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Woman, 30, was misdiagnosed with schizophrenia after rare immune disease triggered hallucinations – Brinkwire

Woman, 30, was misdiagnosed with schizophrenia after rare immune disease triggered hallucinations – Brinkwire | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
A woman who hallucinated the Mexican Cartel were hunting her was misdiagnosed with schizophrenia before doctors realised she had a rare and deadly immune disease.  Samantha Redfield, of Angels Camp, California, suddenly began experiencing strange symptoms over a two week period in October 2019. She was rushed to hospital when she suffered a seizure, and over the next few days, began to hallucinate her sisters were dead and sob uncontrollably. When brain scans and blood tests showed nothing was wrong, 30-year-old Mrs Redfield was referred to a psychiatrist with suspected schizophrenia, by which point she hadn’t slept for ten days.   But the psychiatrist said there was something more sinister going on. She told Mrs Redfield’s family to take her straight back to A&E. After taking fluid from Mrs Redfield’s spine, the doctors were able to diagnose autoimmune encephalitis, which causes the body’s immune system to attack healthy brain cells. Inflammation and swelling lead to symptoms similar to psychosis.  Mrs Redfield was kept in hospital for two weeks while having treatment which filters the blood and removes harmful antibodies. She has almost fully recovered. Speaking about her hallucinations, Mrs Redfield said: ‘The hallucinations that I do somewhat remember were thinking I lost loved ones, I remember sobbing thinking two of my sisters had died.  ‘I also remember bits and pieces of being incredibly scared that the Mexican Cartel was hunting me, that they were outside our home. I remember very little. ‘There is what I believe a good two weeks where I remember nothing. I would be extremely happy one moment and a wreck the next.  ‘I had trouble speaking, I couldn’t write or read. I was told I stayed awake for ten days straight. ‘To simply put it, my body was attacking my brain and my body was fighting for its life.’  Mrs Redfield suddenly started to experience symptoms of stiffness and numbness in her right hand in October 2019. Over two weeks, the numbness Mrs Redfield was feeling spread to her upper right lip and she struggled to feed herself with a fork without dropping it. She said: ‘I knew something was wrong, I quickly became anxious and worried. These symptoms came on quickly over a two-week period just prior to my first seizure. ‘I remember being at a restaurant with my dad and telling him to watch this – I could feel when my hand was about to seize up – I picked up the fork with food on it and before I brought it to my mouth, my hand gave away, dropping the fork and food hit the table, we weren’t sure what to think. ‘These symptoms continued to escalate and a week after the fork incident I had my seizure.  ‘We would eventually find out these symptoms on the right side of my body were caused by swelling in the left side of my brain.’  Mrs Redfield was rushed to A&E on October 25 following her first seizure, when she also broke her ankle. A doctor ordered blood tests and MRI scans, which all came back clear.  ‘To have them come back clear was honestly scary as it left us with no answers as to what had caused the seizure,’ Mrs Redfield said. ‘Unfortunately, the days following with additional MRIs, EEGs and blood work were a blur. My health quickly started to deteriorate and do not remember much or if any of these tests.’ After being discharged from the hospital and given the all clear, Mrs Redfield can’t fully remember what happened to her as her health rapidly declined. From speaking to her family and her husband, Codey, 40, Mrs Redfield knew that she started to hallucinate. She believed that her two sisters, Katie, 29, and Danielle, 20, had died and that the Mexican Cartel were hunting her and waiting outside her house. On November 5, Mrs Redfield’s family took her back to the neurologist who misdiagnosed her with schizophrenia. Mrs Redfield said: ‘My dad scheduled an appointment with a psychiatrist the very next day. ‘I’ve been told the psychiatrist said that this is not schizophrenia, she understood I was a healthy happy 29-year-old only weeks before, she knew something was wrong.  ‘She recommended my family get me to an emergency room immediately to get admitted. My parents did just that.’  Mrs Redfield was in hospital for two weeks during which time countless tests and a spinal tap diagnosed autoimmune encephalitis.  Every years there are up to 6,000 cases of encephalitis of all types in the UK, and approximately 25,000 in the US, according to Encephalitis Society.  The condition causes inflammation of the brain and can cause traumatic symptoms similar to those seen in patients with psychosis, including confusion, hallucinations or strange behaviour. Viruses are the most common cause of infectious encephalitis. Mrs Redfield was diagnosed with a rarer autoimmune type.  It’s caused by a problem with the immune system, but doctors are still baffled as to why the body behaves this way. Mrs Redfield underwent plasma treatment called plasmapheresis which finally brought her out of her psychosis-like state. She was discharged from hospital on November 22.  She said: ‘This psychiatrist is the reason we ended up admitted at UC Davis Medical Centre where my life would be saved.  ‘The doctors turned to an aggressive treatment of plasma exchanges that truly saved my life and brought me out of psychosis.  ‘They inserted a catheter near my collar bone. Every other day a specialist would come in with a machine and bottles of plasma. This machine would take my blood into the machine where it would separate my plasma from my red blood cells. ‘The machine would then mix my plasma with the fresh plasma and inject it back into my body.  ‘This was a two-hour process that happened every other day, five times. By the second or third treatment I started to come out of my state of psychosis.’ Mrs Redfield is about to undergo immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg), whereby a mixture of antibodies are injected into the blood to help the body fight disease. She will have IVIg once a month for the next six months to a year to prevent the 20 to 30 per cent chance of relapse.  In the meantime, Mrs Redfield must take it easy; she’s put her career in marketing on hold while she gets better due to her limited energy and hasn’t had a seizure since she was in hospital. Mrs Redfield is still in recovery from her terrifying ordeal but wants to spread the word and raise awareness of her condition. She said: ‘In my case, my antibodies were not working correctly, and they turned on my body and attacked the NMDA receptors in my brain.  ‘NMDA receptors are responsible for a lot of our daily activity like human interaction, our memories, judgement and so much more.  ‘Each day is better. My body allows me about four hours of energy a day so the things I do each day are limited still. ‘I can’t drive due to the seizures and with little energy am unable to work so a lot of my time is spent with friends and family or binge watching my favourite shows. I still have a long road ahead of healing and have to remind myself daily to take it easy.  ‘My new neurologist says there is a twenty to thirty per cent chance of relapse, but we are hopeful IVIG will lessen those chances.’ Mrs Redfield added: ‘I am so thankful for the ability to share my story and raise awareness through it, in hopes of saving a life – many are misdiagnosed, not treated and trapped in their own bodies and mental health hospitals. ‘Take care of yourself, be gentle with yourself, don’t apologise for something that’s out of your control. You can’t rush healing.’ For more information, visit Mrs Redfield’s Instagram.
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BREAKING NEWS! First Clinical Trial for Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis

