W.E.B. Dubois and Discrimination
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Vocabulary

1.) Discrimination - The unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, on the grounds of race, age, or sex.

 

2.) Lynching - kill someone by hanging for an alleged offense with or without a legal trial.

 

3.) Accommodation - A room, group of rooms, or building in which someone may live or stay.

 

4.) Intellectual - of or relating to the intellect

 

5.) Activism - the policy or action of using vigorous campaigning to bring about political or social change.

 

6.) Assertive - having or showing a confident and forceful personality

 

7.) Intimately - closely acquainted; familiar, close

 

8.) Tremendous - very great in amount, scale, or intensity.

 

9.) Socialogical - the study of the development, structure, and functioning of human society.

 

10.) Dissertation - a long essay on a particular subject, esp. one written as a requirement for the Doctor of Philosophy degree

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Progressive Era Struggles

Progressive Era Struggles | W.E.B. Dubois and Discrimination | Scoop.it

African Americans faced many problems in the Progressive Era. Unfair living situations, discrimination, and lynching are a few. All of these problems were considered deadly to negros in that time of history. So many peoples lives were lost, people were mistreated and abused, even children were going through these struggles. I just thank the brave souls who stood up for what they believed in, despite the consequenses and punishment put upon them. I thank them for making a change.


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Race Intelligence :: W E B Du Bois . org

Race Intelligence :: W E B Du Bois . org | W.E.B. Dubois and Discrimination | Scoop.it
With the essay Race Intelligence the African American activist, writer, and scholar William Edward Burghardt Du Bois criticized the biased composition of IQ tests in the early 20th century.

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DuBois Biography

DuBois Biography | W.E.B. Dubois and Discrimination | Scoop.it

W.E.B. Du Bois's biographer, Manning Marable, writes that "Few intellectuals have done more to shape the twentieth century than W.E.B. Du Bois." His life covered a tremendous range of activities and movements. Du Bois was both an intellectual and a social activist. He was both a man of theory who held an elitist philosophy and a man who could move thousands of people into action. He was an American who tried to uphold the ideals of his country. But died in exile having renounced his citizenship.

 

William Edward Burghardt DuBois (he pronounced it DueBoyss) entered the world on February 23, 1868, less than three years after the Thirteenth Amendment had outlawed slavery. The Du Bois family, however, was several generations removed from bondage. He was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, a small village with only a handful of black families. His teachers quickly made him a favorite, and most of his playmates were white. While in Nashville, Tennessee, attending Fisk University, he discovered his black identity. He spent his summers teaching in rural schools. It was there that he met "the real seat of slavery." Never before had he encountered such overwhelming poverty. "I touched intimately the lives of the commonest of mankind--people who ranged from barefooted dwellers on dirt floors, with patched rags for clothes, to rough hard-working farmers, with plain clean plenty." Unlike Massachusetts, Nashville was a southern town that exposed Du Bois to the everyday bigotry he had escaped growing up. He accidentally bumped into a white woman who spurned his apology: "How dare you speak to me, you impudent nigger!" By the end of his college years Du Bois had begun to take pride in his heritage. "I am a Negro; and I glory in the name."

 

Du Bois graduated from Fisk and entered Harvard University, where he received his A.B., M.A. and Ph.D. degrees, the first African-American to receive a doctorate from that university. He also spent two years studying at the University of Berlin, which was at the time the world's most distinguished center for advanced research in history. His doctoral dissertation was a study of the efforts to suppress the African slave trade. He accepted a position teaching at Wilberforce University, a college for black students in Ohio. After an unhappy year, he left to be a researcher at the University in Pennsylvania. There he studied the African-American immigrants to Philadelphia. He published The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study in 1899, the first serious sociological study of the emerging black urban population.

 

In 1897 Du Bois accepted a new position at Atlanta University. It was there that he began to enter the realm of political activism that would dominate the rest of his life. He began to help black people devise a strategy for confronting the growing pattern of discrimination that they were facing.

 

Beginning in 1863 large numbers of African-Americans won their freedom. The Thirteenth Amendment formalized what had already taken place: slavery was no more. During the Reconstruction years, black people secured additional rights. In 1868 the Fourteenth Amendment required states to provide "equal protection" without regard to race. In 1870 the Fifteenth Amendment prohibited states from denying anyone the vote because of race. But African-Americans soon lost most of these rights. By the 1870s groups like the Ku Klux Klan were using violence to terrorize black people from voting or asserting their other constitutional rights. In some years lynch mobs killed over 100 black people. During the 1890s and early 1900s southern states passed "Jim Crow Laws" which required black people to stay out of public places that served whites. Separate restaurants, hotels, railroad cars, toilets, drinking fountains, etc. began to appear. Southern states passed laws that required voters to take confusing tests to qualify to vote. In some states these also excluded uneducated whites. Other states passed "grandfather clauses" which gave the vote to those persons whose grandfathers had qualified to vote in 1867 -- before black people had won the right to vote.

 

African-Americans responded to these conditions in a variety of ways. One response was to leave the South for a more desirable environment, where their rights would be respected and where there was economic opportunity. During the 1870s and early 1880s thousands of black people moved to Kansas, some of whom participated in the great "Kansas Exodus" and became known as "Exodusters." By the 1890s, however, northern cities had become the destination for black people leaving the South. Between 1890 and 1910 200,000 black people migrated to northern cities. These were the migrants whom Du Bois studied while at the University of Pennsylvania.

 

A second response was to seek some kind of accommodation within the limited opportunities whites were offering. In 1895 Booker T. Washington gave a speech in Atlanta that spelled out his approach. Black people should set aside their goals for social and political equality and concentrate on economic advancement. He criticized the day when "a seat in Congress or the state legislature was more sought than real estate or industrial skill; that the political convention or stump speaking had more attractions than starting a dairy farm or truck garden." Washington urged that African-Americans acquire industrial skills such as carpentry and masonry. Once they held these skills, he believed, whites would give them the opportunities they deserved. "The opportunity to earn a dollar in a factory just now is worth infinitely more than the opportunity to spend a dollar in an opera-house."

 

Du Bois proposed a third alternative. He attacked Washington's claim that "with freedom, Negro leadership should have begun at the plow and not in the Senate."

 


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Race Intelligence :: W E B Du Bois . org

With the essay Race Intelligence the African American activist, writer, and scholar William Edward Burghardt Du Bois criticized the biased composition of IQ tests in the early 20th century.

Via Andrew Brownlee
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