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Cladosporium fulvum Effectors: Weapons in the Arms Race with Tomato | Annual Review of Phytopathology

Cladosporium fulvum Effectors: Weapons in the Arms Race with Tomato | Annual Review of Phytopathology | xiao lin | Scoop.it
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#Must read!
#Scientific career 
 
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The Plant Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Is Genetically Monomorphic and under Strong Selection to Evade Tomato Immunity

The Plant Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Is Genetically Monomorphic and under Strong Selection to Evade Tomato Immunity | xiao lin | Scoop.it
Author Summary Our knowledge of the recent evolution of bacterial human pathogens has increased dramatically over the last five years. By comparison, relatively little is known about recent evolution of bacterial plant pathogens. Here, we analyze a large collection of isolates of the economically important plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato with markers derived from the comparison of five genomes of this pathogen. We find that this pathogen likely evolved on a relatively recent time scale and continues to adapt to tomato by minimizing its recognition by the tomato immune system. We find that an allele of the flagellin subunit fliC that appeared in the pathogen population for the first time in the 1980s, and which is the most common allele of this gene in North America and Europe today, triggers a weaker tomato immune response than the fliC allele found in the 1960s and 1970s. These results not only impact our understanding of pathogen – plant interactions and pathogen evolution but also have important ramifications for disease prevention. Given the speed with which new pathogen strains spread and replace existing strains, limiting the movement of specific strains between geographic regions is critically important, even for pathogens known to have worldwide distribution.
Xiao Lin's insight:
# Identification of a new bacterial MAMPs flgII-28, other than the classical flg22.
# MAMPs are more variable than expected, even between almost identical isolates of the same pathogen strain.
# MAMPs are also under strong selection pressure
# The durable resistance of PRRs??
 
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Opinion: The Planet Needs More Plant Scientists | The Scientist Magazine®

Opinion: The Planet Needs More Plant Scientists | The Scientist Magazine® | xiao lin | Scoop.it
Academia is not producing sufficient PhDs in the plant sciences to solve the crop production challenges facing a rapidly growing population.

Via Elsa Ballini
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Tomato receptor FLAGELLIN-SENSING 3 binds flgII-28 and activates the plant immune system

Tomato receptor FLAGELLIN-SENSING 3 binds flgII-28 and activates the plant immune system | xiao lin | Scoop.it

Abstract

Plants and animals detect the presence of potential pathogens through the perception of conserved microbial patterns by cell surface receptors. Certain solanaceous plants, including tomato, potato and pepper, detect flgII-28, a region of bacterial flagellin that is distinct from that perceived by the well-characterized FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 receptor. Here we identify and characterize the receptor responsible for this recognition in tomato, called FLAGELLIN-SENSING 3. This receptor binds flgII-28 and enhances immune responses leading to a reduction in bacterial colonization of leaf tissues. Further characterization of FLS3 and its signalling pathway could provide new insights into the plant immune system and transfer of the receptor to other crop plants offers the potential of enhancing resistance to bacterial pathogens that have evolved to evade FLS2-mediated immunity. 

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Xiao Lin's insight:
# Certain solanaceous plants, including tomato, potato and pepper, detect flgII-28
# perception occurs independently of FLS2
# FLS3 is cloned from tomato heirloom varieties by "mapping-by-sequencing" approach
# Phenotyping by detecting ROS not visible cell death
# Phylogenetically, FLS3 evolved independently to FLS2, EFR and XA21.
# BAK1 dependent
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Oncotarget: Plant immune receptor decoy: Pathogens in their own trap (2015)

Oncotarget: Plant immune receptor decoy: Pathogens in their own trap (2015) | xiao lin | Scoop.it

Microbial pathogens have evolved sophisticated strategies to infect their hosts, often resulting in disease. The host, in turn, can produce novel proteins (receptors or antibodies) that recognize pathogen molecules to trigger defense. Unlike animals, plants do not possess any adaptive immunity to defend themselves against pathogens. Therefore, they rely entirely on their genetic resistance capability (innate immunity) conferred by a family of receptors expressed in individual cells. The plant innate immune system can be divided into two layers of defense. The first, known as pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) leading to basal defense, involves the recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by corresponding plasma membrane pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). PTI can be suppressed by specific pathogen virulence factors (known as effectors). To detect such pathogen molecules or their interference with host proteins, plants have evolved a second layer of defense, known as effector-triggered immunity (ETI) [1]. ETI is mediated by intracellular nucleotide-binding–leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) that resemble mammalian NLRs [2]. The speed with which microbial populations can produce new effectors places enormous pressure on plant hosts to fight back with genetically new or altered receptor recognition modes.

 

Alice Delga, Clémentine Le Roux and Laurent Deslandes

 

 


Via Nicolas Denancé
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