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Author response: New onset refractory status epilepticus research: What is on the horizon? | Neurology

Author response: New onset refractory status epilepticus research: What is on the horizon? | Neurology | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
SHARE March 31, 2020; 94 (13) DISPUTES & DEBATES: EDITORS' CHOICE Author response: New onset refractory status epilepticus research: What is on the horizon? View ORCID ProfileTeneille E. Gofton, Lawrence J. Hirsch First published March 30, 2020, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009187 FULL PDF CITATION PERMISSIONS MAKE COMMENT SEE COMMENTS Downloads0 This article requires a subscription to view the full text. If you have a subscription you may use the login form below to view the article. Access to this article can also be purchased. We thank Dr. Sethi for the comment on our Contemporary Issues article.1 There are currently no guidelines and early immunotherapy may be indicated for patients with biomarkers or risk factors for autoimmunity (e.g., extreme delta with or without brushes, suggestive of anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis,2 a personal or family history of autoimmunity), or tumors that are known to be associated with autoimmune encephalitis.3 There are limited data to date, and the decision to treat with immunomodulatory treatments is ultimately a clinical one pending further research. Any patient without a clear etiology for NORSE within the first 72 hours of presentation and without a clear contraindication to immunosuppression warrants careful consideration for treatment with immunotherapy. Current evidence suggests that earlier treatment is associated with better clinical outcomes.4 This comment may also draw further attention to the current autoantibody testing limitations; we hope that improved and faster testing may become available. Footnotes Author disclosures are available upon request (journal{at}neurology.org). See Editors' Note See letter © 2020 American Academy of Neurology View Full Text AAN Members We have changed the login procedure to improve access between AAN.com and the Neurology journals. If you are experiencing issues, please log out of AAN.com and clear history and cookies. (For instructions by browser, please click the instruction pages below). After clearing, choose preferred Journal and select login for AAN Members. You will be redirected to a login page where you can log in with your AAN ID number and password. When you are returned to the Journal, your name should appear at the top right of the page. Google Safari Microsoft Edge Firefox CLICK HERE TO LOGIN AAN Non-Member Subscribers CLICK HERE TO LOGIN Purchase access For assistance, please contact: AAN Members (800) 879-1960 or (612) 928-6000 (International) Non-AAN Member subscribers (800) 638-3030 or (301) 223-2300 option 3, select 1 (international) Sign Up Information on how to subscribe to Neurology and Neurology: Clinical Practice can be found here  Purchase Individual access to articles is available through the Add to Cart option on the article page.  Access for 1 day (from the computer you are currently using) is US$ 39.00.  Pay-per-view content is for the use of the payee only, and content may not be further distributed by print or electronic means.  The payee may view, download, and/or print the article for his/her personal, scholarly, research, and educational use.  Distributing copies (electronic or otherwise) of the article is not allowed. YOU MAY ALSO BE INTERESTED IN RELATED ARTICLES ALERT ME
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Neural Antibody Testing for Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Canadian Single-Centre Experience | Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences

Neural Antibody Testing for Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Canadian Single-Centre Experience - Volume 48 Issue 6
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Autoimmune encephalitis with coexistent LGI1 and GABABR1 antibodies: case report | BMC Neurology | Full Text

Autoimmune encephalitis with coexistent LGI1 and GABABR1 antibodies: case report | BMC Neurology | Full Text | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Background Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) with multiple auto-antibodies is of great clinical significance because its complex clinical manifestations and atypical imaging increase the difficulty of diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment, which may aggravate the disease, increase the recurrence rate and mortality. The coexistence of anti-Leucinie-rich Glioma Inactivated 1 (LGI1) and anti-γ-aminobutyric acid-beta-receptor 1 (GABABR1) has not been published before. Case presentation We herein present the case of a 60-year-old man with slow response, behavioral changes, psychosis and sleep disorders. Laboratory test included serum hyponatremia, positive serum LGI1 and GABABR1 antibodies using transfected cell-based assays. Electroencephalogram exhibited moderate diffusion abnormality. The patient responded well to steroid impulse treatment and sodium supplement therapy, and did not recur during the follow-up. Conclusions Here we report the first AE characterized by positive LGI1 and GABABR1 antibodies, as well as summarizing AE with multiple auto-antibodies reported so far, hopefully to provide experience for clinical practice.
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EEG Contribution to the Diagnosis of Antibody-Negative Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Case Report - FullText - Case Reports in Neurology 2021, Vol. 13, No. 3 - Karger Publishers

Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a group of inflammatory brain diseases that are characterized by prominent neuropsychiatric symptoms. Early therapeutic intervention is important for AE.Therefore, wit...
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Author Response: Clinical, Neuroimmunologic, and CSF Investigations in First Episode Psychosis | Neurology

