Virology News
51.3K views | +1 today
Follow
 
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
onto Virology News
Scoop.it!

The Zombie Survival Guide

The Zombie Survival Guide | Virology News | Scoop.it

Those who don’t learn from history are condemned to repeat it. Don’t wait for them to come to you! Organise before they rise!

Ed Rybicki's insight:

In our continuing quest to keep you all safe from the ZA (=Zombie Apocalypse)...B-)  Have a great New Year out there!

more...
No comment yet.
Virology News
Topical news snippets about viruses that affect people.  And other things. Like Led Zeppelin. And zombies B-)
Curated by Ed Rybicki
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Health Headlines: HPV vaccine doesn't change sexual behavior in teens, study says

HPV vaccine doesn't change sexual behavior in teens, study says...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Prenatal Tdap vaccine: study shows no link with autism in children

Prenatal Tdap vaccine: study shows no link with autism in children | Virology News | Scoop.it
Researchers studied more than 80,000 children and determined that there was no link between the prenatal Tdap vaccine and autism.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

This leukemia comes with 600% higher risk of melanoma

This leukemia comes with 600% higher risk of melanoma | Virology News | Scoop.it
"We do not for sure know why CLL patients are more susceptible to melanoma, but the most likely cause is a suppressed immune system."...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

APHIS Finalizes Conditions for Paying Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Indemnity

APHIS Finalizes Conditions for Paying Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Indemnity | Virology News | Scoop.it
The USDA/APHIS is issuing a final rule outlining the conditions under which USDA will.....farms affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

China's vaccine scandals must trigger deeper health care reforms

China's vaccine scandals must trigger deeper health care reforms | Virology News | Scoop.it
Chinese social media in recent weeks have been flooded with angry posts from parents wondering whether their children received substandard vaccines am...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Canadian newspaper backtracks over vaccine story

Canadian newspaper backtracks over vaccine story | Virology News | Scoop.it
A respected Canadian newspaper that made a link between the vaccine Gardasil and health consequences has been forced into a back-track.The Toronto Star's...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Going Viral: The Mother of all Pandemics: 5. Global Impacts, Local Traces

Going Viral: The Mother of all Pandemics: 5. Global Impacts, Local Traces | Virology News | Scoop.it
The disease detectives investigate the global ramifications of the Spanish flu pandemic and discover places far removed from the European theatre of war, where the Spanish flu has left its trace. Presented by Mark Honigsbaum @honigsbaum and Hannah Mawdsley @HannahMawdsley With: Shobana Jeyasingh,...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Analysis: Viral content: vaccine scandal tests Beijing's grip on information control –

Analysis: Viral content: vaccine scandal tests Beijing's grip on information control – | Virology News | Scoop.it
SHANGHAI/BEIJING (Reuters) - A Chinese vaccine scandal has laid bare a new challenge Beijing faces in its long-running battle for...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Inhibition of Japanese encephalitis virus infection by the host zinc-finger antiviral protein

Inhibition of Japanese encephalitis virus infection by the host zinc-finger antiviral protein | Virology News | Scoop.it
Author summary In addition to innate and adaptive immunities, many cellular proteins also exert antiviral activity against viral invasion. Human zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a cellular restriction factor against many viruses but its role with regard to the flavivirus family is largely...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Why bats stole a gene from an Ebola ancestor

Why bats stole a gene from an Ebola ancestor | Virology News | Scoop.it
Bats swiped a gene from an ancient Ebola-like virus about 18 million years ago. Now, scientists think they know what it's good for.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Detection and genetic characterization of porcine circovirus 3 from aborted fetuses and pigs with respiratory disease in Korea.

A novel porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) was first detected in pigs showing porcine dermatitis and nephropathy-syndrome, reproductive failure, and multi-systemic inf...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

There’s water on Mars! Signs of buried lake tantalize scientists

There’s water on Mars! Signs of buried lake tantalize scientists | Virology News | Scoop.it
The lake would be the first body of liquid water ever detected on the red planet, if observations by a European spacecraft are confirmed.
Ed Rybicki's insight:
And where there's life - there's obviously viruses B-)
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

HPV vaccine to be offered to boys in UK

HPV vaccine to be offered to boys in UK | Virology News | Scoop.it
The national scheme is to be extended to cover 12 to 13-year-old boys, the Government said.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Pfizer Offers €374M for German mRNA Flu Vaccine

