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Culture Fuels

Culture Fuels | Water Farming | Scoop.it
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Growing algae on the water surface in an enclosed floating mat platform may be the start of a revolution in lowcost biofuel and nutriceutical manufacture.

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Lakshman Singh: Recharging Rajasthan | The Alternative

Lakshman Singh: Recharging Rajasthan | The Alternative | Water Farming | Scoop.it
Lakshman Singh's ingenious method of rain water harvesting has made Laporia, a small village near Jaipur drought proof and poverty free.



Lakshman Singh and his friends in Laporia used 'Chauk' method of ground water recharging. A series of bunds, channels and pits are dug over a 5Km stretch in a checker board like pattern, following the natural slope of land. Rain water flows slowly across the Chauka system resulting in the retention of top soil and increase in moisture content. This also helps in recharging ground water.

The broken bund (mud embankment) was emblematic of all that was wrong with laporia. The inhabitants of this arid village in an arid district in India’s most arid state, Rajasthan, were dirt poor. They were malnourished, wore torn clothes and rarely washed. Soap, they could not afford. Nor sugar or milk in their tea. Many went to bed hungry every night. Diseases and illnesses went untreated, because there were no medicines. Children remained illiterate. Cattle died or thirst. Upper and lower castes crumbling property, dragging relatives to court.

The root cause of Laporia’s misery was acute water scarcity.

Farming was the main occupation for the 200 families. But drought, compounded by the crumbling bund, dry ponds and empty, wells doomed cultivation to a perennial losing battle with nature, city jobs become the sole meal ticket. Laxman Singh went to Jaipur to study, but dropped out of school because his family could not afford the fees. Miserable, he returned to the misery of his village. He faced a bleak future. No education meant jobs in the city; no water meant any farming in his village.

Laxman Singh was 18yeas old when he realized the only way to turn Laporia’s misfortune was to repair the bund along the dry pond. It had remained broken for 230years. If scanty rainfall could be collected in the pond, then feeder canals could be dug to irrigate the fields, making cultivation feasible. Laporia could turn “green”. Villagers mocked his fantasy. “And who would pay our wages to repair the bund?” they demanded sarcastically. Laxman Singh had no answer. He was stumped: no rich landlords to subsidize the labour; no philanthropists nearby to fund then and the government was far away and unconcerned. He was thoroughly depressed. There seemed no way out of this vicious cycle.

Then one day it struck him perhaps there is a way out: villagers could volunteer to repair the bund. After all, they were the beneficiaries. Neighbors scoffed at his suggestion. They had better thing to do Singh resolved to do it himself. One friend supported him. The pair decided to repair the bund themselves. It was no small task: the bund was 1.5Km. Long and 15 feet high. Armed with spades, they set off to the bund one summer day in 1978. Passersby wondered; “How can the bund be repaired by just two people?” Singh retorted “well, you can join us that would help”. Four village youths joined him. By the seventh day. The trickle swelled to 20. When rains came two months later. Water collected in the pond for the first times decades.

By 1984, the pond was irrigating 1,800 acres of farmland. From virtually no income, the average income of a family rose to Rs.14, 000 per annum – enough to provide a comfortable life. Villagers congregated for the ceremony to name the pond “Anna Sagar”: the sea of grain. Asserts Singh “If you really want to achieve anything in life, you have to get down and do it yourself. You can lead others only by setting yourself as an example.”

Laxman Singh also devised a simple but unique water harvesting program in the outskirts of his village. He call it’s the “Chauka” system. It comprises a series of channels and square pits fringed by two-foot high bunds in a chequer board pattern over a 5Km expanse in which rainwater slope of the land this not only enables the water to flow into the ponds nearby, but creates grassy patches on the pits on which cattle can graze. Thus, his dry wastelands bordering the villages were converted into grassy village common land, ideal for pasture.

Villages die when common land disappear. Called “gochar”, pasture is considered sacred by Hindu villagers. Across India, pasture for cattle grazing is vanishing, either due to drought or to land grabbers. Grassy gochar symbolizes healthy villages. It symbolizes the symbiotic relationship between man, nature and animals, if water is harvested, crops and grass grow and cattle have natural vegetation to feed on, which so cheaper and healthier than hormone-injected cattle feed. More cattle mean more dung, which is the cheapest and best natural fertilizer-cum-pesticide. Organic farming – which now the world acknowledges – is the healthy, natural way to cultivate crops. No pesticides and fertilizers that position the earth and drive farmers to penury says Laxman Singh: : the less we interfere with nature, the better it is for all of us. Everything and everyone has its place in our eco-system. We live in a natural cycle of inter-dependence –land, water, man, beast, all depend on each. If you don’t disrupt the cycle of dependency, this natural bio-rhythm, there will be harmony.”

