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The Storybook Illustrated Guide to Influenza: The Zoo Flu Frenzy

The Storybook Illustrated Guide to Influenza: The Zoo Flu Frenzy (SiGuides) - Kindle edition by Brian Wu. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading The Storybook Illustrated Guide to Influenza: The Zoo Flu Frenzy (SiGuides).
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Virology News
Topical news snippets about viruses that affect people.  And other things. Like zombies B-)
Curated by Ed Rybicki
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Characterization of a new apple luteovirus identified by high-throughput sequencing | Virology Journal | Full Text

‘Rapid Apple Decline’ (RAD) is a newly emerging problem of young, dwarf apple trees in the Northeastern USA. The affected trees show trunk necrosis, cracking and canker before collapse in summer. In this study, we discovered and characterized a new luteovirus from apple trees in RAD-affected orchards using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology and subsequent Sanger sequencing. Illumina NextSeq sequencing was applied to total RNAs prepared from three diseased apple trees. Sequence reads were de novo assembled, and contigs were annotated by BLASTx. RT-PCR and 5′/3’ RACE sequencing were used to obtain the complete genome of a new virus. RT-PCR was used to detect the virus. Three common apple viruses and a new luteovirus were identified from the diseased trees by HTS and RT-PCR. Sequence analyses of the complete genome of the new virus show that it is a new species of the genus Luteovirus in the family Luteoviridae. The virus is graft transmissible and detected by RT-PCR in apple trees in a couple of orchards. A new luteovirus and/or three known viruses were found to be associated with RAD. Molecular characterization of the new luteovirus provides important information for further investigation of its distribution and etiological role.
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Bill Gates Announces a Universal Flu Vaccine Effort

Bill Gates Announces a Universal Flu Vaccine Effort “Almost all the speeches I give on global health are about the incredible progress and exciting new tools...
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US$12 million, Bill? that's all you could come up with? For a virus that kills 300 000 - 600 000 people in an ORDINARY year?
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UC San Diego to salvage the "lost" audio recordings of polio vaccine pioneer Jonas Salk

UC San Diego to salvage the "lost" audio recordings of polio vaccine pioneer Jonas Salk Skip to content The idea-a-minute Jonas Salk didn't always have time ...
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CDC Examines California Rotavirus Outbreaks in Post-vaccine Era

CDC Examines California Rotavirus Outbreaks in Post-vaccine Era | Virology News | Scoop.it
The CDC's April 27 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report examined three rotavirus outbreaks in California in 2017 and found mostly mild to moderate illness among vaccinated and unvaccinated children and adults.
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Fake anti-vaccine researcher publishes worthless HPV vaccine article - fail

Fake anti-vaccine researcher publishes worthless HPV vaccine article - fail | Virology News | Scoop.it
The history of one fake HPV vaccine researcher after another permeates the anti-vaccine religion – it is legendary. We have the multiple-retracted authors, Shaw and Tomljenovic who think that the HPV vaccine is dangerous.
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Smokin Joe Mekhael on Instagram: “I will lead another ANTI-VACCINE ANTI-CHEMTRAIL PRO-FREEDOM RALLY in Newtown on Saturday and my REVOLUTIONARY WARRIORS are going to lead…”

Smokin Joe Mekhael on Instagram: “I will lead another ANTI-VACCINE ANTI-CHEMTRAIL PRO-FREEDOM RALLY in Newtown on Saturday and my REVOLUTIONARY WARRIORS are going to lead…” | Virology News | Scoop.it
11 Likes, 3 Comments - Smokin Joe Mekhael (@smokinjoemekhael) on Instagram: “I will lead another ANTI-VACCINE ANTI-CHEMTRAIL PRO-FREEDOM RALLY in Newtown on Saturday and my…”...
Ed Rybicki's insight:
So: basically, a Darwin Award rally. Oh, for a smoking piece of hot metal to streak in from space....
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Within-Host Evolution of Human Influenza Virus

Within-Host Evolution of Human Influenza Virus | Virology News | Scoop.it
The rapid global evolution of influenza virus begins with mutations that arise de
novo in individual infections, but little is known about how evolution occurs within
hosts. We review recent progress in understanding how and why influenza viruses evolve
within human hosts.
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Flu virus finally sequenced in its native form

Flu virus finally sequenced in its native form | Virology News | Scoop.it
Direct sequencing of RNA molecules such as virus genomes should help to unpick role of mysterious chemical modifications.
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Influenza Infection in Humans Induces Broadly Cross-Reactive and Protective Neuraminidase-Reactive Antibodies