Author Response: Clinical, Neuroimmunologic, and CSF Investigations in First Episode Psychosis | Neurology | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
We appreciate the interest in our research.1 According to Pollak and colleagues,2 criteria of possible autoimmune psychosis (AP) are fulfilled if a patient has abrupt onset psychotic symptoms with at least one of the following: the presence of a tumor, movement disorder (dyskinesias, catatonia), adverse response to antipsychotics, “severe or disproportionate” cognitive dysfunction, decreased level of consciousness, unexplained seizures, and significant autonomic dysfunction.2 Fulfilment of these criteria should lead to additional tests such as EEG, MRI, and serum or CSF investigations. In our series of 105 patients with first episode of psychosis (FEP), 20% fulfilled these criteria but never developed AP.1 We confirm that 2 of 3 patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis presenting with FEP did not fulfill any of these criteria, including catatonia, which is a complex syndrome with its own set of 12 criteria that include echolalia.3 Thus, catatonia and echolalia should not be used as interchangeable terms.
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Autoantibody-associated psychiatric symptoms and syndromes in adults: A narrative review and proposed diagnostic approach

Autoantibody-associated psychiatric symptoms and syndromes in adults: A narrative review and proposed diagnostic approach | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Autoimmune-mediated encephalitis is a disease that often encompasses psychiatric symptoms as its first clinical manifestation’s predominant and isolated characteristic. Novel guidelines even distinguish autoimmune psychosis from autoimmune encephalitis.
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Vennada's Story: Recovery from Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis

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The grey zone between autoimmune encephalitis and autoimmune‐associated epilepsy - Morano - - Epilepsia Open

The grey zone between autoimmune encephalitis and autoimmune‐associated epilepsy - Morano - - Epilepsia Open | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
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The role of dendritic cells and their interactions in the pathogenesis of antibody-associated autoimmune encephalitis | Journal of Neuroinflammation | Full Text

The role of dendritic cells and their interactions in the pathogenesis of antibody-associated autoimmune encephalitis | Journal of Neuroinflammation | Full Text | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is an inflammatory brain disease which is frequently associated with antibodies (Abs) against cell-surface, synaptic or intracellular neuronal proteins. There is increasing evidence that dendritic cells (DCs) are implicated as key modulators in keeping the balance...
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Unraveling the enigma of new-onset refractory status epilepticus: a systematic review of aetiologies | Read by QxMD

Unraveling the enigma of new-onset refractory status epilepticus: a systematic review of aetiologies | Read by QxMD | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
RESULTS: Four hundred and fifty records were initially identified, of which 197 were included in the review. The selected studies were retrospective case-control (n=11), case series (n=83), and case reports (n=103) and overall described 1334 patients both of paediatric and adult age. Aetiology remains unexplained in about half of the cases, representing the so-called "cryptogenic NORSE". Among adult patients without cryptogenic NORSE, the most often identified cause is autoimmune encephalitis, either non-paraneoplastic or paraneoplastic. Infections are the prevalent aetiology of paediatric non-cryptogenic NORSE. Genetic and congenital disorders can have a causative role in NORSE, and toxic, vascular, and degenerative conditions have been also described.
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Screening for pathogenic neuronal autoantibodies in serum and CSF of patients with first-episode psychosis

Screening for pathogenic neuronal autoantibodies in serum and CSF of patients with first-episode psychosis | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Patients with autoimmune encephalitides, especially those with antibodies to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), often present with prominent psychosis and respond well to immunotherapies. Although most patients progress to develop various neurological symptoms, it has been hypothesised...
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Rituximab Treatment and Long-term Outcome of Patients With Autoimmune Encephalitis | Neurology Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation

Rituximab Treatment and Long-term Outcome of Patients With Autoimmune Encephalitis | Neurology Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Immunotherapeutic strategies for GAD65-AE remain highly controversial.27 Most patients are considered to require immunotherapy, and early immunotherapy has been found to be associated with a better outcome.10,28 However, the different neurologic manifestations of SPS, CA, and LE appear to respond...
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Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis: Multidisciplinary Development of a Clinical Practice Guideline | American Academy of Pediatrics

Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis: Multidisciplinary Development of a Clinical Practice Guideline | American Academy of Pediatrics | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Knowledge about the diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is rapidly expanding. In the last 15 years, multiple new antibodies have been described. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)–antibody-mediated encephalitis, in particular, has been found to be common among teenagers and young adults1 and accounts for up to 86% of AE in patients aged <18 years.2 Other antibodies associated with AE (leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1, contactin-associated protein-like 2, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-kilodalton isoform, γ-aminobutyric acid A, and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) are reported in children as case reports or series and with less clear typical clinical syndromes.3–9
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Comprehensive B-Cell Immune Repertoire Analysis of Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis and Anti-LGI1 Encephalitis