Pfizer Offers €374M for German mRNA Flu Vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
BioNTech, based in Mainz, Germany, has entered into a partnership with Pfizer worth up to $425M (€374M) to develop an mRNA-based flu vaccine.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Can chickenpox cause a stroke? Why the vaccine is important

Can chickenpox cause a stroke? Why the vaccine is important | Virology News | Scoop.it
A chickenpox-related stroke in a healthy 11-month-old boy serves as a scary reminder that the childhood disease is not as benign as some parents believe....
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Cancer drug delivery closes in on fabled 'magic bullet'

Cancer drug delivery closes in on fabled 'magic bullet' | Virology News | Scoop.it
Researchers have come up with a new way to take on cancer cells while leaving healthy cells alone, an idea more than a century in the making.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

SHOCK DOCTOR says Chemtrails Contain Mercury cause 'Chemtrail Flu'

SHOCK DOCTOR says Chemtrails Contain Mercury cause 'Chemtrail Flu' Thank you for stopping by. Please Like Share Comment Subscribe and Hit the Bell Notification.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

The Mysterious ‘Jumping Gene’ That Appears 500,000 Times in Human DNA

The Mysterious ‘Jumping Gene’ That Appears 500,000 Times in Human DNA | Virology News | Scoop.it
Its segments make up 17 percent of our genome, but scientists are only just starting to understand what it does.
Ed Rybicki's insight:
"Without LINE1, embryos essentially stopped developing"
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Influenza Vaccine Market to Reach USD 11.4 Billion by 2025

