaternary centers.There are numerous limitations to our study, including its retrospective nature and small sample size. However, it highlights that prolonged corticosteroids without routine initiation of steroid-sparing maintenance immunotherapy are a viable treatment approach in anti-LGI1 encephalitis, particularly for those without refractory disease. Given the additional cost and long-term risks of steroid-sparing maintenance immunotherapies, as well as the limited role of oral therapies such as mycophenolate and azathioprine in acute disease management due to delayed efficacy, full consideration should be given to the possibility of reserving their use for select patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis (e.g., those who relapse on corticosteroid tapering) like has been recommended in other autoimmune neurologic diseases.15 Our findings emphasize the need for prospective studies of immunotherapies that control for numerous variables, including acute immunotherapy (e.g., corticosteroid) regimen and disease refractoriness, to determine best treatment practices.Study FundingThe authors report no targeted funding.DisclosureA. Budhram reports that he holds the London Health Sciences Centre and London Health Sciences Foundation Chair in Neural Antibody Testing for Neuro-Inflammatory Diseases and receives support from the Opportunities Fund of the Academic Health Sciences Centre Alternative Funding Plan of the Academic Medical Organization of Southwestern Ontario (AMOSO). S. Alkabie reports no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. Go to Neurology.org/NN for full disclosures.Appendix Authors<img alt="Table" width="598" src="https://nn.neurology.org/content/nnn/10/3/e200115/T2.medium.gif"; height="509" class="highwire-fragment fragment-image">FootnotesThe Article Processing Charge was funded by the authors.Go to Neurology.org/NN for full disclosures. Funding information is provided at the end of the article.Submitted and externally peer reviewed. The handling editor was Editor Josep O. Dalmau, MD, PhD, FAAN.Received January 17, 2023.Accepted in final form February 21, 2023.Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND), which permits downloading and sharing the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.References1.↵Irani SR, Alexander S, Waters P, et al. Antibodies to Kv1 potassium channel-complex proteins leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin-associated protein-2 in limbic encephalitis, Morvan's syndrome and acquired neuromyotonia. Brain. 2010;133(9):2734-2748.OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed2.↵Lai M, Huijbers MG, Lancaster E, et al. Investigation of LGI1 as the antigen in limbic encephalitis previously attributed to potassium channels: a case series. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9(8):776-785.OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed3.↵van Sonderen A, Petit-Pedrol M, Dalmau J, Titulaer MJ. The value of LGI1, Caspr2 and voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies in encephalitis. Nat Rev Neurol. 2017;13(5):290-301.OpenUrlPubMed4.↵Rodriguez A, Klein CJ, Sechi E, et al. LGI1 antibody encephalitis: acute treatment comparisons and outcome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2022;93(3):309-315.OpenUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text5.↵Irani SR. Improving clinical practice with an old friend from the neuroimmunology toolkit: acute corticosteroids in LGI1 antibody encephalitis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2022;93(3):230-231.OpenUrlFREE Full Text6.↵Ariño H, Armangué T, Petit-Pedrol M, et al. Anti-LGI1-associated cognitive impairment: presentation and long-term outcome. Neurology. 2016;87(8):759-765.OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed7.↵van Sonderen A, Thijs RD, Coenders EC, et al. Anti-LGI1 encephalitis: clinical syndrome and long-term follow-up. Neurology. 2016;87(14):1449-1456.OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed8.↵Smith KM, Dubey D, Liebo GB, Flanagan EP, Britton JW. Clinical course and features of seizures associated with LGI1-antibody encephalitis. Neurology. 2021;97(11):e1141–e1149.OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed9.↵Nosadini M, Eyre M, Giacomini T, et al. Early immunotherapy and longer corticosteroid treatment are associated with lower risk of relapsing disease course in pediatric MOGAD. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2023;10(1):e200065.OpenUrl10.↵Chang YC, Nouri MN, Mirsattari S, Burneo JG, Budhram A. Obvious indications for neural antibody testing in epilepsy or seizures: the ONES checklist. Epilepsia. 2022;63(7):1658-1670.OpenUrl11.↵Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, Bédirian V, et al. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(4):695-699.OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed12.↵van Swieten JC, Koudstaal PJ, Visser MC, Schouten HJ, van Gijn J. Interobserver agreement for the assessment of handicap in stroke patients. Stroke. 1988;19(5):604-607.OpenUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text13.↵Binks SNM, Veldsman M, Easton A, et al. Residual fatigue and cognitive deficits in patients after leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 antibody encephalitis. JAMA Neurol. 2021;78(5):617-619.OpenUrl14.↵Thompson J, Bi M, Murchison AG, et al. The importance of early immunotherapy in patients with faciobrachial dystonic seizures. Brain. 2018;141(2):348-356.OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed15.↵Hehir MK II., Li Y. Diagnosis and management of myasthenia gravis. Continuum (Minneap MN). 2022;28(6):1615-1642.OpenUrl
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Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis In Children

Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis In Children | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Following the first report of pediatric anti-NMDAR encephalitis in China in 2010, anti-<i>N</i>-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is now recognized more frequently and commonly in the pediatric population.
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How I Diagnose Autoimmune Encephalitis?

