Adolescent Sexuality
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Adolescent Sexuality
Issues related to adolescent sexuality for Stanford Hum Bio Course. Please note that I do not necessarily endorse the viewpoint of any article posted here, but rather want you to pay attention to how various issues related to sexuality are covered in the media. Please send links to any topics or points of view that seem to be missing here.
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Scientists report a 2nd person has been cured of HIV

He is the second known person to experience sustained remission from HIV; the first man, Timothy Ray Brown, was cured 12 years ago. In both cases, the men had cancer and were treated with bone marrow from a donor with the CCR5 mutation; CCR5 is a protein HIV uses to enter certain immune cells.

The London patient underwent the transplant in May 2016, and in September 2017, he stopped taking antiretroviral drugs. He is tested often, and his HIV viral load is undetectable. He asked to remain anonymous, but told The New York Times that hearing he could be cured of cancer and HIV was "overwhelming" and "surreal," as he "never thought that there would be a cure during my lifetime."

Since Brown's case, several people with cancer and HIV have been treated with bone marrow transplants, but in other cases, the virus came back about nine months after they stopped taking their antiretroviral drugs or they died of cancer. While it's not guaranteed that the London patient won't ever have HIV again, researchers are optimistic. "This will inspire people that a cure is not a dream," Dr. Annemarie Wensing, a virologist at the University Medical Center Utrecht in the Netherlands, told the Times. "It's reachable."

A report on the London patient will be published Tuesday in the journal Nature.
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Body weight and academic achievement: The role of weight diversity in urban middle schools. - PsycNET

Body weight and academic achievement: The role of weight diversity in urban middle schools. - PsycNET | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
The current study was designed to examine one possible weight stigma-reduction mechanism: school-level weight diversity. It was hypothesized that greater weight diversity among same-sex peers at school would attenuate the negative association between weight and academic achievement. Across 26 urban public middle schools, 5,991 sixth-grade students (52% girls) were included: 12% African American/Black, 14% East/Southeast Asian, 30% Latino, 21% White, and 23% from other specific ethnic groups. Weight diversity was estimated as the likelihood that two randomly selected students would be from different weight categories, using Simpson’s index. Standardized achievement test scores and grade point average (GPA) were used to assess academic achievement. Consistent with our contextual moderator hypothesis, high levels of weight diversity at school served a protective function. The negative association between body mass index (BMI) and achievement test scores, as well as GPA (girls only) was nonsignificant at schools with high levels of weight diversity. The study results offer a potential explanation for inconsistent findings regarding body weight and achievement, and a novel methodological approach to capture weight diversity in ways that provide new insights for school-based interventions.
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The deadly truth about a world built for men – from stab vests to car crashes 

The deadly truth about a world built for men – from stab vests to car crashes  | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
Films, news, literature, science, city planning, economics, the stories we tell ourselves about our past, present and future, are all marked – disfigured – by a female-shaped “absent presence”. This is the gender data gap. These silences, these gaps, have consequences. They impact on women’s lives, every day. The impact can be relatively minor – struggling to reach a top shelf set at a male height norm, for example. Irritating, certainly. But not life-threatening. Not like crashing in a car whose safety tests don’t account for women’s measurements. Not like dying from a stab wound because your police body armour doesn’t fit you properly. For these women, the consequences of living in a world built around male data can be deadly. The gender data gap is both a cause and a consequence of the type of unthinking that conceives of humanity as almost exclusively male
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Couples’ Sexual Communication and Dimensions of Sexual Function: A Meta-Analysis: The Journal of Sex Research: 

Research and clinical data have shown that couples with sexual problems report a lack of sexual communication. However, no published meta-analyses have evaluated the relationship between sexual communication and sexual function. This meta-analysis examines the correlation between couples’ sexual communication and dimension of sexual function across 48 studies. Sexual communication was positively associated with sexual desire (r = .16), sexual arousal (r = .21), lubrication (r = .17), orgasm (r = .23), erectile function (r = .19), less pain (r = .12), and overall sexual function (r = .35). The effect sizes for sexual desire (r = .21; r = .12) and orgasm (r = .26; r = .16) were higher for women than for men. For overall sexual function, studies with married participants (r = .47) had a larger effect size than studies with participants with multiple relationship types (r = .31) or than studies with dating participants (r = .11). Effect sizes were larger for studies conducted outside of the United States (r = .39) compared to studies conducted in the United States (r = .12). We discuss the importance of addressing the relationship between sexual communication and sexual function, as well as future directions for research in this area.
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As Colorado Moves to Bar Abstinence-Only Sex Education, Teenagers Take the Lead - The New York Times

