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Cerebrospinal Fluid Findings in Patients With Autoimmune Encephalitis-A Systematic Analysis | Read by QxMD

Cerebrospinal Fluid Findings in Patients With Autoimmune Encephalitis-A Systematic Analysis | Read by QxMD | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Cerebrospinal Fluid Findings in Patients With Autoimmune Encephalitis-A Systematic Analysis Tetyana Blinder, Jan Lewerenz Frontiers in Neurology 2019, 10: 804 Autoimmune encephalitides (AIE) comprise a group of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), which can be further characterized by the presence of different antineuronal antibodies. Recently, a clinical approach for diagnostic criteria for the suspected diagnosis of AIE as well as definitive AIE were proposed. These are intended to guide physicians when to order the antineuronal antibody testing and/or facilitate early diagnosis even prior to the availability of the specific disease-confirming test results to facilitate prompt treatment. These diagnostic criteria also include the results of basic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. However, the different antibody-defined AIE subtypes might be highly distinct with regard to their immune pathophysiology, e.g., the pre-dominance of specific IgG subclasses, IgG1, or IgG4, or frequency of paraneoplastic compared to idiopathic origin. Thus, it is conceivable that the results of basic CSF analysis might also be very different. However, this has not been explored systematically. Here, we systematically reviewed the literature about the 10 most important AIE subtypes, AIE with antibodies against NMDA, AMPA, glycine, GABAA , and GABAB receptors as well as DPPX, CASPR2, LGI1, IgLON5, or glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), with respect to the reported basic CSF findings comprising CSF leukocyte count, total protein, and the presence of oligoclonal bands (OCB) restricted to the CSF as a sensitive measure for intrathecal IgG synthesis. Our results indicate that these basic CSF findings are profoundly different among the 10 different AIE subtypes. Whereas, AIEs with antibodies against NMDA, GABAB , and AMPA receptors as well as DPPX show rather frequent inflammatory CSF changes, in AIEs with either CASPR2, LGI1, GABAA , or glycine receptor antibodies CSF findings were mostly normal. Two subtypes, AIEs defined by either GAD, or IgLON5 antibodies, did not fit into this general pattern. In AIE with GAD antibodies, positive OCBs in the absence of other changes were typical, while the CSF in IgLON5 antibody-positive AIE was characterized by elevated protein. Comments You need to log in or sign up for an account to be able to comment. No comments yet, be the first to post one! Related Papers
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Plasma cell depletion with bortezomib in the treatment of refractory N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody encephalitis. Rational developments in neuroimmunological treatment - UCL Discovery

Plasma cell depletion with bortezomib in the treatment of refractory N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody encephalitis. Rational developments in neuroimmunological treatment - UCL Discovery | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
UCL Discovery is UCL's open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
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Encephalitis - Autoimmune Encephalitis with Dr Bo Sun - My Brain and Medicine 2019

Dr Bo Sun gives a presentation on autoimmune encephalitis - it's causes and diagnosis, at the Royal Society of Medicine, April 29th, 2019. He also discusses ...
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Clinical, radiological and laboratory comparison between autoantibody-negative and autoantibody-positive Autoimmune Encephalitis patients. (P2.2-006) | Neurology

Clinical, radiological and laboratory comparison between autoantibody-negative and autoantibody-positive Autoimmune Encephalitis patients. (P2.2-006) | Neurology | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
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Anti-N-Methyl d-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis and Electroconvulsive Therapy: Literature Review and Future Directions. - PubMed - NCBI

Anti-N-Methyl d-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis and Electroconvulsive Therapy: Literature Review and Future Directions. - PubMed - NCBI | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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What are the HLA risk factors for NMDAR autoimmune encephalitis? –

What are the HLA risk factors for NMDAR autoimmune encephalitis? – | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
HLA class II allele DRB1*16:02is associated with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Shu Y, Qiu W, Zheng J, et al. JNNP 2019; 90:652-658. Abstract BACKGROUND: Aetiology and pathogenesis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis, the most common autoimmune encephalitis, is largely unknown.
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Winning Entry for The Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Foundation’s Prize at the 54th Congress of the Canadian Neurological Sciences Federation (CNSF)

Winning Entry for The Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Foundation’s Prize at the 54th Congress of the Canadian Neurological Sciences Federation (CNSF) | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
The Foundation was pleased to sponsor two prizes for the best abstracts in Autoimmune Encephalitis at the recent Conference of the CNSF in Montreal, June ...Read More...
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Rituximab-associated Hypogammaglobulinemia in pediatric patients with autoimmune diseases | Pediatric Rheumatology | Full Text

Rituximab-associated Hypogammaglobulinemia in pediatric patients with autoimmune diseases | Pediatric Rheumatology | Full Text | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Despite the increased use of rituximab in treating pediatric patients with autoimmune diseases in the last decade, there are limited data on rituximab safety in those subjects who have a developing immune system.
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Evaluation of seizure treatment in anti-LGI1, anti-NMDAR, and anti-GABABR encephalitis