BREAKING NEWS! First Clinical Trial for Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
In the spring of 2020, the Foundation expressed its strong support for the first-ever Clinical Trial for a promising new drug to treat anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Fast forward to the Fall of 2021, when we learned that the Trial was approved and will be funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
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Autoimmune encephalitis with coexistent LGI1 and GABABR1 antibodies: case report | BMC Neurology | Full Text

Autoimmune encephalitis with coexistent LGI1 and GABABR1 antibodies: case report | BMC Neurology | Full Text | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Background Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) with multiple auto-antibodies is of great clinical significance because its complex clinical manifestations and atypical imaging increase the difficulty of diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment, which may aggravate the disease, increase the recurrence rate and mortality. The coexistence of anti-Leucinie-rich Glioma Inactivated 1 (LGI1) and anti-γ-aminobutyric acid-beta-receptor 1 (GABABR1) has not been published before. Case presentation We herein present the case of a 60-year-old man with slow response, behavioral changes, psychosis and sleep disorders. Laboratory test included serum hyponatremia, positive serum LGI1 and GABABR1 antibodies using transfected cell-based assays. Electroencephalogram exhibited moderate diffusion abnormality. The patient responded well to steroid impulse treatment and sodium supplement therapy, and did not recur during the follow-up. Conclusions Here we report the first AE characterized by positive LGI1 and GABABR1 antibodies, as well as summarizing AE with multiple auto-antibodies reported so far, hopefully to provide experience for clinical practice.
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EEG Contribution to the Diagnosis of Antibody-Negative Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Case Report - FullText - Case Reports in Neurology 2021, Vol. 13, No. 3 - Karger Publishers

Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a group of inflammatory brain diseases that are characterized by prominent neuropsychiatric symptoms. Early therapeutic intervention is important for AE.Therefore, wit...
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Author Response: Clinical, Neuroimmunologic, and CSF Investigations in First Episode Psychosis | Neurology