Influenza Infection in Humans Induces Broadly Cross-Reactive and Protective Neuraminidase-Reactive Antibodies | Virology News | Scoop.it
Current influenza vaccines predominantly produce antibodies targeting the viral hemagglutinin
(HA). However, during natural infection, the body also produces antibodies targeting
the viral neuraminidase (NA).
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Malawi can eradicate HIV infections says U.S. doctor who discovered AIDS virus

Malawi can eradicate HIV infections says U.S. doctor who discovered AIDS virus | Virology News | Scoop.it
Malawi, which has one of the highest rates of the deadly HIV/AIDS infections, is on course to eradicate the virus, Jay Levy who co-discovered the AIDS virus 35 years ago said.
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South Africa Tests Potential Game-Changer in HIV Treatment 

What if refilling a prescription was as easy as withdrawing money from an ATM? A South African tech company wants to make that possible. Its innovation, the Pharmacy Dispensing Unit, is being tested in Johannesburg, and health experts say it could provide a strong boost for the fight against...
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Kelsey McIntosh's curator insight, May 3, 9:51 PM
As the HIV/AIDS epidemic becomes a major problem in Johannesburg, picking up medication at pharmacies has become an all day process. In an attempt to make it easier, an ATM that dispenses medication has been created. The video discusses that this not only makes picking up easier, but it allows patients to have more time to do other things.
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Researchers discover how flu viruses hijack human cells. The answer is: RNA exosomes.

Researchers discover how flu viruses hijack human cells. The answer is: RNA exosomes. | Virology News | Scoop.it
Much is known about flu viruses, but little is understood about how they reproduce inside human host cells, spreading infection. Now, a research team headed by investigators from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sina
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Estimating the annual attack rate of seasonal influenza among unvaccinated individuals: A systematic review and meta-analysis

INTRODUCTION: Seasonal influenza affects millions of people globally each year, causing significant morbidity and mortality. However, there remains substantial uncertainty about the attack rate (incidence) of influenza, particularly in unvaccinated individuals. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of vaccine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that reported on laboratory-confirmed seasonal influenza in the placebo arm. We calculated the influenza attack rate from included studies as the number of laboratory-confirmed positive seasonal influenza cases in the placebo arm divided by the total number of subjects in this arm. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the influenza attack rate among unvaccinated individuals (both symptomatic only as well as symptomatic and asymptomatic combined). RESULTS: We included 32 RCTs that had a total of 13,329 participants. The pooled estimates for symptomatic influenza were 12.7% (95%CI 8.5%, 18.6%) for children (<18?years), 4.4% (95%CI 3.0%, 6.3%) for adults, and 7.2% (95%CI 4.3%, 12.0%) for older people (65?years and above). The pooled estimates for symptomatic and asymptomatic influenza combined for all influenza were 22.5% (95%CI 9.0%, 46.0%) for children and 10.7% (95%CI 4.5%, 23.2%) for adults. Only one study was identified for symptomatic and asymptomatic combined in older people which had a rate of 8.8% (95%CI 7.0%, 10.8%). There was substantial heterogeneity between studies. CONCLUSION: Overall, we found that approximately 1 in 5 unvaccinated children and 1 in 10 unvaccinated adults were estimated to be infected by seasonal influenza annually, with rates of symptomatic influenza roughly half of these estimates. Our findings help to establish the background risk of seasonal influenza infection in unvaccinated individuals.
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Scientific expert reaction to new Cochrane Review on HPV vaccine for cervical cancer prevention in girls and women | Cochrane

