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Rescooped by Ed Bazan from Plant pathogenic fungi
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Phytopathogenic fungus hosts a plant virus: A naturally occurring cross-kingdom viral infection

Phytopathogenic fungus hosts a plant virus: A naturally occurring cross-kingdom viral infection | Viruses and parasites | Scoop.it

Significance: Virus cross-infection is an important topic in understanding the course of virus dissemination and evolution. Viruses may spread between the same host species or into taxonomically distinct organisms. The occurrences of cross-kingdom viral infection for certain virus groups are suggested by the current virus taxonomic data. In particular, several plants and fungal viruses show close phylogenetic relationships, but productive transmission of virus between plant and fungal hosts in nature has not been directly demonstrated. Here, we describe the natural infection of Rhizoctonia solani fungus by a plant virus, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). We further demonstrate that R. solani can acquire and transmit CMV during plant infection. Our findings are evidence of cross-kingdom virus transmission from the plant to fungus.

Abstract: The transmission of viral infections between plant and fungal hosts has been suspected to occur, based on phylogenetic and other findings, but has not been directly observed in nature. Here, we report the discovery of a natural infection of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani by a plant virus, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The CMV-infected R. solani strain was obtained from a potato plant growing in Inner Mongolia Province of China, and CMV infection was stable when this fungal strain was cultured in the laboratory. CMV was horizontally transmitted through hyphal anastomosis but not vertically through basidiospores. By inoculation via protoplast transfection with virions, a reference isolate of CMV replicated in R. solani and another phytopathogenic fungus, suggesting that some fungi can serve as alternative hosts to CMV. Importantly, in fungal inoculation experiments under laboratory conditions, R. solani could acquire CMV from an infected plant, as well as transmit the virus to an uninfected plant. This study presents evidence of the transfer of a virus between plant and fungus, and it further expands our understanding of plant–fungus interactions and the spread of plant viruses.


Via Steve Marek
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Rescooped by Ed Bazan from Adaptive Evolution and Speciation
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Ecology and Genomic Insights on Plant-Pathogenic and -Nonpathogenic Endophytes - Annual Review of Phytopathology

Ecology and Genomic Insights on Plant-Pathogenic and -Nonpathogenic Endophytes - Annual Review of Phytopathology | Viruses and parasites | Scoop.it
Plants are colonized on their surfaces and in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere by a multitude of different microorganisms and are inhabited internally by endophytes. Most endophytes act as commensals without any known effect on their plant host, but multiple bacteria and fungi establish a mutualistic relationship with plants, and some act as pathogens. The outcome of these plant-microbe interactions depends on biotic and abiotic environmental factors and on the genotype of the host and the interacting microorganism. In addition, endophytic microbiota and the manifold interactions between members, including pathogens, have a profound influence on the function of the system plant and the development of pathobiomes. In this review, we elaborate on the differences and similarities between nonpathogenic and pathogenic endophytes in terms of host plant response, colonization strategy, and genome content. We furthermore discuss environmental effects and biotic interactions within plant microbiota that influence pathogenesis and the pathobiome.

Via Ronny Kellner
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Rescooped by Ed Bazan from Viruses, Immunology & Bioinformatics from Virology.uvic.ca
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Points of Significance : Statistics for Biologists

Points of Significance : Statistics for Biologists | Viruses and parasites | Scoop.it
A collection of articles from the publisher of Nature that discusses statistical issues biologists should be aware of and provides practical advice to improve the statistical rigor and reproducibility of their work.

Via Chris Upton + helpers
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Rescooped by Ed Bazan from Viruses, Immunology & Bioinformatics from Virology.uvic.ca
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Viruses help form biofilms

Viruses help form biofilms | Viruses and parasites | Scoop.it
Bacteria frequently grow in communities called biofilms, which are aggregates of cells and polymers. Filamentous phages help them assemble.

Via Chris Upton + helpers
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Rescooped by Ed Bazan from Viruses, Immunology & Bioinformatics from Virology.uvic.ca
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List of Bioinformatics Workshops and Training Resources

List of Bioinformatics Workshops and Training Resources | Viruses and parasites | Scoop.it

Via Ali Taheri, Chris Upton + helpers
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Rescooped by Ed Bazan from Viruses, Immunology & Bioinformatics from Virology.uvic.ca
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How to read and understand a scientific paper: a guide for non-scientists

How to read and understand a scientific paper: a guide for non-scientists | Viruses and parasites | Scoop.it
Last week's post (The truth about vaccinations: Your physician knows more than the University of Google) sparked a very lively discussion, with comments from several people trying to persuade me (a...

