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EUROPE : Europe's first farmers used manure 8,000 years ago

EUROPE : Europe's first farmers used manure 8,000 years ago | World Neolithic | Scoop.it

A new study says Europe's first farmers used far more sophisticated practices than was previously thought. A research team led by the University of Oxford has found that Neolithic farmers manured and watered their crops as early as 6,000 BC.

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DOMESTICATION : How rice twice became a crop and twice became a weed -- and what it means for the future

DOMESTICATION : How rice twice became a crop and twice became a weed -- and what it means for the future | World Neolithic | Scoop.it
The evolutionary biologist Stephen Jay Gould once asked whether the living world would be different "if the tape were played twice." If there were a duplicate Earth evolving quietly beside ours, would we observe the emergence of creatures like...
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EUROPE : Ancient farmers manured the land

EUROPE : Ancient farmers manured the land | World Neolithic | Scoop.it
Europe's first farmers used sophisticated muckspreading techniques to keep their land fertile some eight millennia ago, according to new research.
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GB : One of Europe's oldest decorative wood carvings unearthed on Welsh mountainside

GB : One of Europe's oldest decorative wood carvings unearthed on Welsh mountainside | World Neolithic | Scoop.it
The timber - with intricate pattern on one side and oval motif at one end - is thought to be a marker post for a tribal boundary, hunting ground or sacred site
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PORTUGAL : 8,000 year old grave dug up by Lisbon

PORTUGAL : 8,000 year old grave dug up by Lisbon | World Neolithic | Scoop.it

A grave dating back some 8,000 years has been discovered by a team of archeologists from the University of Lisbon and Spain's University of Cantabria, at a dig near Alcaçer do Sal in the Alentejo, it was revealed this week.

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EUROPE : Researchers Discover First Use of Fertilizer

EUROPE : Researchers Discover First Use of Fertilizer | World Neolithic | Scoop.it

Europe's first farmers helped spread a revolutionary way of living across the continent. They also spread something else. A new study reveals that these early agriculturalists were fertilizing their crops with manure 8000 years ago, thousands of years earlier than previously thought.

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PARUTION : Crop manuring and intensive land management by Europe’s first farmers

PARUTION : Crop manuring and intensive land management by Europe’s first farmers | World Neolithic | Scoop.it

The spread of farming from western Asia to Europe had profound long-term social and ecological impacts, but identification of the specific nature of Neolithic land management practices and the dietary contribution of early crops has been problematic. Here, we present previously undescribed stable isotope determinations of charred cereals and pulses from 13 Neolithic sites across Europe (dating ca. 5900–2400 cal B.C.), which show that early farmers used livestock manure and water management to enhance crop yields. Intensive manuring inextricably linked plant cultivation and animal herding and contributed to the remarkable resilience of these combined practices across diverse climatic zones. Critically, our findings suggest that commonly applied paleodietary interpretations of human and herbivore δ15N values have systematically underestimated the contribution of crop-derived protein to early farmer diets.

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MAROC : S.M. le Roi Mohammed VI et le Souverain espagnol inaugurent à Rabat l’exposition «25 années de coopération archéologique maroco-espagnole»

MAROC : S.M. le Roi Mohammed VI et le Souverain espagnol inaugurent à Rabat l’exposition «25 années de coopération archéologique maroco-espagnole» | World Neolithic | Scoop.it

Sa Majesté le Roi Mohammed VI, que Dieu l’assiste, accompagné de S.A.R. le Prince Moulay Rachid, et Sa Majesté le Roi Juan Carlos 1er d’Espagne ont procédé, mardi à Rabat, à l’inauguration de l’exposition «25 années de coopération archéologique maroco-espagnole : de Jbala à Drâa entre la préhistoire et l’Âge moderne».

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FRANCE : Vernègues – Cazan ; Le Clos du Moulin