Over the years, all the ponds of the village were rejuvenated. Villagers performed puja to celebrate the consecration of “Dev Sagar” and “Phool Sagar.” Crops were harvested twice a year Laporia became virtually self sufficient as farmers grew corn. Maize, bajra, jowar, wheat, lentils, groundnuts, chillis mustard, fenugreek and variety of vegetables.

Their new-found sense of well-being villagers feels the need to organize a thanks giving ceremony. In 1987, the villagers institutionalized their annual nature-worshipping ritual. Villagers gather to renew their bond with nature and each other, eat gud (melted jiggery), tie sacred threads and apply tilak on trees, birds, cattle, wells and ponds. They pray to Lord Indra to bless the village with rain. They tie rakhi on each other as mark of friendship and community bonding. It is day of festivity and rejoicing.

From an impoverished, drought-afflicted, conflict-ridden village, Laporia become a trail-blazing symbol of rural renewal, a self-sufficient oasis of agricultural produce, Pease and harmony, it’s fame spread. Other adjoining villages followed suit. Villagers started organizing the “Sharm Dhan”, to donate their labour to desilt the tanks and ponds. The desilting ceremony takes about five days. Over the years, this became a vibrant local tradition. Inhabitants of Laporia went on a padayatra to the adjoining villages to help with the desilting of their ponds. These villagers came to theirs. Now 500 villages participate in these padayatra to desilt their water bodies. In the evening, youngsters organize cultural entertainment – songs, dances and street theatre. The evening ends with a sumptuous feast prepared by the village housewives. Says Singh: “ as businessmen and officers, my classmates make more money than me. But I have the satisfaction of changing the life of my entire village.

Village development committees now decide on new programs to build roads, install taps, establish and education facilities. Self-sufficiency is the village mantra; Panchauyati Raj as Mahatma Gandhi envisioned. “Villagers must be encouraged to become custodians of their village and its surroundings. If every village becomes a viable, harmonious and peaceful economic unit, then people would be happy and India would be strong. When village life breaks sown, and youngsters are forced to migrate in reach of work, then Prime Minister. Gro Harlen Brundtland, who coined the phrase “sustainable Development” in the 1980s Singh, typifies the Indian village. Who blessed with robust common sense, needs no celebrity endorsements or academic studies, to convince him of the ancient wisdom that he carries in his genes, refreshed everyday by observing nature.

One would have expected Singh to be rewarded with a bouquet of citations for path-breaking work. Instead, village officials were displeased. They served him with a ‘show cause’ notice for usurping their authority. Laxman Singh had farmed new rules of his village. If a villager cut on tree, would have a plant five saplings as compensation. If he hunted animals, he must pay a fine of 11 bushels of grain. If he shot a bird, he would have to feed the village birds. Most complied; some complained. Local officials were annoyed. Punishing villagers was their job, not his. Laxman Singh was summoned to their office, but his entreaties and explanations that patwaris ignored such offences or took bribes from the offenders and released them, fell on deaf ears.

When he heard about this harassment, botanist from Jaipur, who had taken an interest in Laporia’s transformation. Contacted Delhi-based scientists, who in turn urged village officials to lay off Laxman Singh. They did brickbats turned to bouquets as the authorities began to reward him with prizes for his pioneering work to rejuvenate Laporia.

Perhaps, the most remarkable aspect about Laporia’s renewal is it’s forestation that has lured birds. Says Laxman Singh proudly: “Birds are the best signs of a healthy environment”. Varieties of birds now flock to Laporia. The village courtyard is a daily Kumbh mela of parrots. Peacocks perch on roof tops. Woodpeckers hug tress. Pigeons strut. Koels coo hauntingly. People of this once arid, godforsaken village greet each day with the birdsong of larks, warblers, nightingales and other winged minstrels of the forests.

UNSUNG is an ongoing project by photographer Mahesh Bhat. It came out as a book in 2007, authored by Mahesh Bhat and Anita Pratap. Published here by arrangement with the authors. All pictures copyrighted to Mahesh Bhat.

Connect with UNSUNG on their website and Facebook page -  www.facebook.com/unsungworld. The book is available here on Flipkart.


Via Giri Kumar
Ben DeVries's insight:

Water is the ultimate resource for all of Earth's living creatures.  Monitoring and preserving our surface and ground water resources protects future generations.  If starving Laporia can innovate, anyone can!

Darran Upton's curator insight, June 6, 2013 11:36 PM

The method of storing harvested water is paramount for people’s survival. This paper would allow students to understand the importance of harvesting water and how they might be able to make a more sustainable house. Students could then use EnQuest to design their own sustainable house/building.



Véronique Calvet's curator insight, May 2, 2015 9:04 AM

.“Birds are the best signs of a healthy environment”.

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BANGLADESH: Rice paddies synergise with fish farming

BANGLADESH: Rice paddies synergise with fish farming | Water Farming | Scoop.it

DHAKA - By combining aquaculture with wet paddy farming in its coastal areas Bangladesh can meet food security and climate change issues, says a new report.  


