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PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation

PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation | Virology News | Scoop.it

Plant viruses are generally considered incapable of infecting vertebrates. Accordingly, they are not considered harmful for humans. However, a few studies questioned the certainty of this paradigm. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA has been detected in human samples and TMV RNA translation has been described in animal cells. We sought to determine if TMV is detectable, persists, and remains viable in the lung tissues of mice following intratracheal inoculation, and we attempted to inoculate mouse macrophages with TMV. In the animal model, mice were intratracheally inoculated with 1011 viral particles and were sacrificed at different time points. The virus was detected in the mouse lungs using immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, real-time RT-PCR and sequencing, and its viability was studied with an infectivity assay on plants. In the cellular model, the culture medium of murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) was inoculated with different concentrations of TMV, and the virus was detected with real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. In addition, anti-TMV antibodies were detected in mouse sera with ELISA. We showed that infectious TMV could enter and persist in mouse lungs via the intratracheal route. Over 14 days, the TMV RNA level decreased by 5 log10 copies/ml in the mouse lungs and by 3.5 log10 in macrophages recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage. TMV was localized to lung tissue, and its infectivity was observed on plants until 3 days after inoculation. In addition, anti-TMV antibody seroconversions were observed in the sera from mice 7 days after inoculation. In the cellular model, we observed that TMV persisted over 15 days after inoculation and it was visualized in the cytoplasm of the BMDM. This work shows that a plant virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, could persist and enter in cells in mammals, which raises questions about the potential interactions between TMV and human hosts.

 
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Interesting paper!  Which proves...which proves...which proves TMV is seriously resistant to degradation in animals and in mammalian cells; that it can enter macrophages; and that it...what?  What, exactly, are the "...questions about the possible interactions..."?  What would TMV do in mammalian cells?  Yes, it might be incoated and be translated; it is far less likely that it MIGHT be able to replicate its RNA - and then?  While it can apparently be taken up quite efficiently by macrophages - a property which, incidentally, has led to its being trialled as an RNA vaccine delivery system - this is a dead end, and one that is quite normal for particles of any kind being introduced into mammals.

 

Which is something that happens every day, as we and our cousin mammals eat: it has been shown elsewhere that animals are actually quite good spreaders of plant viruses, some of which - like TMV and the even tougher Cauliflower mosaic virus - pass right through at high survival rates, and remain infectious.  We will all probably have eaten many grams of various viruses in our lives, and derived nothing more than nutition from them.

 

I also remember, even though it was very late at night, 31 years ago, and in a bar in Banff in Canada, a conversation with one Richard Zeyen, who told me they had used ELISA to test everyone in their lab for antibodies for TMV, seeing as they worked with it.  And everyone was immune - presumably, to aerosolised TMV that had been breathed in or otherwise ingested.  Proving...that oral vaccines based on TMV could work, and that most of us are probably immune to all sorts of viruses that don't replicate in us.  Including, in the case of many people in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, sampled by one Don Hendry via the local blood bank, to a virus of Pine Emperor moths - because it multiples to such high levels in its host that anyone walking in the pine forests was bound to be exposed via the environment.

 

So this is an interesting paper - and no more.  It will, of course, lead to alarmist articles ad blog posts, and people calling out for urgent surveillance of food, in which people will find many viruses.  And so what?

 

 

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Use new flu vaccine in over 65s for 2018/19 flu season, says JCVI 

The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) have recommended that a different, adjuvanted flu vaccine is used in over 65s for the 2018/19 flu season. Minutes from their latest committee meeting reveal that the JCVI believe the use of an adjuvanted vaccine, as opposed to the...
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Women who have HPV jab may only need three cervical screens in a lifetime

Women who have HPV jab may only need three cervical screens in a lifetime | Virology News | Scoop.it
News story Women who have HPV jab may only need three cervical screens in a lifetime Women may only need three cervical screens in their lifetime if they have been given the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, according to a new study by Queen Mary University of London (QMUL).
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Opinion | The key to ending the HIV epidemic is empowering mothers

Opinion | The key to ending the HIV epidemic is empowering mothers | Virology News | Scoop.it
The HIV epidemic remains a real problem in Africa. These courageous mothers want to help end it.
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Yemen set to run out of fuel and vaccine in a month: UNICEF