Un important habitat néolithique

À Cazan, sur la commune de Vernègues et en bordure de la nationale 7, une fouille archéologique qui a duré trois mois vient de s'achever le 31 mai dernier. Sur ce site, une équipe d'archéologues de la société Archeodunum a mis au jour les vestiges d'un important habitat daté aux alentours de 4000 ans avant notre ère, soit de la période du Néolithique moyen.Cette opération a été réalisée préalablement à la construction d'un lotissement réalisé par la société PACA Expansion et elle a concerné une surface de 11 000 m⊃2; prescrite par le SRA Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur.Le décapage exhaustif de cette zone a permis la mise au jour de plus de 700 structures qui se rapportent  pratiquement toutes à une occupation homogène du Néolithique. La plupart de ces structures correspond à des trous de poteau dont les implantations nous permettent de percevoir entre sept et dix plans de maisons. Il s'agit d'édifices d'environ 8 m de large pour 18 m de long qui présentent trois lignes parallèles de poteaux soutenant une toiture à deux pans. Ces maisons possèdent une même orientation garantissant une meilleure solidité face aux vents dominants et certaines sont espacées régulièrement sur une même ligne. Enfin, deux autres bâtiments devaient posséder des poteaux très imposants et implantés profondément, ce qui laisse penser à des édifices monumentaux pouvant avoir une fonction autre que domestique.À côté de ces aménagements, la fouille a permis la mise au jour de deux sépultures et de plusieurs puits, silos, fosses dépotoirs et foyers à pierres chauffées. Toutes ces structures illustrent les différentes activités domestiques réalisées aux abords des maisons et elles ont aussi livré les vestiges matériels de la vie quotidienne. Parmi ceux-ci, les fragments de poteries sont les plus courants avec les outils en silex ou en obsidienne, des meules et les restes des animaux consommés. Dans un puits a aussi été découverte une alène en cuivre. Cet élément est exceptionnel, car il rejoint les très rares premiers objets en métal qui signent les prémices du développement de la métallurgie en Europe occidentale.Pour cette période du Néolithique dans le sud de la France, si beaucoup de vestiges avaient été mis au jour jusqu'à maintenant, aucun habitat structuré n'était encore réellement connu. Le site de Cazan vient donc combler une lacune importante tout en livrant une très grande richesse d'informations qui laissent envisager un statut particulier à cet habitat. Les travaux s'orientent maintenant vers des études en laboratoire pour analyser toutes ces découvertes. Elles pourront ainsi améliorer la compréhension de l'occupation humaine en Provence durant le Néolithique.

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IRLANDE : Ancient Irish Fort Damaged by “Thugs”

IRLANDE : Ancient Irish Fort Damaged by “Thugs” | World Neolithic | Scoop.it

COUNTY DONEGAL, IRELAND—A group of drunken partiers has been blamed for damaging An Grianan Fort, a circular stone fort that may date as early as 1700 B.C. Stones were pulled from its walls, and tourists were reportedly abused by the vandals. Police officer Eddie Doherty said he found women’s underwear, human excrement, and beer bottles when he arrived at the site. “This monument is one of the best preserved of its kind and I visited it myself some months ago…It has stood the test of time by many invading armies over the years and then this group of thugs come along and invade it and start to dismantle it from the inside,” commented Judge Paul Kelly. Two men have pleaded guilty to throwing historic stones and empty cans of beer. 

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GB : Fund in Schottland: Der älteste Kalender der Welt

GB : Fund in Schottland: Der älteste Kalender der Welt | World Neolithic | Scoop.it
Auf einem Feld in Schottland haben Archäologen offenbar den ältesten Kalender der Welt entdeckt: Zwölf Gruben erlaubten bereits vor mehr als 10.000 Jahren eine Zeitbestimmung. Die Steinzeituhr könnte das Zusammenleben radikal verändert haben.
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EUROPE : Manure used by Europe's first farmers 8,000 years ago

A new study says Europe's first farmers used far more sophisticated practices than was previously thought. A research team led by the University of Oxford has found that Neolithic farmers manured and watered their crops as early as 6,000 BC.

It had always been assumed that manure wasn't used as a fertiliser until Iron Age and Roman times. However, this new research shows that enriched levels of nitrogen-15, a stable isotope abundant in manure, have been found in the charred cereal grains and pulse seeds taken from 13 Neolithic sites around Europe.

The findings are published in the early edition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The study suggests that Neolithic farmers used the dung from their herds of cattle, sheep, goats and pigs as a slow release fertiliser for crops.

Manuring involves a long-term investment in arable land because dung breaks down slowly and crops benefit from its nutrients over many years. This new theory indicates a long-term approach to farming.

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INDONESIE : Barang Antik Batuwarno Ditengarai dari Jaman Neolithikum »

INDONESIE : Barang Antik Batuwarno Ditengarai dari Jaman Neolithikum » | World Neolithic | Scoop.it

Sejumlah barang antik yang ditemukan warga Dusun Badran RT 2/ RW 4 Batuwarno, Wonogiri bernama Maryono (48), ditengarai berasal dari jaman prasejarah. Lebih spesifik dari jaman neolithikum atau batu muda sekitar 2000 hingga 1000 sebelum masehi (SM).