The approach promises more nutritious food, without causing environmental damage, and has the potential for a 'blue-green revolution' on Bangladesh’s existing crop areas extending to about 10.14 million hectares and an additional 2.83 million hectares that remain waterlogged for about 4–6 months.


"The carrying capacities of these additional lands and waters, when fully utilised, can increase food production and economic growth," says Nesar Ahmed, author of the report published online last month (28 January) in Ocean & Coastal Management.


Ahmed, a researcher in fisheries management at the Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, told SciDev.Net that there was a "vital link between prawn and shrimp farming in coastal Bangladesh and a 'green economy' that addresses the current environmental and economic crisis."


Md Enamul Hoq, senior scientist at the Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, agrees that the blue-green revolution "not only holds out huge economic benefits but also solves the growing climate change crisis."


"Aquaculture enhances soil fertility from fish waste discharge and contributes to pest control as several fish varieties feed on insects that harm crops," Hoq said.


Bangladesh's coastal aquaculture sector, which is dominated by export-oriented freshwater prawn and saline water shrimp farming, is already making a significant contribution to economic growth.


Ahmed's report shows that if prawn farming is expanded to 2.83 million hectares of seasonally inundated crop land, Bangladesh would earn an additional US$ 9.4 billion annually.


Similarly, if rice farming is also extended to the entire seasonally-inundated crop fields, an additional 1.58 million tonnes of rice could be produced annually.


According to Niamul Naser, professor of zoology at the University of Dhaka, freshwater shrimp cultivation in the Barind (north-western Bangladesh) has withstood extreme weather conditions in recent years.


Nazrul Islam, former director of information at the ministry of agriculture, told SciDev.Net that "combining rice and fish farming is the answer to climate change problems, particularly in the coastal areas where saline water intrusion has been phenomenal."





Amanda Vo's curator insight, April 27, 2014 12:32 PM

If Bangladesh decides to increase the amount of rice paddies and fisheries, their exports would increase by about $9 billion annually. Along with increases the GDP, this project would increase the amount of nutritious food Bangladesh has. 

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Resource Magazine – May/June 2013 : Bringing Protected Ag to Undeveloped Regions

Bringing Protected Ag to Undeveloped Regions
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Using hoop greenhouses, drip irrigation and solar pumps, local grower associations improve the quality and quantity of their flower and produce harvests while rebuilding Haiti's watershed.

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WATER FARMING COMPETITION | Water Farming | Scoop.it
Ben DeVries's insight:

With an 53" of annual rainfall, South Florida's surplus of water can cause flooding and soil erosion.  Techniques such as water farming promise new solutions that will improve food production and reduce estuary pollution.

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COSTA RICA: Aquatic gardens created for large-scale production

COSTA RICA: Aquatic gardens created for large-scale production | Water Farming | Scoop.it

Scientists at the University of Costa Rica (UCR) are enhancing a farming method that could provide a solution to the two major obstacles to agricultural production: the limited fertile land for farming and water shortages.


After more than 12 years of study, a team of researchers found a way to directly farm products on the surface of seas and lakes. With a large-scale aquatic agriculture that is economically viable, the problems of space and water will be solved.


The research was led by Dr. Ricardo Radulovich Ramirez, who worked with scientists from the School of Agricultural Engineering, associated to the headquarters,in the Pacific, to the Centre for Research in Grain and Seeds (Cigras) and to the School of Agricultural Engineering of the UCR.


The project consisted of developing marine gardens, that is to say, seawater plantations, both in the Pacific and the Caribbean, where seaweed was farmed and fish, shellfish and shrimp were produced.


Besides, the scientists worked on the creation of freshwater gardens in the lagoon in Arenal. On this occasion, Dr. Schery Umanzor, a scientist of the School of Agronomy and of Cigras, coordinated the research.


Radulovich explained that "the models being devised are flexible and adaptable to different growing conditions, such as the degree of oxygenation of the lake and the use to be given to the harvested product."


The models are also updated according to the purpose of producing food for human or for animal consumption. In this sense, an example could be the creation of a herbivore fish hatchery, both in marine and freshwater environments.


These fish "could be fed directly on aquatic plants, which would avoid using large quantities of concentrate, as they would be fed directly from the floating plants," summarized Radulovich.


The researchers explain that the idea is to create technology that would offer the possibility of farm products "in thousands of square kilometers of lake surfaces, where if about 20 tonnes per hectare are obtained, a considerable production would be generated at low cost."


While growing plants in water has been developed in hydroponics and it was even practised by the indigenous peoples, the novelty of this project, according to its proponents, is that its aim is to find ways to do so in a viable way on a large scale to have an impact on food production.


"The key idea is that production on the surface of the lake does not waste water since through farming the same evaporation would occur as it would take place on the lake surface," highlighted the project manager.


Another advantage of this type of farming method is that plants are less susceptible to be attacked by insect pests.


By Silvina Corniola

Ben DeVries's insight:

When combined with water storage, water farming can add value to fallow or marginal lands.

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