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Utility to launch solar programme for low-income customers

Utility to launch solar programme for low-income customers | Climate | Scoop.it
The new pilot programme to make renewable energy available for low-income customers proposed by the utility Con Edison has recently been approved by the New York State Public Service Commission (PSC).
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A new, free, online tool helps citizens assess mega dams' economic and environmental viability

A new, free, online tool helps citizens assess mega dams' economic and environmental viability | Climate | Scoop.it
Dams built in the Amazon, Mekong and elsewhere are doing great environmental and social damage, washing away their green credentials. Now, a new too
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11 leading companies pledge to recycle 100% packaging

11 leading companies pledge to recycle 100% packaging | Climate | Scoop.it
At the World Economic Forum in Davos, 11 companies have announced that they will work towards using 100 percent reusable, recyclable or compostable packaging by 2025 or earlier

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What Do Talented Teachers Do? via @TeacherToolkit

What Do Talented Teachers Do? via @TeacherToolkit | Climate | Scoop.it
What do talented teachers do? Yes, qualifications are important but so are empathy and citizenship, two vital qualities that really demand our attention.
Via Stephania Savva, Ph.D, juandoming
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Ivon Prefontaine, PhD's curator insight, September 8, 2017 2:24 PM
Good teaching is about forming relationships with students that bring meaning to their learnng and one's teaching.
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Bendable electronic paper displays a full color range

Bendable electronic paper displays a full color range | Climate | Scoop.it

Less than a micrometer thin, bendable and giving all the colors that a regular LED display does, it still needs ten times less energy than a Kindle tablet. Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have developed the basis for a new electronic "paper." Their results were recently published in the journal Advanced Materials.

When Chalmers researcher Andreas Dahlin and his PhD student Kunli Xiong were working on placing conductive polymers on nanostructures, they discovered that the combination would be perfectly suited to creating electronic displays as thin as paper. A year later the results were ready for publication. A material that is less than a micrometer thin, flexible and giving all the colors that a standard LED display does.

"The 'paper' is similar to the Kindle tablet," says Andreas Dahlin. "It isn't lit up like a standard display, but rather reflects the external light which illuminates it. Therefore it works very well where there is bright light, such as out in the sun, in contrast to standard LED displays that work best in darkness. At the same time it needs only a tenth of the energy that a Kindle tablet uses, which itself uses much less energy than a tablet LED display."

It all depends on the polymers' ability to control how light is absorbed and reflected. The polymers that cover the whole surface lead the electric signals throughout the full display and create images in high resolution. The material is not yet ready for application, but the basis is there. The team has tested and built a few pixels. These use the same red, green and blue (RGB) colors that together can create all the colors in standard LED displays. The results so far have been positive, what remains now is to build pixels that cover an area as large as a display.

"We are working at a fundamental level but even so, the step to manufacturing a product out of it shouldn't be too far away. What we need now are engineers."

One obstacle today is that there is gold and silver in the display, which makes the manufacturing expensive. "The gold surface is 20 nanometers thick so there is not that much gold in it," says Andreas Dahlin. "But at present there is a lot of gold wasted in manufacturing it. Either we reduce the waste or we find another way to decrease the manufacturing cost."


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Mysterious origin of European bison revealed using DNA and cave art

Mysterious origin of European bison revealed using DNA and cave art | Climate | Scoop.it

Threatened forest icon may be a hybrid of two extinct species.

The European bison (Bison bonasus) may be the continent’s largest land mammal, but its origins have long been a mystery. Hunted for millennia and pushed into the wild corners of Europe as agriculture expanded, the bison — also known as wisent — were reduced to just a few zoo specimens by the late 1920s. Today, a semi-wild population roams Białowieża Forest, near the Poland–Belarus border, where they slip between hornbeams and mighty oaks, their curly coats and horns lending an aura of the Pleistocene to the ancient forest. It took a reach into the past using ancient DNA and cave art to unveil the wisent’s origin story. Researchers published the species’ family tree on 19 October in Nature Communications1.

The team took almost a decade to complete their work. Much of the analysis used ancient mitochondrial DNA derived from 65 bison specimens ranging from 14,000 to more than 50,000 years ago. But it wasn’t until technological advances made it possible to examine nuclear DNA that researchers were able to produce a coherent family tree.