Hal ini diperkuat pernyataan bahwa wilayah Wonogiri merupakan semacam daerah penghubung antara Pacitan dengan Gunung Kidul (Daerah Istimewa Jogjakarta). Dimana kedua daerah itu banyak ditemukan fosil dan artefak.

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GB: Help float Dover's Bronze Age boat!

GB: Help float Dover's Bronze Age boat! | World Neolithic | Scoop.it

Canterbury Archaeological Trust (CAT) is using the crowd-funding site Kickstarter to raise funds towards a replica of the Dover Bronze Age boat. The replica sewn-plank boat has already been built using oak timbers, bronze tools and authentic techniques but more funding is needed to take it to sea for the first time. 

Although half-scale, the boat measures 8m long and weighs about a ton. Having acted as the centrepiece of a major exhibition which has toured France and Belgium, the replica boat now needs to be stripped down and re-stitched ahead of taking it to sea.

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GB : Stone Age post found at wind farm

GB : Stone Age post found at wind farm | World Neolithic | Scoop.it
A wooden carving that is thought to be one of the oldest artefacts of its kind in Europe is unearthed at a wind farm development in south Wales.
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EUROPE : Stone Age Farmers Showed Sophisticated Use of Fertilizers

EUROPE : Stone Age Farmers Showed Sophisticated Use of Fertilizers | World Neolithic | Scoop.it
Irrigation and manuring were common in Stone Age agriculture, and grains may have been more commonly eaten than previously thought.
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GB : 10,000 year old calendar discovered in Scotland

GB : 10,000 year old calendar discovered in Scotland | World Neolithic | Scoop.it

British archaeology experts have discovered what they believe to be the world’s oldest ‘calendar’, created by hunter-gatherer societies and dating back to around 8,000 BC.

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EGYPTE : 'Abu Rawash' First Dynasty Funerary Boats Began to Be Restored

The "Abu Rawash" First Dynasty funerary boats began to be restored. The restoration laboratory of the Grand Egyptian Museum began the restoration works starting with the two wooden sheets of the funerary boats, said Al-Hussein Abdel Baseer, the Supervisor General of the Grand Egyptian Museum Project.

A French archaeological mission has already unearthed wooden sheets of funerary boats that belong to an early Egyptian king's era, dating back to 3000 BC in "Abu Rawash" area northeast of Giza. The mission discovered the funeral boat of King Den northeast of Giza Plateau, indicating earlier presence at the Archaic period cemetery.

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ESPAGNE : Vigaña entra en la casa del Neolítico

ESPAGNE : Vigaña entra en la casa del Neolítico | World Neolithic | Scoop.it
Las excavaciones en la localidad belmontina descubren la primera cabaña de la Edad de Piedra conocida en Asturias, de hace unos 6.000 años
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EUROPE : Ancient farmers used manure on crops

EUROPE : Ancient farmers used manure on crops | World Neolithic | Scoop.it
Europe's first farmers used livestock manure on their crops 8,000 years ago, new research shows.
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FRANCE : Ateliers jeune public à Bougon

FRANCE : Ateliers jeune public à Bougon | World Neolithic | Scoop.it
Outre ses visites guidées (du mardi au dimanche à 14 h et 16 h et le jeudi à 14 h 30 en anglais), le musée des Tumulus de Bougon propose des ateliers jeune ...
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CUBA : Cuba Cataloging Its Pre-Columbian Sites, Over 3,000 Identified |

CUBA : Cuba Cataloging Its Pre-Columbian Sites, Over 3,000 Identified  | | World Neolithic | Scoop.it
A project to catalogue Cuba\'s pre-Columbian archaeological sites has pinpointed the locations of more than 3,200 indigenous settlements,
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GB : 'World's oldest calendar' in field

GB : 'World's oldest calendar' in field | World Neolithic | Scoop.it
Archaeologists believe they have discovered the world's oldest known calendar in an Aberdeenshire field.
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GB : Bradford academics help discover 'world's oldest calendar'

GB : Bradford academics help discover 'world's oldest calendar' | World Neolithic | Scoop.it
A team of British archaeology experts, including two from Bradford University, have discovered what they believe to be the world’s oldest ‘calendar’.
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FRANCE : Des fouilles archéologiques préventives sur le tracé du BUN

FRANCE : Des fouilles archéologiques préventives sur le tracé du BUN | World Neolithic | Scoop.it
Un chantier de fouilles préventives menées par le service archéologique de Toulouse Métropole, débute aujourd’hui, sur le tracé du Boulevard urbain nord (BUN), future infrastructure de transport multimodale allant du quartier de Borderouge à la ...
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