How I Diagnose Autoimmune Encephalitis? | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Save the date: June 6th...Read More...
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30 neurological disorders every doctor should know about – The Neurology Lounge - Dataemia

30 neurological disorders every doctor should know about – The Neurology Lounge - Dataemia | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
May 16, 2023May 16, 2023 Neurology is a jungle of disorders and syndromes. This creates a challenge for doctors and medical students… What to prioritise for learning and practice? *** To solve this conundrum… We combed the extensive database of Neurochecklists… Seeking neurological disorders with...
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Faculty Opinions: Cognitive and psychiatric features of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

Faculty Opinions Article...
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Use of anti-seizure medications in different types of autoimmune encephalitis: A narrative review.

Use of anti-seizure medications in different types of autoimmune encephalitis: A narrative review. | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.
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This is Not a Pity Memoir –

This is Not a Pity Memoir – | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
This is Not a Pity Memoir Author: Abi Morgan Overview This book is unique in its dramatic portrayal of an illness which is teeming with riveting twists and turns; starting off as a commonplace neuroinflammatory brain disorder, it rapidly snowballs in multiple unpredictable directions.
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Evaluation, Treatment, and Outcomes of Viral and Autoimmune Encephalitis in Children

Evaluation, Treatment, and Outcomes of Viral and Autoimmune Encephalitis in Children | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Viral encephalitis and autoimmune encephalitis are currently the most common causes of encephalitis. Determining the causative agent is helpful in initiating medical treatment that may help reduce long-term sequelae.
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Autoimmune encephalitis: recent clinical and biological advances

Autoimmune encephalitis: recent clinical and biological advances | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
In 2015, we wrote a review in The Journal of Neurology summarizing the field of autoantibody-associated neurological diseases. Now, in 2023, we present an update of the subject which reflects the rapid expansion and refinement of associated clinical phenotypes, further autoantibody discoveries,...
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Post Herpetic Anti-NMDA- Receptor Encephalitis in an 18-month-old Infant

Post Herpetic Anti-NMDA- Receptor Encephalitis in an 18-month-old Infant | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Relapsing symptoms after herpes simplex virus encephalitis, especially with movement disorders, should raise a high clinical suspicion of Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor encephalitis in children.Therefore, clinicians should be cautious of its occurrence in infants; despite its rarity in that age...
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Diagnostic Criteria, Phenotypes and Epidemiology of Autoimmune Encephalitis: Divyanshu Dubey, MBBS

Diagnostic Criteria, Phenotypes and Epidemiology of Autoimmune Encephalitis: Divyanshu Dubey, MBBS | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
The assistant professor of neurology at Mayo Clinic spoke about understanding the phenotypes and epidemiology of autoimmune encephalitis at the 2023 AAN Annual Meeting.[WATCH TIME: 4 minutes]...
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IJMS | Free Full-Text | Autoimmune Neuroinflammatory Diseases: Role of Interleukins

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Autoimmune Neuroinflammatory Diseases: Role of Interleukins | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases are a group of disorders resulting from abnormal immune responses in the nervous system, causing inflammation and tissue damage. The interleukin (IL) family of cytokines, especially IL-1, IL-6, and IL-17, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of these...
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'It was scary': Cape Breton woman with 'brain on fire' disease makes full recovery | SaltWire

'It was scary': Cape Breton woman with 'brain on fire' disease makes full recovery | SaltWire | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
SYDNEY, N.S. — Amber Barrett doesn't remember being sent home from work in March 2021.
The now 30-year-old from Sydney doesn't remember spending weeks in ...
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Author, Speaker Jackie Stebbins on Rebuilding Her Life After Autoimmune Encephalitis

Author, Speaker Jackie Stebbins on Rebuilding Her Life After Autoimmune Encephalitis | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Dr. Audrey Nath speaks with author, speaker, and podcaster Jackie Stebbins about her experience with autoimmune encephalitis. Jackie shares how the neurologic condition affected her and her family’s life, her journey to recovery, and what she is doing to raise awareness about the diagnosis.
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