According to the team’s analysis, the wisent is a hybrid of two extinct animals: the steppe bison (Bison priscus), the Eurasian ancestor of the American bison, and the aurochs (Bos primigenius), the ancestor of modern cattle. The steppe bison went extinct more than 11,000 years ago and the last aurochs was shot in 1627. From the DNA evidence researchers estimate that hybridization took place 120,000 or more years ago. In most cases, hybrid animals are less fertile and fit than their parents. But in this case, a whole new species seems to have taken flight.


Via Integrated DNA Technologies, Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Long-term, hi-res tracking of eruptions on Jupiter’s moon Io

Long-term, hi-res tracking of eruptions on Jupiter’s moon Io | Climate | Scoop.it

Jupiter’s moon Io continues to be the most volcanically active body in the solar system, as documented by the longest series of frequent, high-resolution observations of the moon’s thermal emission ever obtained.

Using near-infrared adaptive optics on two of the world’s largest telescopes — the 10-meter Keck II and the 8-meter Gemini North, both located near the summit of the dormant volcano Maunakea in Hawaii — UC Berkeley astronomers tracked 48 volcanic hot spots on the surface over a period of 29 months from August 2013 through the end of 2015.


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Clouds seen on Jupiter extend hundreds of kilometers down into the atmosphere

Clouds seen on Jupiter extend hundreds of kilometers down into the atmosphere | Climate | Scoop.it
“Jupiter’s colorful bands originate several hundred kilometers beneath the cloud tops, the Juno spacecraft reveals.”

Jupiter’s clouds have deep roots. The multicolored bands that wrap around the planet reach hundreds of kilometers down into the atmosphere, NASA’s Juno spacecraft reveals, providing an unprecedented peek into the giant planet’s interior.

“Whatever’s making those colors and stripes still exists pretty far down,” planetary scientist Scott Bolton, head of the Juno mission, said October 19 at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society’s Division for Planetary Sciences. “That came as a surprise to many scientists.” Until now, researchers weren’t sure if Jupiter’s stripes were just blemishes atop the clouds or extended farther inward. The bands reach at least 350 to 400 kilometers beneath the cloud deck, Bolton reported in a news conference.

Juno arrived at Jupiter on July 4 and made its first up-close investigation of the planet on August 27 (SN: 10/1/16, p. 13). Coming within 5,000 kilometers of the cloud tops, Juno recorded the intensity of radio waves emanating from the planet. Different frequencies come from different depths; low frequencies originate from deep in the atmosphere while high frequencies originate higher up.

“Deep down, Jupiter is similar but also very different than what we see on the surface,” said Bolton, of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. Some bands broaden while others vanish. “We can’t tell what all of it means yet, but it’s telling us hints about the deep dynamics and chemistry of Jupiter’s atmosphere.”


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Objects beyond Neptune provide fresh evidence for Planet Nine

Objects beyond Neptune provide fresh evidence for Planet Nine | Climate | Scoop.it

Discovery of icy worlds in the distant solar system offer new clues in searches for hypothetical giant.

New solar system objects used to be a distraction for Konstantin Batygin, a planetary scientist and theorist at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena. Each discovery added another complication to his computer models of the solar system, which twirl planetoids around the sun. But now, Batygin is eager to find more of the objects himself, and missed opportunities pain him. In late September and early October, cloudy skies foiled a 6-night run at the Subaru Telescope atop Mauna Kea in Hawaii. All you can do, he says, is “just sit quietly and wait for things to get slightly better.”

What drew Batygin into the hunt is the ultimate prize: a new planet, the first to be added to our solar system in more than a century. Colloquially called Planet Nine, this distant hypothetical world could have 10 times the mass of Earth and take 15,000 years to go around the sun. This past January, Batygin and Mike Brown, a Caltech astronomer, proposed that the giant could explain the peculiarly clustered orbits of six icy bodies beyond Neptune. Now, several teams, including Batygin and Brown’s, are racing to spot Planet Nine directly.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Wildlife in decline: Earth's vertebrates fall 58% in past four decades

Wildlife in decline: Earth's vertebrates fall 58% in past four decades | Climate | Scoop.it
“Living Planet Report predicts that by 2020, populations will have declined by two-thirds from 1970.”

The populations of Earth’s wild mammals, birds, amphibians, fish and other vertebrates declined by more than half between 1970 and 2012, according to a report from environmental charity WWF and the Zoological Society of London (ZSL).

Activities such as deforestation, poaching and human-induced climate change are in large part to blame for the decline. If the trend continues, then by 2020 the world will have lost two-thirds of its vertebrate biodiversity, according to the Living Planet Report 2016. “There is no sign yet that this rate will decrease,” the report says.