Comprehensive B-Cell Immune Repertoire Analysis of Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis and Anti-LGI1 Encephalitis | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARE) and anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 encephalitis (anti-LGI1E) are the two most common types of antibody-mediated autoimmune encephalitis.
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Meet Ambassador Jayden Liuzza

The Foundation is very proud to introduce our first and the world’s youngest Ambassador for Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, Jayden Liuzza. You may remember seeing Jayden ...Read More...
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Dysfunction of the Autonomic Nervous System and its Role in the Pathogenesis of Septic Critical Illness (Review)

Dysfunction of the Autonomic Nervous System and its Role in the Pathogenesis of Septic Critical Illness (Review) | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) of the brain in sepsis can cause severe systemic inflammation and even death. Numerous data confirmed the role of ANS dysfunction in the occurrence, course, and outcome of systemic sepsis.
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Frontiers | Risk Factors and Brain Metabolic Mechanism of Sleep Disorders in Autoimmune Encephalitis | Immunology

Frontiers | Risk Factors and Brain Metabolic Mechanism of Sleep Disorders in Autoimmune Encephalitis | Immunology | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
BackgroundSleep disorders (SDs) in autoimmune encephalitis (AE) have received little attention and are poorly understood. We investigated the clinical characteristics, risk factors, and cerebral metabolic mechanism of SD in AE.MethodsClinical, laboratory, and imaging data were retrospectively...
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A peculiar case of psychosis: anti-NMDAr encephalitis | International Journal of Emergency Medicine | Full Text

A peculiar case of psychosis: anti-NMDAr encephalitis | International Journal of Emergency Medicine | Full Text | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Background Psychosis in pregnancy is rare and could be life-threatening. It requires prompt evaluation and proper management accordingly. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAr) encephalitis following herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a rare cause of psychosis during pregnancy.
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Acute Psychosis Due to Anti-N-Methyl D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report - PMC

Acute Psychosis Due to Anti-N-Methyl D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report - PMC | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis has been reported after SARS-CoV-2 infection, but not after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We report the first known case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis after SARS-CoV-2 immunization in a young ...
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Anti-NMDAR Autoantibodies Disrupt Ionotropic Receptor Signaling –

Anti-NMDAR Autoantibodies Disrupt Ionotropic Receptor Signaling – | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Vignesh Subramanian '24 Figure 1: The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) functions as an ion channel. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ligand-gated ion channels whose signaling enables higher-order functions, such as learning and memory, throughout the brain.
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A Brain on Fire: Laura's Battle with Autoimmune Encephalitis

A Brain on Fire: Laura's Battle with Autoimmune Encephalitis | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Laura Martin, a strong student and standout goalie at Transylvania University, hit a sudden wall as things turned worse. Diagnosis: Autoimmune Encephalitis.
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Frontiers | Case Report: Prominent Brainstem Involvement in Two Patients With Anti-CASPR2 Antibody-Associated Autoimmune Encephalitis | Immunology

Frontiers | Case Report: Prominent Brainstem Involvement in Two Patients With Anti-CASPR2 Antibody-Associated Autoimmune Encephalitis | Immunology | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Anti-contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) antibody-associated autoimmune encephalitis is commonly characterized by limbic encephalitis with clinical symptoms of mental and behavior disorders, cognitive impairment, deterioration of memory, and epilepsy.
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Frontiers | Acute Psychosis Due to Anti-N-Methyl D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report | Neurology

Frontiers | Acute Psychosis Due to Anti-N-Methyl D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report | Neurology | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis has been reported after SARS-CoV-2 infection, but not after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We report the first known case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis after SARS-CoV-2 immunization in a young female presenting with acute psychosis,...
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Lauren's Healing Story (Autoimmune Encephalitis) - Phoenix Helix

Lauren's Healing Story (Autoimmune Encephalitis) - Phoenix Helix | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
When you have a disease only recently discovered and most doctors don't know it exists, it takes strong self-advocacy to get the help you need.
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CSF Findings in Acute NMDAR and LGI1 Antibody–Associated Autoimmune Encephalitis

CSF Findings in Acute NMDAR and LGI1 Antibody–Associated Autoimmune Encephalitis | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
CSF in antibody-defined autoimmune encephalitis (AE) subtypes shows subtype-dependent degrees of inflammation ranging from rare and often mild to frequent and often robust. AEs with NMDA receptor antibodies (NMDAR-E) and leucine-rich glioma-inactivated ...
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Physical Therapy Interventions and Outcome Measures for a Patient Diagnosed with Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis

Physical Therapy Interventions and Outcome Measures for a Patient Diagnosed with Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is the most common cause of
autoimmune encephalitis after acute demyelinating encephalitis. Patients usually present
with acute behavioral changes, psychosis, and abnormal limb movements and can also
...
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