Author Response: Clinical, Neuroimmunologic, and CSF Investigations in First Episode Psychosis | Neurology | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
We appreciate the interest in our research.1 According to Pollak and colleagues,2 criteria of possible autoimmune psychosis (AP) are fulfilled if a patient has abrupt onset psychotic symptoms with at least one of the following: the presence of a tumor, movement disorder (dyskinesias, catatonia), adverse response to antipsychotics, “severe or disproportionate” cognitive dysfunction, decreased level of consciousness, unexplained seizures, and significant autonomic dysfunction.2 Fulfilment of these criteria should lead to additional tests such as EEG, MRI, and serum or CSF investigations. In our series of 105 patients with first episode of psychosis (FEP), 20% fulfilled these criteria but never developed AP.1 We confirm that 2 of 3 patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis presenting with FEP did not fulfill any of these criteria, including catatonia, which is a complex syndrome with its own set of 12 criteria that include echolalia.3 Thus, catatonia and echolalia should not be used as interchangeable terms.
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Autoantibody-associated psychiatric symptoms and syndromes in adults: A narrative review and proposed diagnostic approach

Autoantibody-associated psychiatric symptoms and syndromes in adults: A narrative review and proposed diagnostic approach | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Autoimmune-mediated encephalitis is a disease that often encompasses psychiatric symptoms as its first clinical manifestation’s predominant and isolated characteristic. Novel guidelines even distinguish autoimmune psychosis from autoimmune encephalitis.
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Vennada's Story: Recovery from Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis

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The grey zone between autoimmune encephalitis and autoimmune‐associated epilepsy - Morano - - Epilepsia Open

The grey zone between autoimmune encephalitis and autoimmune‐associated epilepsy - Morano - - Epilepsia Open | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
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A Brain on Fire: Laura's Battle with Autoimmune Encephalitis

A Brain on Fire: Laura's Battle with Autoimmune Encephalitis | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Laura Martin, a strong student and standout goalie at Transylvania University, hit a sudden wall as things turned worse. Diagnosis: Autoimmune Encephalitis.
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Frontiers | Case Report: Prominent Brainstem Involvement in Two Patients With Anti-CASPR2 Antibody-Associated Autoimmune Encephalitis | Immunology

Frontiers | Case Report: Prominent Brainstem Involvement in Two Patients With Anti-CASPR2 Antibody-Associated Autoimmune Encephalitis | Immunology | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Anti-contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) antibody-associated autoimmune encephalitis is commonly characterized by limbic encephalitis with clinical symptoms of mental and behavior disorders, cognitive impairment, deterioration of memory, and epilepsy.
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Frontiers | Acute Psychosis Due to Anti-N-Methyl D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report | Neurology

Frontiers | Acute Psychosis Due to Anti-N-Methyl D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report | Neurology | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis has been reported after SARS-CoV-2 infection, but not after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We report the first known case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis after SARS-CoV-2 immunization in a young female presenting with acute psychosis,...
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Lauren's Healing Story (Autoimmune Encephalitis) - Phoenix Helix

Lauren's Healing Story (Autoimmune Encephalitis) - Phoenix Helix | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
When you have a disease only recently discovered and most doctors don't know it exists, it takes strong self-advocacy to get the help you need.
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CSF Findings in Acute NMDAR and LGI1 Antibody–Associated Autoimmune Encephalitis

CSF Findings in Acute NMDAR and LGI1 Antibody–Associated Autoimmune Encephalitis | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
CSF in antibody-defined autoimmune encephalitis (AE) subtypes shows subtype-dependent degrees of inflammation ranging from rare and often mild to frequent and often robust. AEs with NMDA receptor antibodies (NMDAR-E) and leucine-rich glioma-inactivated ...
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Physical Therapy Interventions and Outcome Measures for a Patient Diagnosed with Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis

Physical Therapy Interventions and Outcome Measures for a Patient Diagnosed with Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is the most common cause of
autoimmune encephalitis after acute demyelinating encephalitis. Patients usually present
with acute behavioral changes, psychosis, and abnormal limb movements and can also
...
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Meet Ambassador Jayden Liuzza

The Foundation is very proud to introduce our first and the world’s youngest Ambassador for Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, Jayden Liuzza. You may remember seeing Jayden ...Read More...
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Dysfunction of the Autonomic Nervous System and its Role in the Pathogenesis of Septic Critical Illness (Review)

Dysfunction of the Autonomic Nervous System and its Role in the Pathogenesis of Septic Critical Illness (Review) | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) of the brain in sepsis can cause severe systemic inflammation and even death. Numerous data confirmed the role of ANS dysfunction in the occurrence, course, and outcome of systemic sepsis.
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Frontiers | Risk Factors and Brain Metabolic Mechanism of Sleep Disorders in Autoimmune Encephalitis | Immunology