Scientific expert reaction to new Cochrane Review on HPV vaccine for cervical cancer prevention in girls and women | Cochrane | Virology News | Scoop.it
New evidence published today in the Cochrane Library shows that human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines protect against cervical lesions in young women, particularly in those who are vaccinated between the ages of 15 and 26. It also summarizes findings on harms that have been assessed in randomized controlled trials. Below is a Science Media Centre roundup of third-party expert reaction to this review. Prof Keith Neal, Emeritus Professor of Epidemiology, University of Nottingham, said:   “This study looks at a collection of studies looking at the benefit of HPV vaccines in reducing pre cervical cancer lesions.  HPV also causes many other serious cancers (especially head and neck).  In time, as more people have been vaccinated, we will see a reduction in all HPV cancers.  The HPV vaccine is one of a number of vaccines using virus like particles (VLPS) which have been shown to be very safe over the last 35 years.   “The Cochrane library of reviews has a very rigorous assessment process of all their reviews.   “The review only looked at cervical precancer (in women and girls), and does not make any comments about whether boys should be given the vaccine too.  But it is an interesting question – the current argument from UK authorities is that herd immunity will protect boys as well.  But this is not completely true because 10% of girls do not get vaccinated, nor does it cover sexual activity when abroad or with arrivals to the UK after the vaccination age.  Gay men will never be covered by herd immunity from females, hence the separate programme for gay men to receive the vaccine at GUM clinics.  Boys can only be fully protected if all their sexual partners have been vaccinated fully.” Dr Mary Ramsay, Head of Immunisations, PHE, said:   “This study adds to the wealth of growing evidence from around the world which shows that the HPV vaccine is the most effective way for young girls to protect themselves against cervical cancer.   “Most women aged 15 to 25 years in the UK have now received the HPV vaccine.  Public Health England has already shown that the HPV vaccine has contributed to a significant decrease in rates of infection with the two main cancer-causing HPV types(16 and 18) in vaccinated and unvaccinated women.  This is consistent with very high vaccine effectiveness and substantial herd protection.  In time, it is expected that the vaccine will save hundreds of lives every year.”   Prof Peter Openshaw, President of the British Society for Immunology, said: “Today’s publication of the Cochrane Library review into the effectiveness and safety of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine paints a reassuring picture, highlighting the huge public health benefits that this vaccine offers to young women.   “This very comprehensive review found that the HPV vaccine protects against pre-cancerous changes in the cervix, particularly when given to women aged 15–26.  It also finds that, so far, the vaccine causes no serious side-effects.  This is very important to emphasise: the negative press that the vaccine has received in some countries is completely unfounded on evidence.  The fact that we now have a vaccine that can safely reduce the likelihood of women developing cervical lesions (which often lead to cervical cancer) should be greeted with the highest level of enthusiasm.   “Although the HPV vaccine was originally introduced to prevent cervical cancer in women, it’s now recognised that human papilloma virus can cause a number of other diseases in both sexes (which aren’t included in this review) such as genital warts and some other cancers, including those of the anus and some types of mouth and throat cancer.  These cancers are rarer than cancer of the cervix, but are really important to prevent too.  While this review only concentrates on the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine in relation to cervical lesions, we need to remember that it may confer additional health benefits outside the scope of this review.   “Vaccines are among the most effective methods we have to prevent disease.  The introduction of the HPV vaccine in the UK in 2008 represented a major step forward in public health, protecting future generations from developing cervical cancer.   “The British Society for Immunology celebrates the huge health benefits that this vaccine delivers.  It is now crucial that we redouble efforts to ensure that HPV vaccination rates in girls remain high and that we continue to actively communicate the benefits of this vaccine to parents and children.” Prof Margaret Stanley FMedSci, Emeritus Professor of Epithelial Biology and Research Visitor in the Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, said: “This intensive and rigorous Cochrane analysis of the published clinical trials undertaken with the commercially available HPV vaccines provides reassuring and solid evidence of the safety of these vaccines in young women, with no differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated girls and women in terms of reported serious side effects.  It reinforces the evidence that preventing infection by vaccination in young women, with the most important cancer causing HPVs 16 and 18, reduces cervical precancers dramatically.  These cervical precancers are the obligate precursors to the life threatening cancer; prevent the precancer and you prevent the cancer.  In every clinical trial reviewed in this study the vaccines prevented the development of almost all HPV16/18 caused precancers.  These clinical trial results are now being replicated in real life in countries with national HPV vaccination programmes such as the UK – dramatic reductions in the high grade precancers have been shown in Scotland in 20-25 year old women vaccinated at school when they were 12-15.” Dr David Elliman, Consultant in Community Child Health, and RCPCH paediatrician (Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health), said: “An expert group under the umbrella of the respected Cochrane Collaboration has reviewed all the trials of HPV vaccines.  They looked at how well the vaccines worked and how safe they were.  After carefully examining all the data, and only including all that which was likely to be accurate and unbiased, they reviewed 26 trials covering 73,428 girls or women.  Data on boys and men were not included. “They concluded that both the vaccines that have been in common use (the bivalent vaccine Cervarix and the quadrivalent vaccine Gardasil) were highly effective at preventing infection with the HPV viruses in the vaccines and to a lesser extent reduced infection with some other HPV strains.  They also found that the vaccines were highly effective at reducing the incidence of precancerous changes in the cervix, associated with the vaccine strains, that can lead on to cancer.  (Because it takes a long time after infection with the virus before cancer develops, there are no published data on this yet.)  Changes due to other strains were also reduced, but less so.  The main effects were seen in younger females, especially those who were known not to be already infected with HPV. “The group also looked at the incidence of side effects, following the vaccines.  They found that, as expected, a number of people had local reactions but there were no serious side effects following the vaccine.” Prof Helen Bedford, Professor of Children’s Health, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, said: “HPV vaccine was introduced 10 years ago for 13-14 year old girls to prevent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) which can lead to cancer of the cervix, a condition that claims the lives of over 800 women in the UK each year. “This important review of high quality studies shows that HPV vaccines are effective in preventing changes in the cervix that can lead to cancer, particularly when given to young women.  It also provides reassuring evidence of the safety of HPV vaccines. “This study provides solid evidence of the effectiveness of HPV vaccines.  This, together with early evidence of reduction in cervical cancer in Finland1, confirms the ground breaking value of this cancer preventing vaccine.” 1 Luostarinen T et al. ‘Vaccination protects against invasive HPV-associated cancers’. Int J Cancer, 2018; 142 (2186-2187) Declared interests Prof Keith Neal: "No conflicts." Prof Peter Openshaw: “Prof Peter Openshaw’s research is funded by the Wellcome Trust, the MRC, BBSRC and the European Union. He has received honoraria or consultancy fees from GSK, Janssen, and Mucosis BV.” Prof Margaret Stanley: “Professor Margaret Stanley has acted as consultant and advisor to Glaxo Smith Kline Biologicals and Merck.” Dr David Elliman: “No interests.”  Prof Helen Bedford: “I have no conflicts of interest.” No others received. Full citation: Arbyn M, Xu L, Simoens C, Martin-Hirsch PPL. Prophylactic vaccination against human papillomaviruses to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD009069. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009069.pub3.
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Lessons learned from domestic and international human papillomavirus vaccination programs: a review