As Colorado Moves to Bar Abstinence-Only Sex Education, Teenagers Take the Lead - The New York Times | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
Last year, when Clark Wilson was in eighth grade, his sex education teacher repeatedly rolled a piece of tape on a table until it lost its stickiness, using words like “tainted” and “impure” to describe those who engage in premarital sex.

The lesson: “People are like tape and once they have sex they’re dirty and can’t have meaningful relationships,” said Clark, now 15 and a freshman at a Colorado high school in the Denver suburb of Highlands Ranch.

While sex education classes are not mandatory in Colorado, proposed legislation that is widely expected to pass would bar the state’s public and charter schools from abstinence-only education.

Clark was among several students who testified last month in support of the bill, which would also mandate teachings about safe sex, consent and sexual orientation, elements that have prompted a fierce backlash from those who argue they pose an attack on traditional family values and parental rights.
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Emily Quinn: The way we think about biological sex is wrong | TED Talk

Emily Quinn: The way we think about biological sex is wrong | TED Talk | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
Did you know that almost 150 million people worldwide are born intersex -- with biology that doesn't fit the standard definition of male or female? (That's as many as the population of Russia.) At age 10, Emily Quinn found out she was intersex, and in this wise, funny talk, she shares eye-opening lessons from a life spent navigating society's thoughtless expectations, doctors who demanded she get unnecessary surgery -- and advocating for herself and the incredible variety that humans come in. (Contains mature content)
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The secret language of lesbian love

The secret language of lesbian love | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
Over a period of a few months, the BBC spoke to dozens of young lesbians in a country where homosexuality is illegal. They told us about their day-to-day lives and how they use secret memes to connect with each other on social media platforms and chat apps.

We have substituted those images with that of a violet for the purpose of this report. The violet does not belong to the group in Burundi or - to the best of our knowledge - any other LGBT+ groups in East Africa or the Great Lakes.

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‘A Woman, Just Not That Woman’: How Sexism Plays Out on the Trail

‘A Woman, Just Not That Woman’: How Sexism Plays Out on the Trail | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
In the words of her detractors during the 2016 presidential race, Hillary Clinton was abrasive and shrill. She was aloof. She was unlikable.

It’s not a coincidence that some of these adjectives are now bubbling up in discussions of Senators Elizabeth Warren, Kirsten Gillibrand and Kamala Harris as they campaign for the 2020 Democratic nomination.

Few Americans acknowledge they would hesitate to vote for a woman for president — but they don’t have to, according to researchers and experts on politics and women and extensive research on double standards in campaigns. Reluctance to support female candidates is apparent in the language that voters frequently use to describe men and women running for office; in the qualities that voters say they seek; and in the perceived flaws that voters say they are willing or unwilling to overlook in candidates.
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Unpacking body image concerns and disordered eating for transgender women: The roles of sexual objectification and minority stress. - PsycNET

Unpacking body image concerns and disordered eating for transgender women: The roles of sexual objectification and minority stress. - PsycNET | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
Synthesizing both objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) and minority stress theory (Meyer, 2003), the present study used a pantheoretical model of dehumanization (Moradi, 2013) to examine body image concerns and disordered eating symptomatology with 205 transgender women from the United States. Objectification theory constructs (i.e., sexual objectification, internalization of sociocultural standards of attractiveness, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction) and minority stress-related variables (i.e., antitransgender discrimination) were examined as direct and indirect predictors of disordered eating. Results of a latent variable SEM (with a higher-order dehumanization factor comprised of sexual objectification and discrimination) generally provided support for our hypothesized direct and indirect relations. As expected, dehumanization was related directly to internalization and disordered eating and had significant indirect links to body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating via internalization. Potential implications of a pantheoretical model for future research with transgender women are discussed.
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Genius Sex Ed Demo Shows Condom Use Without Breaking Mississippi Law - YouTube