Yemen set to run out of fuel and vaccine in a month: UNICEF | Virology News | Scoop.it
Yemen’s stocks of fuel and vaccines will run out in a month unless a Saudi-led military coalition allows aid into the blockaded port of Hodeidah and Sanaa airport, UNICEF’s representative in the country said on Friday. Meritxell Relano, speaking by phone to reporters in Geneva, said fuel prices had risen 60 percent and there were …
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Shameful!!
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In 2017, India sees over 20-fold rise in swine flu cases

In 2017, India sees over 20-fold rise in swine flu cases | Virology News | Scoop.it
According to a latest report on seasonal influenza (H1N1) released by the ministry of health and family welfare’s Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme
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Ten flu deaths at nursing home amid serious management failure

Ten flu deaths at nursing home amid serious management failure | Virology News | Scoop.it
A fatal flu outbreak at a Wangaratta nursing home, where 10 residents died of influenza and two others from respiratory illness, was worsened by seriou
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Namibia Gets Over U.S. $30 Million War Chest to Fight HIV

Namibia Gets Over U.S. $30 Million War Chest to Fight HIV | Virology News | Scoop.it
Namibia has signed an amendment to the 2007 bilateral grant agreement with the USA to add N$435 million of funding under the US government's President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), to help fight against the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
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IUDs May Have a Surprising Health Benefit

IUDs May Have a Surprising Health Benefit | Virology News | Scoop.it
A new report links having an IUD to a 30% lower risk of cervical cancer.
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Contemporary H3N2 influenza viruses have a glycosylation site that alters binding of antibodies elicited by egg-adapted vaccine strains

Contemporary H3N2 influenza viruses have a glycosylation site that alters binding of antibodies elicited by egg-adapted vaccine strains | Virology News | Scoop.it
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Nov 6. pii: 201712377. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1712377114. [Epub ahead of print]
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HIV patients at risk of both heart, kidney diseases

HIV patients at risk of both heart, kidney diseases | Virology News | Scoop.it
The findings showed that the risks of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease in people with HIV infection occur simultaneously.
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Life’s First Molecule Was Protein, Not RNA, New Model Suggests 

Life’s First Molecule Was Protein, Not RNA, New Model Suggests  | Virology News | Scoop.it

Which mattered first at the dawn of life: proteins or nucleic acids? Proteins may have had the edge if a theorized process let them grow long enough to become self-replicating catalysts. 


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
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Tanzania burns alive 6,400 chicks from Kenya, says they had bird flu

Tanzania burns alive 6,400 chicks from Kenya, says they had bird flu | Virology News | Scoop.it
Kenyan authorities are angry after Tanzania police burnt to death 6,400 one-day-old chicks from Kenya, on suspicion they could spread bird flu. Tanzania’s regional livestock boss, Obedi Nyasembwa, said the chicks, worth about Sh554,000 (Tsh12 million), were smuggled from Kenya and were a health risk. The day-old chicks were intercepted on Sunday in Namanga and a Tanzanian businesswoman was arrested. They were being transported in ventilated wooden boxes.The authorities doused them in petrol then set them ablaze on Tuesday, Mwananchi newspaper reported.
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The Spanish Influenza: A Flu That Killed More Than WW1 

Each year we are flooded with large ad campaigns encouraging us to get our flu shots. Most of us probably wonder why. The flu doesn't seem that bad, right
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1918 influenza pandemic survivor interview

Mrs. Robinson, a 97 year-old resident of Clanton, Alabama gives her account of people staying home during the terrible times of the 1918 flu pandemic. As she … source
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Oral viral archaeology!
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Molecular evolution of hemagglutinin gene of Influenza A virus.