Frontiers | Risk Factors and Brain Metabolic Mechanism of Sleep Disorders in Autoimmune Encephalitis | Immunology | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
BackgroundSleep disorders (SDs) in autoimmune encephalitis (AE) have received little attention and are poorly understood. We investigated the clinical characteristics, risk factors, and cerebral metabolic mechanism of SD in AE.MethodsClinical, laboratory, and imaging data were retrospectively...
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A peculiar case of psychosis: anti-NMDAr encephalitis | International Journal of Emergency Medicine | Full Text

A peculiar case of psychosis: anti-NMDAr encephalitis | International Journal of Emergency Medicine | Full Text | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Background Psychosis in pregnancy is rare and could be life-threatening. It requires prompt evaluation and proper management accordingly. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAr) encephalitis following herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a rare cause of psychosis during pregnancy.
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Acute Psychosis Due to Anti-N-Methyl D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report - PMC

Acute Psychosis Due to Anti-N-Methyl D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report - PMC | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis has been reported after SARS-CoV-2 infection, but not after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We report the first known case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis after SARS-CoV-2 immunization in a young ...
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Anti-NMDAR Autoantibodies Disrupt Ionotropic Receptor Signaling –

Anti-NMDAR Autoantibodies Disrupt Ionotropic Receptor Signaling – | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Vignesh Subramanian '24 Figure 1: The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) functions as an ion channel. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ligand-gated ion channels whose signaling enables higher-order functions, such as learning and memory, throughout the brain.
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Neural Antibody Testing for Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Canadian Single-Centre Experience | Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences

Neural Antibody Testing for Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Canadian Single-Centre Experience - Volume 48 Issue 6
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The role of dendritic cells and their interactions in the pathogenesis of antibody-associated autoimmune encephalitis | Journal of Neuroinflammation | Full Text

The role of dendritic cells and their interactions in the pathogenesis of antibody-associated autoimmune encephalitis | Journal of Neuroinflammation | Full Text | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is an inflammatory brain disease which is frequently associated with antibodies (Abs) against cell-surface, synaptic or intracellular neuronal proteins. There is increasing evidence that dendritic cells (DCs) are implicated as key modulators in keeping the balance...
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Unraveling the enigma of new-onset refractory status epilepticus: a systematic review of aetiologies | Read by QxMD

Unraveling the enigma of new-onset refractory status epilepticus: a systematic review of aetiologies | Read by QxMD | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
RESULTS: Four hundred and fifty records were initially identified, of which 197 were included in the review. The selected studies were retrospective case-control (n=11), case series (n=83), and case reports (n=103) and overall described 1334 patients both of paediatric and adult age. Aetiology remains unexplained in about half of the cases, representing the so-called "cryptogenic NORSE". Among adult patients without cryptogenic NORSE, the most often identified cause is autoimmune encephalitis, either non-paraneoplastic or paraneoplastic. Infections are the prevalent aetiology of paediatric non-cryptogenic NORSE. Genetic and congenital disorders can have a causative role in NORSE, and toxic, vascular, and degenerative conditions have been also described.
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Screening for pathogenic neuronal autoantibodies in serum and CSF of patients with first-episode psychosis

Screening for pathogenic neuronal autoantibodies in serum and CSF of patients with first-episode psychosis | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Patients with autoimmune encephalitides, especially those with antibodies to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), often present with prominent psychosis and respond well to immunotherapies. Although most patients progress to develop various neurological symptoms, it has been hypothesised...
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Rituximab Treatment and Long-term Outcome of Patients With Autoimmune Encephalitis | Neurology Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation

Rituximab Treatment and Long-term Outcome of Patients With Autoimmune Encephalitis | Neurology Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Immunotherapeutic strategies for GAD65-AE remain highly controversial.27 Most patients are considered to require immunotherapy, and early immunotherapy has been found to be associated with a better outcome.10,28 However, the different neurologic manifestations of SPS, CA, and LE appear to respond...
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Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis: Multidisciplinary Development of a Clinical Practice Guideline | American Academy of Pediatrics

Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis: Multidisciplinary Development of a Clinical Practice Guideline | American Academy of Pediatrics | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Knowledge about the diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is rapidly expanding. In the last 15 years, multiple new antibodies have been described. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)–antibody-mediated encephalitis, in particular, has been found to be common among teenagers and young adults1 and accounts for up to 86% of AE in patients aged <18 years.2 Other antibodies associated with AE (leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1, contactin-associated protein-like 2, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-kilodalton isoform, γ-aminobutyric acid A, and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) are reported in children as case reports or series and with less clear typical clinical syndromes.3–9
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