Via Chris Upton + helpers
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Rescooped by Ed Bazan from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Continuum of root–fungal symbioses for plant nutrition

Continuum of root–fungal symbioses for plant nutrition | Viruses and parasites | Scoop.it
Plants accommodate a specific microbiota on and in their roots that, similar to the microbial communities in human or animal guts, supports the host in nutrient acquisition (1). Beneficial associations with fungi are widespread in the plant kingdom and probably best known are so-called mycorrhizal symbioses (Fig. 1), which are formed between soil fungi and ∼90% of land plants (2). In these partnerships, fungi provide limiting nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for photosynthetically fixed carbon from the plant host. Up to 80% of plant P can be derived from the symbionts, underpinning the importance of these associations for plant nutrition. However, ∼10% of all plants do not form mycorrhizal associations, and this prompts the question how nonmycorrhizal plants like the Brassicaceae manage to scavenge sufficient amounts of soil nutrients, especially when growing in nutrient poor environments?

Via Francis Martin
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Rescooped by Ed Bazan from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Populus trichocarpa encodes small, effector-like secreted proteins that are highly induced during mutualistic symbiosis

Populus trichocarpa encodes small, effector-like secreted proteins that are highly induced during mutualistic symbiosis | Viruses and parasites | Scoop.it
During symbiosis, organisms use a range of metabolic and protein-based signals to communicate. Of these protein signals, one class is defined as ‘effectors’, i.e., small secreted proteins (SSPs) that cause phenotypical and physiological changes in another organism. To date, protein-based effectors have been described in aphids, nematodes, fungi and bacteria. Using RNA sequencing of Populus trichocarpa roots in mutualistic symbiosis with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor, we sought to determine if host plants also contain genes encoding effector-like proteins. We identified 417 plant-encoded putative SSPs that were significantly regulated during this interaction, including 161 SSPs specific to P. trichocarpa and 15 SSPs exhibiting expansion in Populus and closely related lineages. We demonstrate that a subset of these SSPs can enter L. bicolor hyphae, localize to the nucleus and affect hyphal growth and morphology. We conclude that plants encode proteins that appear to function as effector proteins that may regulate symbiotic associations.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Rescooped by Ed Bazan from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Niche engineering demonstrates a latent capacity for fungal-algal mutualism

Niche engineering demonstrates a latent capacity for fungal-algal mutualism | Viruses and parasites | Scoop.it
Mutualistic symbioses shape the evolution of species and ecosystems and catalyze the emergence of biological complexity, yet how such symbioses first form is unclear. We show that an obligate mutualism between the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii—two model eukaryotes with very different life histories—can arise spontaneously in an environment requiring reciprocal carbon and nitrogen exchange. This capacity for mutualism is phylogenetically broad, extending to other Chlamydomonas and fungal species. Furthermore, we witnessed the spontaneous association of Chlamydomonas algal cells physically interacting with filamentous fungi. These observations demonstrate that under specific conditions, environmental change induces free-living species to become obligate mutualists and establishes a set of experimentally tractable, phylogenetically related, synthetic systems for studying the evolution of symbiosis.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Rescooped by Ed Bazan from Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions
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Viral apoptotic mimicry : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group

Viral apoptotic mimicry : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group | Viruses and parasites | Scoop.it

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Rakesh Yashroy's curator insight, June 26, 2015 3:54 AM

Plethora of events occur at the host pathogen interface and virus is no exception @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host-pathogen_interface

Rescooped by Ed Bazan from Viruses, Immunology & Bioinformatics from Virology.uvic.ca
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Python for biologists

This is the index page for everything to do with the Python for Biologists course – a free introductory programming course for biologists, suitable for complete beginners. You can scroll down to start reading the course content right away as a set of web pages. You can also get the course as a free ebook in PDF format – enter your email address to get a copy of the ebook and exercises (and occasional notifications when the book is updated).


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Rescooped by Ed Bazan from Viruses, Immunology & Bioinformatics from Virology.uvic.ca
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Evolution 101: Synthetic Biology

Evolution 101: Synthetic Biology | Viruses and parasites | Scoop.it

Synthetic biology is a new frontier in biological research where scientists and engineers are creating living systems out of molecular chemistry. In the last half century, the fundamental biochemical pieces and processes that comprise the phenomena of life have been isolated and studied by scientists in the laboratory. This reductionist approach to molecular biology has yielded enormous insight into the basic molecular units that govern life, such as genes encoded on DNA.


Via Integrated DNA Technologies, Chris Upton + helpers
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