Evaluation of seizure treatment in anti-LGI1, anti-NMDAR, and anti-GABABR encephalitis | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
This nationwide cohort study evaluates seizure responses to immunotherapy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in patients with anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1), anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR), and anti-gamma-aminobutyric-acid B receptor (GABA[B] R) ...
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West Nile Virus infection triggering autoimmune encephalitis: Pathophysiological and therapeutic implications. - PubMed - NCBI

West Nile Virus infection triggering autoimmune encephalitis: Pathophysiological and therapeutic implications. - PubMed - NCBI | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Neurosyphilis mimicking autoimmune encephalitis in a 52-year-old man. - PubMed - NCBI

Neurosyphilis mimicking autoimmune encephalitis in a 52-year-old man. - PubMed - NCBI | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Alterations in the human gut microbiome in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis. - PubMed - NCBI

Alterations in the human gut microbiome in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis. - PubMed - NCBI | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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New Onset British Accent, Acute Behavioral Changes, and Seizures: A Unique Presentation of NMDAR Encephalitis. - PubMed - NCBI

New Onset British Accent, Acute Behavioral Changes, and Seizures: A Unique Presentation of NMDAR Encephalitis. - PubMed - NCBI | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Frontiers | Innate Immunity in the Central Nervous System: A Missing Piece of the Autoimmune Encephalitis Puzzle? | Immunology

Frontiers | Innate Immunity in the Central Nervous System: A Missing Piece of the Autoimmune Encephalitis Puzzle? | Immunology | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
The autoimmune encephalitides are a group of autoimmune conditions targeting the central nervous system and causing severe clinical symptoms including drug-resistant seizures, cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric disturbance.
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Gait Disturbance as the Presenting Symptom in Young Children With Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis. - PubMed - NCBI

Gait Disturbance as the Presenting Symptom in Young Children With Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis. - PubMed - NCBI | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Dr. Silky Pahlajani speaker "Autoimmune Encephalitis: The Bridge Between Neurology and Psychiatry"

Dr. Silky Pahlajani is an Assistant Professor of Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychiatry in the department of neurology at Weill Cornell. She is also an Ass...
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Ketamine use in refractory status epilepticus associated with anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis | Read by QxMD

Ketamine use in refractory status epilepticus associated with anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis | Read by QxMD | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Purpose: Anti- N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDAr encephalitis) is an auto-immune disorder associated with the production of antibodies against NR1 and NR2 sub units of the NMDA receptor. Seizures in this population are reported in up to 50% of cases with status epilepticus being reported in 25% of cases, refractory status epilepticus in 13.8% of cases and super-refractory status epilepticus in 10.2% of cases. Treatment of refractory epileptic activity in this population is not uniform and heterogeneous. Methods: We present three cases of super refractory status epilepticus in patients with anti-NMDAr encephalitis treated successfully with ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. All patients had failed to improve clinically on multiple anti-convulsants and immunotherapy prior to initiation of ketamine therapy. Results: In all three cases, administration of a load followed by maintenance infusion (0.05 mg/kg/min infusion) of ketamine yielded clinical and/or electrographic seizure cessation in less than 48 h. Patients were treated for a heterogeneous duration although ultimately, epilepsy outcomes were favorable from a seizure freedom standpoint. Earlier treatments with ketamine were associated with better epilepsy outcomes in this case series. Conclusions: Ketamine may be a useful adjunct treatment in super-refractory status epilepticus in patients with NMDAr encephalitis.
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A Case of HIV Seroconversion Presenting Similarly to Anti- N-methyl- d-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis

A Case of HIV Seroconversion Presenting Similarly to Anti- N-methyl- d-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
1. Herman ST, Abend NS, Bleck TP, et al. Consensus statement on continuous EEG in critically ill adults and children, part I: indications. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2015;32:87–95. CrossRefGoogle Scholar 2. Vitaliani R, Mason W, Ances B, Zwerdling T, Jiang Z, Dalmau J. Paraneoplastic encephalitis, psychiatric symptoms, and hypoventilation in ovarian teratoma. Ann Neurol. 2005;58:594–604. CrossRefGoogle Scholar 3. Dalmau J, Tuzun E, Wu HY, et al. Paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with ovarian teratoma. Ann Neurol. 2007;61:25–36. CrossRefGoogle Scholar 4. Gordon-Lipkin E, Yeshokumar AK, Saylor D, Arenivas A, Probasco JC. Comparative outcomes in children and adults with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis. J Child Neurol. 2017;32:930–5. CrossRefGoogle Scholar 5. Guasp M, Dalmau J. Encephalitis associated with antibodies against the NMDA receptor. Med Clin (Barc). 2018;151:71–9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar 6. Titulaer MJ, McCracken L, Gabilondo I, et al. Treatment and prognostic factors for long-term outcome in patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: an observational cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12:157–65. CrossRefGoogle Scholar 7. Schmitt SE, Pargeon K, Frechette ES, Hirsch LJ, Dalmau J, Friedman D. Extreme delta brush: a unique EEG pattern in adults with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Neurology. 2012;79:1094–100. CrossRefGoogle Scholar 8. Wang J, Wang K, Wu D, Liang H, Zheng X, Luo B. Extreme delta brush guides to the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. J Neurol Sci. 2015;353:81–3. CrossRefGoogle Scholar 9. Foff EP, Taplinger D, Suski J, Lopes MB, Quigg M. EEG findings may serve as a potential biomarker for anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2017;48:48–53. CrossRefGoogle Scholar 10. Dalmau J, Lancaster E, Martinez-Hernandez E, Rosenfeld MR, Balice-Gordon R. Clinical experience and laboratory investigations in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. 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Extreme delta brush and distinctive imaging in a pediatric patient with autoimmune GFAP astrocytopathy. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2018;26:121–3. CrossRefGoogle Scholar 21. Schmidt LS, Kjaer TW, Schmiegelow K, Born AP. EEG with extreme delta brush in young female with methotrexate neurotoxicity supports NMDA receptor involvement. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2017;21:795–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar 22. Farias-Moeller R, Bartolini L, Staso K, Schreiber JM, Carpenter JL. Early ictal and interictal patterns in FIRES: the sparks before the blaze. Epilepsia. 2017;58:1340–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar 23. Baykan B, Gungor Tuncer O, Vanli-Yavuz EN, et al. Delta brush pattern is not unique to NMDAR encephalitis: evaluation of two independent long-term EEG cohorts. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2018;49:278–84. CrossRefGoogle Scholar 24. Graus F, Titulaer MJ, Balu R, et al. A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis. Lancet Neurol. 2016;15:391–404. CrossRefGoogle Scholar 25. Kahn JO, Walker BD. 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An anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis mimicking an HIV encephalitis. - PubMed - NCBI

An anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis mimicking an HIV encephalitis. - PubMed - NCBI | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Encephalitis411 to host Encephalitis Event in the Dallas, Texas area, 21 September 2019

Encephalitis411 to host Encephalitis Event in the Dallas, Texas area, 21 September 2019 | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
We are pleased to share with you the details of an event that will take place in the Dallas, Texas area on September 21, 2019.
The ...Read More...
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Relapse risk factors in anti‐N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate receptor encephalitis - Nosadini - 2019 - Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology - Wiley Online Library

Relapse risk factors in anti‐N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate receptor encephalitis - Nosadini - 2019 - Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology - Wiley Online Library | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Aim To identify factors that may predict and affect the risk of relapse in anti‐N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Method This was a retrospective study of an Italian cohort of pat...
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Serial Brain Positron Emission Tomography Fused to Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Post-Infectious and Autoantibody-Associated Autoimmune Encephalitis

Serial Brain Positron Emission Tomography Fused to Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Post-Infectious and Autoantibody-Associated Autoimmune Encephalitis | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Serial positron emission tomography fused to magnetic resonance imaging showed progression of GAD65 autoimmune encephalitis.
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Ketamine use in refractory status epilepticus associated with anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis. - PubMed - NCBI

Ketamine use in refractory status epilepticus associated with anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis. - PubMed - NCBI | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Autoimmune encephalitis: What has changed during the past 15 years? - Pantoja‐Ruiz - - Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - Wiley Online Library

Autoimmune encephalitis: What has changed during the past 15 years? - Pantoja‐Ruiz - - Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - Wiley Online Library | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
Abstract Non‐infectious encephalitis has been a recognized entity for many years; however, its pathophysiology was not fully understood. Patients (usually women) presented with acute behavioral cha...
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Encephalitis411 to host Encephalitis Event in the Dallas, Texas area, 21 September 2019

Encephalitis411 to host Encephalitis Event in the Dallas, Texas area, 21 September 2019 | AntiNMDA | Scoop.it
We are pleased to share with you the details of an event that will take place in the Dallas, Texas area on September 21, 2019. The event will be hosted by Encephalitis411, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to providing support and raising awareness of all the different types of encephalitis. The upcoming event will feature Dr. Steven Vernino,M.D., Ph.D. of UT Southwestern Medical Center. Dr. Vernino is an adult neurologist with experience treating antibody positive encephalitides, as well as onconeuronal forms of autoimmune encephalitis (AE) and antibody negative cases of AE. What: What you need to know about auto-immune encephalitis and ongoing recovery of all forms of encephalitis When: Sept. 21, 1 - 5:30pm CST Where: Follow Encephalitis411 on Facebook for a live session or attend in person in the Dallas area Who: survivors, caregivers, interested family/friends, healthcare professionals RSVP: Email sunny@encephalitis411.org or text 833.411.3350 with your name and # of attendees in your party For more details: See Encephalitis411.org/events Be sure to mark you calendars!
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