“Across land, freshwater and the oceans, human activities are forcing species populations and natural systems to the edge,” says Marco Lambertini, director-general of WWF International.


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New Bacteria Groups and Stunning Diversity Found Underground

New Bacteria Groups and Stunning Diversity Found Underground | Climate | Scoop.it
“Research also provides new clues about the roles of subsurface bacteria in globally important cycles.”

The bacterial bonanza comes from scientists who reconstructed the genomes of more than 2,500 microbes from sediment and groundwater samples collected at an aquifer in Colorado. The effort was led by researchers from the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley. DNA sequencing was performed at the Joint Genome Institute, a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

As reported online October 24 2016 in the journal Nature Communications, the scientists netted genomes from 80 percent of all known bacterial phyla, a remarkable degree of biological diversity at one location. They also discovered 47 new phylum-level bacterial groups, naming many of them after influential microbiologists and other scientists. And they learned new insights about how microbial communities work together to drive processes that are critical to the planet’s climate and life everywhere, such as the carbon and nitrogen cycles.

These findings shed light on one of Earth’s most important and least understood realms of life. The subterranean world hosts up to one-fifth of all biomass, but it remains a mystery. “We didn’t expect to find this incredible microbial diversity. But then again, we know little about the roles of subsurface microbes in biogeochemical processes, and more broadly, we don’t really know what’s down there,” says Jill Banfield, a Senior Faculty Scientist in Berkeley Lab’s Climate & Ecosystem Sciences Division and a UC Berkeley professor in the departments of Earth and Planetary Science, and Environmental Science, Policy, and Management.

UC Berkeley’s Karthik Anantharaman, the first author of the paper, adds, “To better understand what subsurface microbes are up to, our approach is to access their entire genomes. This enabled us to discover a greater interdependency among microbes than we’ve seen before.”


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Did a Killer Asteroid Drive the Planet Into An Ice Age?

Did a Killer Asteroid Drive the Planet Into An Ice Age? | Climate | Scoop.it

When a mountain-sized asteroid struck the deep ocean off the coast of Antarctica 2.5 million years ago, it set off an apocalyptic chain of events: a devastating rain of molten rock and then a deadly tsunami that inundated the coastlines of the Pacific Ocean. But according to a team of Australian researchers, this was just the beginning. Then came a protracted ice age that killed off many of the Earth’s large mammals.

The Eltanin meteor, named after the USNS Eltanin which surveyed the area in 1964, is the only impact that has ever been discovered in a deep-ocean basin. These deep water impacts must be more common – so much of the planet is ocean – but they’re tricky to find because of the inaccessible depths of the impact craters. Researchers examining sediments in the area discovered tiny grains of impact melt and debris from meteorite fragments. Something big smashed this spot.An asteroid strike on land is devastating, but an asteroid strike in the deep ocean is even worse. On both land and ocean, you get the plume of water vapor, sulfur, and dust blasted into the high atmosphere, raining molten rock down across a wide area. But for asteroid strikes in the ocean, this is followed by a devastating tsunami that inundates coastlines around the world. There are waves hundreds of meters high at the crash site, and they travel deep inland on every coastline. A local event becomes a global event.

But with the Eltanin meteor, this was followed by a prolonged ice age. Professor James Goff and his colleagues from the University of New South Wales in Australia have been researching the Eltanin meteor and its after-effects. The timing of the impact seems to line up with geologic deposits in Chile, Australia and Antarctica. Geologists traditionally connected these deposits with slower geological processes, like glaciation. But Goff and his team think these deposits might have been dropped all at once by the devastating tsunami from Eltanin.

Here’s a video that shows how the impact and subsequent tsunami might have played out. Although the Earth was already thought to be cooling in the mid to late Pliocene, the material kicked into the high atmosphere by Eltanin could have pushed the planet’s climate past the tipping point:

- “There’s no doubt the world was already cooling through the mid and late Pliocene,” says co-author Professor Mike Archer. “What we’re suggesting is that the Eltanin impact may have rammed this slow-moving change forward in an instant – hurtling the world into the cycle of glaciations that characterized the next 2.5 million years and triggered our own evolution as a species.”

It was this time of a global ice age that transitioned the planet from the Pliocene to the Pleistocene. It was a bad time to be a Chalicothere or Anthracotheriidae, but a good time to be a hominid. So… thanks Eltanin.