Influenza Vaccine Market to Reach USD 11.4 Billion by 2025 | Virology News | Scoop.it
PUNE, India, August 7, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- The report, "Influenza Vaccine Market by Age Group (Pediatrics and Adults), Vaccine Type (Quadrivalent, Trivalent, and High-Dose), and Virus Type - Global Opportunity Analysis & Forecast to 2025," published by Converged Markets® states, the influenza vaccine market size was estimated to grow from USD 4.9 billion in 2017, to reach USD 11.4 billion by 2025, at a CAGR of 11.0% from 2018 to 2025.      (Logo: https://mma.prnewswire.com/media/725550/Converged_Markets_Logo.jpg ) Browse 164 market data tables and 79 figures spread through 177 pages and in-depth TOC on " Influenza Vaccine Market " https://convergedmarkets.com/influenza-vaccine-market-by-age-group-pediatrics-and-adults-vaccine-type-quadrivalent-trivalent-and-high-dose-vaccines-virus-type-type-a-and-type-b-and-region-global-analysis-forecast-to Early buyers will receive 10% customization on this report The global influenza vaccine market witnessed an upward trend due to the rise in awareness about pandemic influenza coupled with seasonal outbreak. The emergent government policies and innovations in infrastructure projects such as, WHO and IFPMA further led to the demand for influenza vaccine across the globe. The market is anticipated to particularly grow in the emerging countries such as China, India, Africa, and others. The unhealthy food habits coupled with seasonal outbreaks has accelerated the growth of pandemic vaccine production with the novel vaccine technology across these countries. Quadrivalent vaccine segment is expected to dominate the market through 2025 Quadrivalent vaccines accounted for the largest market share of approximately 60% in 2017, which is expected to continue with its position by 2025. As approved by Food Drug and Administration (FDA), this vaccine can be consumed by the age group of two and above 60 years. Hence, the demand for these vaccines is high among the aforementioned. According to the CDC data, in 2017, it was estimated that private clinics and hospitals were considered to be the major places for vaccinations. Although, several new vaccines have recently entered the market, quadrivalent is the most preferable due to its inexpensive nature. Hence, the market for quadrivalent vaccines is expected to obtain the largest share between 2018 and 2025. Request for Sample Report @ https://convergedmarkets.com/request-report-sample Pediatrics segment is projected to grow at the highest rate during the forecast period The vaccination for pediatrics accounted for a larger market share and is anticipated to witness a higher CAGR of 11.7% over the forecast period. The influenza rate among children below two years or more is high. Hence, according to the recommendations of Center for Disease Control and Prevention, it is mandatory to get a special influenza vaccination for them. Furthermore, the adults aged 60 years and above are at a risk of getting infected by influenza; CDC stated, 50% to 70% of influenza related hospitalization occurred among this age group. North America to dominate the Influenza Vaccine Market through 2025 North America accounted for the largest share, followed by Europe in the influenza vaccine market in 2017, in terms of both, value and volume. However, both the regions are projected to grow at low CAGR as they are mature markets. Demand for influenza vaccine experienced continuous growth in countries such as USA, Canada, and Mexico in the recent years. It also provided ample opportunities to the key manufacturers of influenza vaccine. Make an Inquiry @ https://convergedmarkets.com/inquiry-before-buying The key players include Sanofi, GlaxoSmithKline, CSL, Abbott, and AstraZeneca. The major companies possess a vast portfolio of products with outreach in major global markets and work to consolidate their position through strategic alliances, mergers & acquisitions. The other companies in the market include Biocryst Pharmaceuticals, Novavax, SK Chemicals, F Hoffmann-La Roche Ag, and Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma. Browse Related Reports: Cancer Vaccines Market by Vaccine Type (Antigen Vaccine, Dendric Cell Vaccine, DNA Vaccine, and others) by Treatment Method, by Application, by Treatment Method (Preventive Vaccine and Therapeutic Vaccine), and by Region- Global Analysis and Forecast to 2025 https://convergedmarkets.com/cancer-vaccines-market-by-vaccine-type-antigen-vaccine-dendric-cell-vaccine-dna-vaccine-and-others-by-treatment-method-by-application-by-treatment-method-preventive-vaccine-and-therapeutic-vac Veterinary Vaccine Market by Type (Livestock, Porcine, Poultry, and Companion Animal), Technology (Live Attenuated, Inactivated, and Toxoid), Disease (Porcine Parvovirus, Swine Flu, Avian Influenza, Rabies, and Others) - Global Analysis & Forecast to 2025 https://convergedmarkets.com/veterinary-vaccine-market-by-type-livestock-porcine-poultry-and-companion-animal-technology-live-attenuated-inactivated-and-toxoid-disease-porcine-parvovirus-swine-flu-avian-influenza-r Key Questions Answered in the Report: What was the market size, in terms of value (USD million), of the influenza vaccine market in 2017, and growth rate during the forecast period, 2018-2025? What was the revenue generation of influenza vaccine market in 2017 and what is their growth prospect? What is the market size of different segments considered in the study such as vaccine type, virus type, and age group, and their respective growth prospects? What is the influenza vaccine market size for different regions such as North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the World? What are the key trends and opportunities in the market, pertaining to countries included in different regions? How attractive is the market for different stakeholders present in the industry by analyzing the futuristic scenario of influenza vaccine? What are the major driving forces that tend to increase the demand for influenza vaccine during the forecast period? What are the major challenges inhibiting the growth of the global influenza vaccine market? What kind of new strategies are being adopted by the existing market players to make a mark in the industry? What is the competitive strength of the key players in the influenza vaccine market by analyzing through shares? About Us  Converged Markets is a premier provider of market intelligence and advisory services that delineates a focused vision to provide indispensable insights and strategic decision support to business leaders worldwide. Our team of knowledgeable and industry-experienced Business Consultants follows a distinct research approach and rigorous methodologies to analyze market dynamics that directly or indirectly impact mainstream businesses. Comprehensive coverage of multiple industries and consistent deep-dive analysis are ingrained in our research methodology; and together these form the basis of our strategic research outcomes that aid our clients with the strategic growth roadmap. We employ a number of assets and research tools that set us apart from other market research firms. Additionally, with long-term strategic partners and in-house expertise in all major industries, Converged Markets offers global, regional, and country-level analysis and insights to clients that assist them to make fact-based decisions and achieve their key business objectives. Contact Us:- Ms. Apurva Jakhar, Business Development Manager Converged Markets Email: sales@convergedmarkets.com USA :+1-858-800-4242 UK :+44-208-068-2033 Visit Our Blog @ http://blog.convergedmarkets.com/index.php/category/healthcare-lifesciences/ Connect with us on LinkedIn @ https://www.linkedin.com/company/converged-markets/ SOURCE Converged Markets
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Beyond the myths: Novel findings for old paradigms in the history of the smallpox vaccine