Since the development of the human papillomavirus vaccine, many countries have created
implementation programs to bolster vaccination rates and protect their populations. Despite demonstrated efficacy with decreased human papillomavirus–related disease abroad, the vaccine's potential to prevent...
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Risk of Ebola spreading in Congo is 'very low' | CTV News

Risk of Ebola spreading in Congo is 'very low' | CTV News | Virology News | Scoop.it
The risk of Congo's latest Ebola outbreak spreading is 'very low' because of the remote area, a Congolese disease expert said Wednesday as medical teams arrived on the scene.
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Immunogenicity evaluation of inactivated virus and purified proteins of porcine circovirus type 2 in mice

Vaccination is considered as an effective and economical way to against PCV2 infection. However, some of commercial available vaccines are based on inactivated viruses, while the others are based on purified protein of PCV2.
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Doctors paying for sons to have cancer jab

Doctors paying for sons to have cancer jab | Virology News | Scoop.it
Is boys' health being put at risk because they are not included in the official HPV immunisation programme?
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Anti-vaccine pseudoscientist fails to show vaccines are linked to autism

Anti-vaccine pseudoscientist fails to show vaccines are linked to autism | Virology News | Scoop.it
The question has been asked in literally hundreds of real scientific articles, and the answer keeps coming back that there is no link. But that doesn't stop one after another anti-vaccine pseudoscientist coming forward with pathetic evidence to try to "prove" that vaccines cause autism.
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Adding Insult to Injury: Acquisition of Erectile Dysfunction from Circumcision 

Our new study published in the International Journal of Men’s Health showed that circumcised men have a 4.5 times greater chance of suffering from erectile dysfunction (ED) than intact men, revealing what appears to be a significant acquisition...
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Engineering Plants for Geminivirus Resistance with CRISPR/Cas9 System

Engineering Plants for Geminivirus Resistance with CRISPR/Cas9 System | Virology News | Scoop.it
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient genome-editing platform for diverse eukaryotic
species, including plants. Recent work harnessed CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer
resistance to geminiviruses. Here, we discuss opportunities, emerging developments, and potential pitfalls for using this...
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WHO recommends testing before use of Sanofi's dengue vaccine | Reuters

WHO recommends testing before use of Sanofi's dengue vaccine | Reuters | Virology News | Scoop.it
The World Health Organisation on Thursday said Sanofi's vaccine against dengue should only be used after testing individuals to assess whether they could have been exposed before to the infection.
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Zika virus in French Polynesia 2013–14: anatomy of a completed outbreak

Zika virus in French Polynesia 2013–14: anatomy of a completed outbreak | Virology News | Scoop.it
The Zika virus crisis exemplified the risk associated with emerging pathogens and was a reminder that preparedness for the worst-case scenario, although challenging, is needed. Herein, we review all data reported during the unexpected emergence of Zika virus in French Polynesia in late 2013. We focus on the new findings reported during this outbreak, especially the first description of severe neurological complications in adults and the retrospective description of CNS malformations in neonates, the isolation of Zika virus in semen, the potential for blood-transfusion transmission, mother-to-child transmission, and the development of new diagnostic assays. We describe the effect of this outbreak on health systems, the implementation of vector-borne control strategies, and the line of communication used to alert the international community of the new risk associated with Zika virus. This outbreak highlighted the need for careful monitoring of all unexpected events that occur during an emergence, to implement surveillance and research programmes in parallel to management of cases, and to be prepared to the worst-case scenario.

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