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Restoration work begins on part of Salton Sea

Restoration work begins on part of Salton Sea | Climate | Scoop.it
“ Officials last week took a step -- albeit a modest one -- toward restoring the beleaguered Salton Sea and possibly avoiding a predicted environmental and health catastrophe. A ceremony Thursday attended by officeholders and others concerned with issues of water, wildlife and public healt”
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Shannon Morris's curator insight, September 27, 2016 6:07 PM
The Salton Sea like many other bodies of water has seen an enormous decrease in it's water supply, that of which poses great threat to the surrounding communities. It seems that every time a large body of water is lost dangerous minerals are exposed. It makes me wonder how many cases across the United States are having this issue these past few years. 
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Breathtaking bamboo building withstands earthquakes and boasts a zero-carbon footprint

Breathtaking bamboo building withstands earthquakes and boasts a zero-carbon footprint | Climate | Scoop.it

Chiangmai Life Construction completed the Bamboo Sports Hall, a beautiful zero-carbon building for Thailand's Panyaden International School.

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Regreening the planet could cut as much carbon as halting oil use – report

Regreening the planet could cut as much carbon as halting oil use – report | Climate | Scoop.it
Natural solutions such as tree planting, protecting peatlands and better land management could account for 37% of all cuts needed by 2030, says study
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CO2 removal 'no silver bullet' to fighting climate change-scientists

CO2 removal 'no silver bullet' to fighting climate change-scientists | Climate | Scoop.it

Technologies to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to help tackle global warming only have limited potential and more effort should be made to reduce emissions, European scientists said in a report on Wednesday. 


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11 Websites To Learn To Code For Free In 2017

11 Websites To Learn To Code For Free In 2017 | Climate | Scoop.it
It’s totally possible to learn to code for free...but what are the best resources to achieve that? Here are 11 websites where you can get started.

Via Steve Krogull, Mark E. Deschaine, PhD, juandoming
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The giant rings of 'Mega Saturn' are spinning the wrong way (retrograde)

The giant rings of 'Mega Saturn' are spinning the wrong way (retrograde) | Climate | Scoop.it

Astronomers first noticed the strange ring system in 2007. While observing a star called 1SWASP J140747, located in the Centaurus constellation about 420 light years from Earth. They noticed the star's light flickered as something passed in front of it, just like a solar eclipse. Analysis revealed a huge Saturn-like ring system with an massive object at the centre, which was named J1407b. The object is more massive than Jupiter (by about 80 times) and could be a giant planet or a brown dwarf, a type of star which failed to ignite.

In effect, the rings are circling J1407b against the grain, in the opposite direction to its orbit around the star. Crunching the numbers revealed that these types of retrograde ring systems can survive at least 10E5 years, or 100,000 years, producing eclipses that last for 56 days.

Dr Rieder told the New York Times: ‘If you have the planet moving clockwise and the rings moving counterclockwise, that is much more stable than if they move in the same direction, clockwise.’

But while the pair’s simulations may answer one question, it raises the issue of how the rings came to be spinning in the opposite direction from their orbit. Writing in a paper published this week in the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics, they explain the answer could be the same reason why some of the planets in our own solar system have wonky orbits – collisions. They explain: ‘It is possible that such a collision between two rocky bodies in orbit around a planet results in a significant amount of retrograde moving material [around] J1407b, resulting in the rings we see today.’


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Stephen Wolfram: AI & The Future Of Human Civilization

Stephen Wolfram: AI & The Future Of Human Civilization | Climate | Scoop.it

What makes us different from all these things? What makes us different is the particulars of our history, which gives us our notions of purpose and goals. That's a long way of saying when we have the box on the desk that thinks as well as any brain does, the thing it doesn't have, intrinsically, is the goals and purposes that we have. Those are defined by our particulars—our particular biology, our particular psychology, our particular cultural history.

The thing we have to think about as we think about the future of these things is the goals. That's what humans contribute, that's what our civilization contributes—execution of those goals; that's what we can increasingly automate. We've been automating it for thousands of years. We will succeed in having very good automation of those goals. I've spent some significant part of my life building technology to essentially go from a human concept of a goal to something that gets done in the world.

There are many questions that come from this. For example, we've got these great AIs and they're able to execute goals, how do we tell them what to do?...