"In Mississippi, where education laws require "stressing" abstinence, teachers areprohibited from "any demonstration of how condoms or other contraceptives are applied." Nonetheless, 76 percent of Mississippi teenagers report having sex before the end of high school, and a third of babies in the state are born to teenage mothers. One teacher came up with a creative solution for imparting some wisdom to students about condoms—watch it below. (And read our full report on draconian sex-ed laws here.)” *
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Opinion | When College Rapists Graduate - The New York Times

Opinion | When College Rapists Graduate - The New York Times | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
If they’re not held accountable at school, what’s to stop them from becoming the villain of another woman’s #MeToo story once they enter the work force?
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What we're really doing when we rehash Kamala Harris's love life - The

What we're really doing when we rehash Kamala Harris's love life - The | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
As of this week, women are running for president — multiple women — and lo, the country has been awarded the chance for a do-over. This time, we swear, we won’t order them to smile more if they really want our votes. This time, we’ll stop using phrases such as “likable enough?” when what we really mean is, “too many ovaries?”

Our collective consciousness has been raised and so we’ll begin by . . . excavating one of the candidate’s decades-old love life?

Sigh.

The candidate in question is Sen. Kamala D. Harris (D-Calif.), whose past relationship with former San Francisco mayor Willie Brown was confirmed for the national media when Brown published an op-ed: Yes, they’d dated. And, yes, he “may have influenced her career” by appointing her to two commissions. But then again, he’d boosted the careers of a lot of people, he wrote. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Gov. Gavin Newsom were examples. Kamala Harris? She was unique, Brown claimed, only in that, “after I helped her, [she] sent word that I would be indicted if I ‘so much as jaywalked’ while she was D.A.”
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Science Says Toxic Masculinity — More Than Alcohol — Leads To Sexual Assault

Science Says Toxic Masculinity — More Than Alcohol — Leads To Sexual Assault | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
Alcohol use was always higher among the men who committed more assaults than among those who committed fewer, but trends in assault weren’t tied to trends in alcohol use. For instance, among men who reported committing fewer assaults over time and men who reported committing more assaults over time, each group drank less as seniors than they did as freshmen. But the men who committed fewer assaults over time also reported falling rates of impulsivity, hostility toward women, and beliefs that supported rape. The men whose rates of assault were going up, in contrast, reported a growing sense of peer support for forced sex, peer pressure, pornography use, and hostility toward women.

That makes sense if you think about it, Parrott said. After all, we know that not all men who drink, even excessively, commit sexual violence. Even men who do commit sexual violence don’t do it every time they drink — and will also do it sober. Effectively, alcohol isn’t an excuse. “We don’t want to say, ‘Well, he was drinking so that’s why he assaulted her. It’s not his fault,’” he said.

Instead, current research suggests that prevention should focus on those perceptions and behaviors that did strongly predict assault. Although they’re often referred to in the literature as “personality variables,” they aren’t immutable characteristics any more than personality itself is immutable. “There’s a small number of sociopaths, but there’s a lot of it that’s cultural,” Testa said. In other words: Are these men supported by peers who also voice negative attitudes about women? Is it considered socially acceptable to look for the drunkest girl at a party and try to take her home? Are there social consequences for young men who ignore consent?
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The Gay History of America’s Classic Children’s Books - The New York Times

The Gay History of America’s Classic Children’s Books - The New York Times | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
From “Frog and Toad” to “Where the Wild Things Are,” many of the most enduring 20th-century titles share a secret language of queer compassion.
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Why Schools Have Such Strict Bathroom Rules

Why Schools Have Such Strict Bathroom Rules | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
Most people probably take their bathroom privileges for granted, heading to the toilet in their home or office whenever the need arises without thinking much about it. But at school, children don’t always have that luxury.

A recent survey by the Society for Women’s Health Research found that schools often disregard kids’ restroom rights, often by failing to have a bathroom rule on the books and provide staff with education on bladder health. Absent official policies, parents and doctors tell me, many teachers come up with their own regulations, which anecdotes suggest can border on the absurd. I heard about a teacher who allegedly stipulated that her students could only go to the restroom during class time once every two months, for instance, and read about some school districts routinely locking restrooms at lunchtime or after school to discourage misbehavior.
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United Methodist delegates reject recognizing gay marriage

United Methodist delegates reject recognizing gay marriage | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it


ST. LOUIS (AP) — The United Methodist Church, America’s second-largest Protestant denomination, faces a likely surge in defections and acts of defiance after delegates at a crucial conference voted Tuesday to strengthen the faith’s divisive bans on same-sex marriage and ordination of LGBT clergy.