Beyond the myths: Novel findings for old paradigms in the history of the smallpox vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
Introduction The discovery of smallpox vaccination by Edward Jenner in 1796 gave a new perspective to science in the struggle against this devastating disease. Smallpox has claimed hundreds of millions of lives over the centuries. However, it was only in 1980 that the World Health Organization finally declared smallpox eradicated after an intense worldwide vaccination campaign [1]. The intriguing history of the smallpox vaccine is replete with mythology that continues to fascinate researchers today. The main mystery concerns the true origin of the vaccine matter used by Jenner and subsequent early vaccinators [2, 3]. For the 20th century, we certainly know the answer: vaccinia virus. But what of previous centuries—was cowpox or horsepox the virus used? Or was it actually vaccinia virus that was being used, and if so, how did this come about? After all, vaccinia virus has never been reported to cause natural infections in animals, except for escapee vaccine strains in Brazil and India [4]. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies applied to genomic studies of modern and old smallpox vaccines are helping to sort out these puzzles. Demystifying Jenner reveals an even more powerful figure In 1796, the British country doctor Edward Jenner decided to test the hypothesis that previous contact with a disease of cattle known as cowpox would prevent the development of smallpox. The disease induced pustular lesions localized to the teats of dairy cattle and the hands of milkmaids, which resembled smallpox lesions. In one experiment, Jenner scarified the arm of an 8-year-old boy with the material of a cowpox lesion obtained from the hand of a milkmaid, and 6 weeks later, he scarified the arm of the boy again with smallpox-derived material. Because the boy did not develop smallpox, Jenner was convinced of the “preventive power” of cowpox. These and other findings were gathered in a manuscript published in 1798, and a couple of years later, the procedure was named vaccination (from Latin “vacca,” “cow”) [5]. As time passed, history continued to faithfully relay the information that the smallpox vaccine contains cowpox virus [6]. But what actually formed the basis for protection? Different from most current vaccines, the material used for smallpox vaccination was not an attenuated or inactivated form of the virus that caused the disease: variola virus. Instead, it was a related virus from the same family (Poxviridae) and genus (Orthopoxvirus). Today, we know that infection with one orthopoxvirus elicits cross-immunity against subsequent infection with another orthopoxvirus in humans [7]—something that Jenner could not have known since viruses did not begin to be identified until the end of the 19th century. Thus, Jenner was unaware of the true biological nature of the vaccine material, which was called indistinctly cowpox virus or vaccinia virus. Many other experimental inoculations were reported by Jenner in the same manuscript, and in some cases, the vaccine material was obtained from lesions of horses affected by the so-called horsepox, a disease similar to cowpox. The horse lymph was scarified directly on a person’s arm or first inoculated in cows, and then the cow lymph was passed to a person (Fig 1). Actually, Jenner was convinced that the best protective results were obtained when the transmission chain horse–cow–human was followed [5, 8]. This procedure was referred to as equination, and Jenner, as well as other British and Italian physicians, used it successfully in the following years [2, 3]. But was that disease of horses caused by the orthopoxvirus we know today as horsepox virus? Again, this was impossible to know at the time. Download: PPT PowerPoint slide PNG larger image TIFF original image Fig 1. Cowpox and horsepox lesions. (A) Old illustration depicting a cowpox lesion on the finger of milker William Plowman 5 days after the onset of vesicle formation. December 2, 1887. (B) Old illustration depicting a horsepox lesion on the arm of 5-year-old John Baker, who was inoculated with the material taken from a horsepox lesion (equination) on the hand of a stableman by Edward Jenner. March 16, 1798. Reproduced for noncommercial research purposes from reference [8]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007082.g001 Over the centuries, numerous myths have been associated with Jenner’s discovery in attempts to either deify him or criticize him [9]. However, stripped of all the myths, Jenner emerges as an even more powerful figure. Three major contributions clearly stand out as his legacy: (1) through careful observation and experimentation, he provided scientific evidence for the role of “cowpox” in the prevention of smallpox, even in the absence of the theoretical framework provided by the germ theory of disease, which was formulated some 80 years later; (2) he found that the vaccine material against smallpox could be serially transferred in humans (also called Jennerian or humanized vaccine), establishing a practical arm-to-arm system for spreading the vaccine worldwide; and (3) he championed vaccination as a public health intervention, predicting that vaccination would one day “annihilate” smallpox [10]. Worldwide distribution of the smallpox vaccine The Jennerian vaccine spread rapidly worldwide, and all European countries, the Americas, and Asia had the vaccine by 1813 [11]. As stocks were depleted, they were renewed by fresh pustular material from naturally infected cows and/or horses. Therefore, vaccine stocks changed massively over the following years [3]. After the mid-1800s, the propagation method for smallpox vaccine changed to sequential passage of lymph material in cows (animal vaccine). Italy and France played a distinguished role in this process, and vaccine production increased worldwide. Different vaccine strains produced in different establishments were exchanged globally and mixed empirically in attempts to generate vaccines with increased potency [3]. The true nature of the smallpox vaccine: Cowpox, horsepox, or vaccinia virus? A watershed in the history of the smallpox vaccine came in 1939 when British researcher Allan Downie, using immunological assays, made a clear distinction between the virus in the smallpox vaccine (vaccinia virus) and viruses that had been obtained from natural cases of cowpox [12]. This work raised important