STEPHEN WOLFRAM, distinguished scientist, inventor, author, and business leader, is Founder & CEO, Wolfram Research; Creator, Mathematica, Wolfram|Alpha & the Wolfram Language; Author, A New Kind of Science. Stephen Wolfram's Edge Bio Page


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Two unseen moons may circle Uranus bringing the total count to 29

Two unseen moons may circle Uranus bringing the total count to 29 | Climate | Scoop.it

Two more teeny moons might be lurking around Uranus, in addition to the 27 we already know about. Fluctuations in the density of two of the planet’s dark rings, seen in radio data from the 1986 flyby of the Voyager 2 spacecraft could be caused by unseen moonlets, astronomers Robert Chancia and Matthew Hedman, both at the University of Idaho in Moscow, report online October 9 at arXiv.org. Both moons are probably just 4 to 14 kilometers wide and would be very difficult to detect in Voyager 2 images, the researchers report. New observations with ground-based telescopes might have better luck.


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NASA: Bizarre Hexagonal Pole on Saturn is Changing Colors

NASA: Bizarre Hexagonal Pole on Saturn is Changing Colors | Climate | Scoop.it

There is an ongoing 20,000-mile storm at Saturn's North Pole and it has intrigued scientists ever since it was discovered. But what's causing more confusion is that the 'hexagon' changed colors upon comparing images taken of Saturn's North Pole from 2012 to 2016. From the images released by NASA, it is evident the once blue color turned into yellowish-gold.

The Cassini spacecraft observing the planet since 2004 captured the images. The change appeared to happen gradually based on the observation launched since Nov. 2012 up to Sept. 2016.

The mystery hexagon is a cloud pattern in Saturn's northern hemisphere where an evident weather activity is taking place. Experts believe that the shape could have been caused by the varying wind speed in Saturn.

Saturn, the second largest planet in the Solar System next to Jupiter, is also a gas planet. It is composed mainly of hydrogen, methane, and helium. But despite the surprising changes, astronomers and scientists already offered some potential causes of the unusual phenomenon.

"In particular the change from a bluish color to a more golden hue may be due to the increased production of photochemical hazes in the atmosphere as the north pole approaches summer solstice in May 2017," a NASA official said in a statement.


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Preserved dinosaur’s brain found

Preserved dinosaur’s brain found | Climate | Scoop.it

First fossil evidence of a dinosaur brain doesn’t suggest they were particularly smart.

A decade ago, a fossil hunter was combing the beach in southeastern England when he found a strange, brown pebble. The surface of it caught his eye: It was smooth and strangely undulating, and also slightly crinkly in some places. That oddly textured pebble, scientists report here today at the Society for Vertebrate Paleontology meeting, is actually an endocast—an impression preserved in the rock—that represents the first known evidence of fossilized brain tissue of a dinosaur (likely a close relative of Iguanodon, a large, herbivorous type of dinosaur that lived about 133 million years ago).

Human brains and bird brains are packed tightly into the brain case, so that their convolutions leave an impression of the inside of the case. But dinosaur (and reptile) brains are more loosely fitted; they are surrounded within the brain case by membranes called meninges, tough sheaths that protect and support the brain. So an endocast of a dinosaur brain might be expected to show those structures—and it did (structures above the green line, above). But beneath them, remineralized in calcium phosphate, the researchers also spied a pattern of tiny capillaries and other cortical tissues—the sort of fabric you’d expect for the cortex of a brain. That those textures were pressed up against the brain case doesn’t necessarily mean that dinosaurs were bigger-brained and smarter than we thought, however: Instead, the dinosaur had likely simply toppled over and been preserved upside down, its brain tissue preserved by surrounding acidic, low-oxygen waters that pickled and hardened the membranes and tissues, providing a template for mineralization. The structure of the brain, studied with scanning electron microscopes, reveal similarities to both birds and crocodiles. It’s the first known evidence of such a dinosaur brain—but now that they know to look for it, the researchers say, they might go back and look at other endocranial casts of dinosaurs to see if they might contain traces of other such structures. The team also reports its findings today in a Special Publication of the Geological Society of London.


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3-D-printed magnets outperform conventional versions, conserve rare earth materials

3-D-printed magnets outperform conventional versions, conserve rare earth materials | Climate | Scoop.it

Scientists fabricated isotropic, near-net-shape, neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) bonded magnets at DOE's Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) machine. The result, published in Scientific Reports, was a product with comparable or better magnetic, mechanical, and microstructural properties than bonded magnets made using traditional injection molding with the same composition.