Emotions were high throughout the third and final day of the UMC’s meeting. Some supporters of greater LGBT inclusion were in tears, while others vented their anger when, midway through the session, delegates defeated a proposal that would have let regional and local church bodies decide for themselves on gay-friendly policies.

“Devastation,” was how former Methodist pastor Rebecca Wilson of Detroit described her feelings. “As someone who left because I’m gay, I’m waiting for the church I love to stop bringing more hate.”

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Evidence of Diverse Identities in a Large National Sample of Sexual and Gender Minority Adolescents - Watson - - Journal of Research on Adolescence - Wiley Online Library


Adolescence is a time of identity exploration, and preliminary evidence indicates the ways adolescents are describing their sexual and gender identities (SOGI) are changing. A nuanced understanding of SOGI is necessary for valid assessment in developmental research. Current measures do not capture the diversity of emerging identities among young people. Our study analyzed a national sample of 17,112 sexual and gender minority adolescents (13–17 years) to better understand how identity labels are reported across sexual, gender, and ethnoracial minorities. Adolescents reported 26 distinct SOGI categories; 24% of adolescents utilized nontraditional SOGI labels, such as pansexual and nonbinary. These identifications varied significantly as a function of ethnoracial identity. Results have implications for how scholars conceptualize and measure SOGI among adolescents.
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Women Get Bored With Sex in Long-Term Relationships

Women Get Bored With Sex in Long-Term Relationships | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
Marta Meana of the University of Nevada at Las Vegas spelled it out simply in an interview with me at the annual Society for Sex Therapy and Research conference in 2017. “Long-term relationships are tough on desire, and particularly on female desire,” she said. I was startled by her assertion, which contradicted just about everything I’d internalized over the years about who and how women are sexually. Somehow I, along with nearly everyone else I knew, was stuck on the idea that women are in it for the cuddles as much as the orgasms, and—besides—actually require emotional connection and familiarity to thrive sexually, whereas men chafe against the strictures of monogamy.
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Defying Trump, Calif. National Guard Won't Discharge Trans Troops

Defying Trump, Calif. National Guard Won't Discharge Trans Troops | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
One of the highest-ranking officers in the California National Guard told lawmakers on Tuesday that the state will not discharge transgender soldiers from its ranks — even as President Trump’s administration makes strides in doing so.

“As long as you fight, we don’t care what gender you identify as,” said Maj. Gen. Matthew Beevers, who serves as assistant adjutant general for the California National Guard. "Nobody's going to kick you out.” he said. 

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Mexican scientist cures the Human Papilloma Virus

Mexican scientist cures the Human Papilloma Virus | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
Eva Ramón Gallegos, a researcher from Mexico National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) was able to completely eradicate the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in 29 patients.

This scientific achievement was accomplished through photodynamic therapy, a non-invasive technique that seems to be an efficient method to prevent malignant neoplasm, which is the second cause of death among Mexican women.

The scientists from the National Biological Sciences School explained that she has studied the effects of photodynamic therapy for 20 years and said she was treated 420 patients in Oaxaca and Veracruz with this method, as well as 29 women in Mexico City.

“During the first stage of the investigation, when it was used to treat women in Oaxaca and Veracruz, the results were encouraging. The treatment was also very positive when applied to women in Mexico City, which opens the possibility of making the treatment more efficient,” she said.

She also explained that besides eradicating HPV, the main cause behind cervical cancer, photodynamic therapy is also used to eliminate premalignant lesions of cervical cancer in its first stages. The results of her investigation show that she was able to eradicate HPV in 100% of the patients who had the virus but had no premalignant lesions, 64.3% in women with HPV and lesions, and 57.2% in women who had lesions but don't have HPV.