questions to researchers that we have not yet been able to answer: When and how did vaccinia virus start being used as the smallpox vaccine? Conversely, was cowpox virus or horsepox virus ever used? Why are all extant 20th century smallpox vaccines made with vaccinia virus and none with cowpox virus? These questions are just part of a more complicated conundrum. Cowpox and vaccinia are different orthopoxviruses, while horsepox virus belongs to the vaccinia lineage. As orthopoxviruses, we expect that they all can elicit cross-protection against smallpox [7]. Cowpox and vaccinia viruses can infect cows, humans, and horses, generating similar pustular diseases that prove difficult to distinguish clinically [3]. As for horsepox, we expect the same since the virus belongs to the vaccinia lineage. It is known that the Mongolian strain can infect horses [13], and the Mulford strain—a horsepox-like virus—was reported to infect cows and humans in the early 20th century [14]. What is more, the natural hosts and reservoirs of cowpox virus are rodents, not cows [7, 15]. Similarly, rodents have been reported as reservoirs for feral strains of vaccinia virus in Brazil [16], and this is probably true for horsepox virus. Hence, cows, horses, and humans are all accidental hosts! To the best of our knowledge, today we can only conclusively state that Jenner vaccinated people with an orthopoxvirus. Modern sequencing technologies to the rescue For the last decade, the use of NGS technologies has immensely contributed to our knowledge on the evolutionary relationship of several vaccinia virus strains (Fig 2). Genome sequencing of Dryvax and Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC) clones (20th century smallpox vaccine strains used in the United States of America and Brazil, respectively) revealed genetic distances between clones (individual viruses isolated from a vaccine pool by plaque purification) that are similar to or even bigger than the distances between different vaccinia or variola strains [17, 18]. This suggests that 20th century smallpox vaccines may, in fact, represent a mixture of vaccinia strains, which substantiates historical reports. Intriguing patterns of recombinational events between clones may even have increased the genetic diversity of these strains [19]. Download: PPT PowerPoint slide PNG larger image TIFF original image Fig 2. Phylogenetic tree of the vaccinia virus lineage. Phylogeny inference (a neighbor-joining tree with use of the Kimura 2-parameter substitution model and 1,000 bootstrap replicates) was based on the conserved region of the genome of 31 orthopoxviruses. Colored boxes highlight the 3 main clades of the vaccinia lineage. The red arrow points to HSPV, which groups within the HSPV/South American clade, together with the Brazilian IOC vaccine strain and the Brazilian field strains of vaccinia virus. The red circles indicate the position of different cowpox viruses, which are polyphyletic and group outside the vaccinia lineage. The red star indicates the position of variola virus. The scale bar indicates the number of substitutions per site. HSPV, horsepox virus; IOC, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007082.g002 Genomic analyses also provide evidence that horsepox virus is grouped within the South American clade of the vaccinia virus lineage, closely related to IOC and the feral vaccinia strain Cantagalo (Fig 2) [3, 18]. This is very intriguing, but the fact that there is only one extant specimen of horsepox (isolated from infected horses in Mongolia in 1976 and possibly extinct in Europe and Asia) does not provide much scope for conclusions [13, 20]. Several features of the horsepox genome, such as the presence of full-length genes that otherwise are truncated in all vaccinia strains, suggest that horsepox virus is probably closely related to an ancestor of the vaccinia lineage. However, the clustering within the vaccinia phylogenetic tree suggests that horsepox virus could be considered a vaccinia strain. Additionally, patches of horsepox sequences are found in some clones of Dryvax and IOC strains, suggesting recombination events and reinforcing the findings that both clades share a common ancestor or indicating previous copropagation [18, 19]. However, despite clustering within the vaccinia lineage, horsepox virus is distant from other vaccinia strains—its genome has striking features that are not found in any vaccinia virus. For example, horsepox virus has a 10.7-kb region at the left end and a 5.5-kb region at the right end of the genome that are missing in all known vaccinia strains [13]. Recently, the conclusion that there is a close relationship of horsepox and vaccinia gained support with the analysis of an old vaccine produced by the H. K. Mulford Company, Philadelphia, in 1902. The glycerinated content of a capillary was recovered, and genome sequencing revealed 99.7% similarity of the central core region with horsepox virus. However, the Mulford-1902 strain differs from horsepox in having the 2 large deletions in both genome ends that are typical of all vaccinia strains [14]. These findings provide the first scientific evidence that a horsepox-like virus was once used in the production of the smallpox vaccine, and because there is no record whatsoever of the circulation of horsepox virus in the Americas, the seed for the Mulford vaccine must originate in 19th century Europe. Conclusions and future perspectives Many questions about the true nature of the smallpox vaccine produced before the mid-20th century remain unanswered. A significant advance resulted from the finding that horsepox virus was in fact used to produce at least one commercial smallpox vaccine, but we do not know if this was a one-time event or a widely utilized practice. Additionally, we still don’t know when and how vaccinia virus began to be used. And perhaps most astonishing, we don’t know if cowpox virus has ever been used as a smallpox vaccine because no existing vaccine contains this virus. Old drawings of children’s arms show vaccine lesions with a central black scar suggestive of cowpox infection, but secondary bacterial infections could have caused similar lesions. The main answers to our questions certainly reside in further studies of ancient smallpox vaccines. Genomic analyses of such samples will illuminate this intricate puzzle.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Porcine circovirus 2 particles use distinct binding modes for cellular attachment

Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is the smallest autonomously replicating virus and thus defines the minimum amount of genetic and biochemical information needed for infection. PCV2 infects nearly every tissue within its host, and infections result in immunosuppression and subsequent death of the host. Infection is initiated via the attachment of the PCV2 capsid to heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate B glycosaminoglycan (GAG) on the surface of the cell. We demonstrate that the PCV2 capsid does not recognize the pyranose backbone of a GAG, and solely interacts with the sulfates of GAG. We visualize the interaction between heparin sulfate, an analog for heparan sulfate, and the PCV2 capsid using cryo electron microscopy. The image reconstructions provide the first example of an asymmetric distribution of heparin sulfate on the surface of a virus capsid. We demonstrate that each subunit possesses six heparin sulfate binding sites, but binding at any site occludes binding at the other five sites. The binding sites are defined by arginine, lysine, and polar amino acids. Mutation of these arginine and lysine to alanine diminishes the binding capacity of the PCV2 to heparin sulfate. A third to two-thirds of the binding sites (subunits) in each PCV2 is occupied by segments of one or multiple 12kDa heparin sulfate chains, leaving the remaining subunits unliganded. We discuss the significance of the unliganded subunits in the life cycle of PCV2.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Researchers Find a New Way to Target the Flu Virus

Researchers Find a New Way to Target the Flu Virus | Virology News | Scoop.it
Researchers Find a New Way to Target the Flu Virus...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

'Hippo' named for Mick Jagger had quite the muzzle

'Hippo' named for Mick Jagger had quite the muzzle | Virology News | Scoop.it
Fossils suggest that an ancient creature had "mobile and tactile lips." Scientists named it for Mick Jagger, who turns 75 on July 26.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Plants produce ‘green vaccine’ against norovirus 

In a new study, Andrew G. Diamos and Hugh S. Mason of the Biodesign Center for Immunology, Vaccines and Virotherapy describe a trial vaccine against norovirus. The innovative therapeutic is produced using a plant-based system, which offers many advantages over traditional routes of pharmaceutical...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Namibians Urged To Take Precautions To Avoid Swine Flu As More Cases Are Reported

Namibians Urged To Take Precautions To Avoid Swine Flu As More Cases Are Reported | Virology News | Scoop.it
WINDHOEK -- The Ministry of Health and Social Services has urged Namibians to take the necessary precautions to avoid getting infected with swine flu as cases of the virus continue to rise.
more...
No comment yet.