The additive manufacturing process began with composite pellets consisting of 65 volume percent isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 percent polyamide (Nylon-12) manufactured by Magnet Applications, Inc. The pellets were melted, compounded, and extruded layer-by-layer by BAAM into desired forms.

While conventional sintered magnet manufacturing may result in material waste of as much as 30 to 50 percent, additive manufacturing will simply capture and reuse those materials with nearly zero waste, said Parans Paranthaman, principal investigator and a group leader in ORNL's Chemical Sciences Division.

Using a process that conserves material is especially important in the manufacture of permanent magnets made with neodymium, dysprosium—rare earth elements that are mined and separated outside the United States. NdFeB magnets are the most powerful on earth, and used in everything from computer hard drives and head phones to clean energy technologies such as electric vehicles and wind turbines.

The printing process not only conserves materials but also produces complex shapes, requires no tooling and is faster than traditional injection methods, potentially resulting in a much more economic manufacturing process, Paranthaman said.

"Manufacturing is changing rapidly, and a customer may need 50 different designs for the magnets they want to use," said ORNL researcher and co-author Ling Li. Traditional injection molding would require the expense of creating a new mold and tooling for each, but with additive manufacturing the forms can be crafted simply and quickly using computer-assisted design, she explained.


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New theory explains how the Moon got to its current position to the Earth

New theory explains how the Moon got to its current position to the Earth | Climate | Scoop.it

Earth's Moon is an unusual object in our solar system, and now there's a new theory to explain how it got where it is, which puts some twists on the current "giant impact" theory. The work is published Oct. 31 in the journal Nature.

The Moon is relatively big compared to the planet it orbits, and it's made of almost the same stuff, minus some more volatile compounds that evaporated long ago. That makes it distinct from every other major object in the Solar System, said Sarah Stewart, professor of Earth and planetary sciences at the University of California, Davis and senior author on the paper.

The textbook theory of lunar formation goes like this. Late in the formation of the solar system came the "giant impact" phase, when hot planet-size objects collided with each other. A Mars-sized object grazed what would become Earth, throwing off a mass of material from which the Moon condensed. This impact set the angular momentum for the Earth-Moon system, and gave the early Earth a five-hour day. Over millennia, the Moon has receded from the Earth and the rotation has slowed to our current 24-hour day. Scientists have figured this out by looking at the Moon's current orbit, working out how rapidly angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system has been transferred by the tidal forces between the two bodies, and working backwards.

But there are a couple of problems with the textbook theory. One is the Moon's surprisingly Earth-like composition. Another is that if the Moon condensed from a disk of material rotating around Earth's equator, it should be in orbit over the equator. But the Moon's current orbit is tilted off the equator, meaning some more energy must have been put in to move it. Stewart, her former postdoctoral fellow Matija Ćuk (now a scientist at the SETI Institute in Mountain View, Calif.), with Douglas Hamilton at the University of Maryland and Simon Lock, Harvard University, have come up with an alternative model.

In the new model, a high energy collision left a mass of vaporized and molten material from which the Earth and Moon formed. The Earth was set spinning with a two-hour day, its axis pointing towards the Sun. Because the collision could have been more energetic than in the current theory, the material from Earth and the impactor would have mixed together, and both Earth and Moon condensed from the same material and therefore have a similar composition. As angular momentum was dissipated through tidal forces, the Moon receded from the Earth until it reached a point called the "LaPlace plane transition," where the forces from the Earth on the Moon became less important than gravitational forces from the Sun. This caused some of the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system to transfer to the Earth-Sun system. This made no major difference to the Earth's orbit around the Sun, but it did flip Earth upright. At this point, the models built by the team show the Moon orbiting Earth at a high angle, or inclination, to the equator.

Over a few tens of million years, the Moon continued to slowly move away from Earth until it reached a second transition point, the Cassini transition, at which point the inclination of the Moon—the angle between the Moon's orbit and the Earth's orbit about the sun—dropped to about five degrees, putting the Moon more or less in its current orbit.


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9 Characteristics Of 21st Century Learning | #ModernEDU

9 Characteristics Of 21st Century Learning | #ModernEDU | Climate | Scoop.it
“9 Characteristics Of 21st Century Learning1. Learner-centered 2. Media-driven (this doesn’t have to mean digital media)3. Personalized4. Transfer-by-Design5. Visibly Relevant6. Data-Rich7. Adaptable8. Interdependent9. Diverse ”


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Nevermore Sithole's curator insight, November 7, 2016 1:20 AM
9 Characteristics Of 21st Century Learning
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