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Gender Bias in Pediatric Pain Assessment | Journal of Pediatric Psychology | Oxford Academic

Gender Bias in Pediatric Pain Assessment | Journal of Pediatric Psychology | Oxford Academic | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
Accurate assessment of pain is central to diagnosis and treatment in healthcare, especially in pediatrics. However, few studies have examined potential biases in adult observer ratings of children’s pain. Cohen, Cobb, & Martin (2014. Gender biases in adult ratings of pediatric pain. Children’s Health Care, 43, 87–95) reported that adult participants rated a child undergoing a medical procedure as feeling more pain when the child was described as a boy as compared to a girl, suggesting a possible gender bias. To confirm, clarify, and extend this finding, we conducted a replication experiment and follow-up study examining the role of explicit gender stereotypes in shaping such asymmetric judgments.
Methods
In an independent, pre-registered, direct replication and extension study with open data and materials (https://osf.io/t73c4/), we showed participants the same video from Cohen et al. (2014), with the child described as a boy or a girl depending on condition. We then asked adults to rate how much pain the child experienced and displayed, how typical the child was in these respects, and how much they agreed with explicit gender stereotypes concerning pain response in boys versus girls.
Results
Similar to Cohen et al. (2014), but with a larger and more demographically diverse sample, we found that the “boy” was rated as experiencing more pain than the “girl” despite identical clinical circumstances and identical pain behavior across conditions. Controlling for explicit gender stereotypes eliminated the effect.
Conclusions
Explicit gender stereotypes—for example, that boys are more stoic or girls are more emotive—may bias adult assessment of children’s pain.
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Monique W. Morris: Why black girls are targeted for punishment at school -- and how to change that | TED Talk

Monique W. Morris: Why black girls are targeted for punishment at school -- and how to change that | TED Talk | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
A recent study by the Georgetown Center on Poverty and Inequality partially explained why this disparity is taking place when they confirmed that black girls experience a specific type of age compression, where they're seen as more adult-like than their white peers. Among other things, the study found that people perceive black girls to need less nurturing, less protection, to know more about sex and to be more independent than their white peers. The study also found that the perception disparity begins when girls are as young as five years old. And that this perception and the disparity increases over time and peaks when girls are between the ages of 10 and 14. This is not without consequence. Believing that a girl is older than she is can lead to harsher treatment, immediate censure when she makes a mistake and victim blaming when she's harmed. It can also lead a girl to think that something is wrong with her, rather than the conditions in which she finds herself.
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Why P.E. Fails at Solving Problems Such as Obesity

Why P.E. Fails at Solving Problems Such as Obesity | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
It’s almost too easy to satirize physical education, better known by its eye-roll-inducing abbreviation P.E. From Clueless to Superbad to Spiderman: Homecoming, parodies of gym class are a pop-culture darling. Perhaps that’s because they speak to one of America’s fundamental truths: For many kids, P.E. is terrible.

A recent working paper focused on a massive P.E. initiative in Texas captures this reality. Analyzing data out of the state’s Texas Fitness Now program—a $37 million endeavor to improve middle schoolers’ fitness, academic achievement, and behavior by requiring them to participate in P.E. every day—the researchers concluded that the daily mandate didn’t have any positive impact on kids’ health or educational outcome. On the contrary: They found that the program, which ran from 2007 to 2011, actually had detrimental effects, correlating with an uptick in discipline and absence rates.
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‘Secrets’ play demystifies sex ed: Performance is part of Sequoia’s push for better education, resources | Local News | smdailyjournal.com

‘Secrets’ play demystifies sex ed: Performance is part of Sequoia’s push for better education, resources | Local News | smdailyjournal.com | Adolescent Sexuality | Scoop.it
Demystifying sex ed is the mission of a performance put on by health care provider Kaiser Permanente, part of a bigger effort by school districts like the Sequoia Union High School District to better educate teens on safe sex and abstinence.

“Secrets” is performed for groups of 200 or more and works to dispel myths about human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infections, including the fact it only takes a cotton swab sample of saliva to test for HIV antibodies. Students at Menlo-Atherton High School had a chance to see the performance Monday.

“It’s engaging and students remember it,” said Menlo-Atherton Principal Matthew Zito. “It’s not by middle-aged teachers, it’s by young people approximately the same age or generation. … All the initiatives together can really reinforce the message of safe sex or perhaps even delaying sex and focusing on what we want them to focus on, academics.
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