In the history of human civilization, influenza is the second most catastrophic killer disease for mankind with plague ranking first in the medieval times. Th
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Kaspersky Anti-Virus is being impersonated by a CIA’s Spying Program

Kaspersky Anti-Virus is being impersonated by a CIA’s Spying Program | Virology News | Scoop.it
The tool itself is impressive enough, serving as the backbone of the CIA's malware processes, but there's more. What's interesting about the first leak in the Vault 8 line is that it seems to show the agency portraying Kaspersky, by making use of a fake certificate for the anti-virus company. WikiLeaks describes the purpose and weaknesses of Vault 8: "This publication will enable investigative journalists, forensic experts, and the obscure public to better identify and assume covert CIA infrastructure components. Source code declared in this series contains software created to run on servers controlled by the CIA. Like WikiLeaks' earlier Vault7 series, the stuff published by WikiLeaks does not contain 0-days or related security vulnerabilities which could be repurposed by others." It then goes on to explain the purpose of Hive and gives links to the Hive container as well as the Hive Commit History. It also presents a brief description of the purpose of the tool: Hive solves a dangerous problem for the malware operators at the CIA. Even the most complicated malware implant on a target machine is useless if there is no way for it to interact with its operators in a secure method that does not draw attention. Using Hive even if an implant is located on a target computer, attributing it to the CIA is difficult by just looking at the interface of the malware with other servers on the internet. Hive presents a covert communications platform for a whole range of CIA malware to send exfiltrated knowledge to CIA servers and to receive new instructions from speculators at the CIA. The source code for Hive is unquestionably interesting, but the use of fake documents relating to Kaspersky labs is particularly impressive. The discovery is certain to raise a few inquiries, such as whether the US government which has outlawed the use of Kaspersky software on its computers has been trying to use the Russia security firm as a victim for some time. Take your time to comment on this
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Damn!  I had this as the premise of an unfinished story I started writing...
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12-Year Follow-up on the Long-Term Effectiveness of the Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in 4 Nordic Countries | Clinical Infectious Diseases | Oxford Academic

12-Year Follow-up on the Long-Term Effectiveness of the Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in 4 Nordic Countries | Clinical Infectious Diseases | Oxford Academic | Virology News | Scoop.it
Summary. We summarize the long-term effectiveness of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine in Nordic women, followed via different national registri
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HPV vaccine could reduce Pap tests in a lifetime

HPV vaccine could reduce Pap tests in a lifetime | Virology News | Scoop.it
Women vaccinated against the human papillomavirus (HPV) can be effectively protected from cervical cancer with merely three pap test in their lifetime, suggests a new research. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women living in less developed regions with an estimated 445,000 new cases in 2012 (84 per cent of the new…
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Promising Clinical Results For Takeda’s Dengue Vaccine

Promising Clinical Results For Takeda’s Dengue Vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
Takeda’s dengue vaccine candidate TAK-003 has been shown to provide protection against all four serotypes of the virus for at least 18 months.
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Flu Season: Its Early [in N hemisphere], But Experts Are Concerned

This limited effectiveness was due to a mutation that occurred in the influenza A (H3N2) vaccine strain, according to a study published Monday in th
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The Americas Lead in Vaccination of Pregnant Women against Influenza

The Americas Lead in Vaccination of Pregnant Women against Influenza | Virology News | Scoop.it
The Region of the Americas is a leader in vaccinating pregnant women against influenza, a public health problem that for future mothers, newborns, and other high-risk populations can mean severe disease, complications, and hospitalization.
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Molecular detection of Porcine circovirus type 2 in swine herds of Eastern Cape Province South Africa

Molecular detection of Porcine circovirus type 2 in swine herds of Eastern Cape Province South Africa | Virology News | Scoop.it
BMC Microbiol. 2017 Nov 2;17(1):212. doi: 10.1186/s12866-017-1121-4.
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And we - ahem - just happen to be making VLPs in plants of PCV-2...
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Starting ART immediately after diagnosis cuts AIDS mortality risk by two-thirds

Starting ART immediately after diagnosis cuts AIDS mortality risk by two-thirds | Virology News | Scoop.it
People with a high CD4 cell count who start antiretroviral therapy immediately after diagnosis with HIV cut their 12-month mortality risk by two-thirds, according to research conducted in China.
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Safety of HPV vaccines – A case-control study

10th NorPEN Congress 1st - 3rd November 2017, Safety, drugs and vaccines – methodological considerations Safety of HPV vaccines – A case-control study Kår
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Watch it all!!
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Influenza A Virus Is After Your Pigs’ Potential

Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) affects more than 70 percent of growing pigs each year. Airborne and transmitted snout to snout, it’s putting your whol
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