Virology News
48.6K views | +17 today
Follow
 
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
onto Virology News
Scoop.it!

PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation

PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation | Virology News | Scoop.it

Plant viruses are generally considered incapable of infecting vertebrates. Accordingly, they are not considered harmful for humans. However, a few studies questioned the certainty of this paradigm. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA has been detected in human samples and TMV RNA translation has been described in animal cells. We sought to determine if TMV is detectable, persists, and remains viable in the lung tissues of mice following intratracheal inoculation, and we attempted to inoculate mouse macrophages with TMV. In the animal model, mice were intratracheally inoculated with 1011 viral particles and were sacrificed at different time points. The virus was detected in the mouse lungs using immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, real-time RT-PCR and sequencing, and its viability was studied with an infectivity assay on plants. In the cellular model, the culture medium of murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) was inoculated with different concentrations of TMV, and the virus was detected with real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. In addition, anti-TMV antibodies were detected in mouse sera with ELISA. We showed that infectious TMV could enter and persist in mouse lungs via the intratracheal route. Over 14 days, the TMV RNA level decreased by 5 log10 copies/ml in the mouse lungs and by 3.5 log10 in macrophages recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage. TMV was localized to lung tissue, and its infectivity was observed on plants until 3 days after inoculation. In addition, anti-TMV antibody seroconversions were observed in the sera from mice 7 days after inoculation. In the cellular model, we observed that TMV persisted over 15 days after inoculation and it was visualized in the cytoplasm of the BMDM. This work shows that a plant virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, could persist and enter in cells in mammals, which raises questions about the potential interactions between TMV and human hosts.

 
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Interesting paper!  Which proves...which proves...which proves TMV is seriously resistant to degradation in animals and in mammalian cells; that it can enter macrophages; and that it...what?  What, exactly, are the "...questions about the possible interactions..."?  What would TMV do in mammalian cells?  Yes, it might be incoated and be translated; it is far less likely that it MIGHT be able to replicate its RNA - and then?  While it can apparently be taken up quite efficiently by macrophages - a property which, incidentally, has led to its being trialled as an RNA vaccine delivery system - this is a dead end, and one that is quite normal for particles of any kind being introduced into mammals.

 

Which is something that happens every day, as we and our cousin mammals eat: it has been shown elsewhere that animals are actually quite good spreaders of plant viruses, some of which - like TMV and the even tougher Cauliflower mosaic virus - pass right through at high survival rates, and remain infectious.  We will all probably have eaten many grams of various viruses in our lives, and derived nothing more than nutition from them.

 

I also remember, even though it was very late at night, 31 years ago, and in a bar in Banff in Canada, a conversation with one Richard Zeyen, who told me they had used ELISA to test everyone in their lab for antibodies for TMV, seeing as they worked with it.  And everyone was immune - presumably, to aerosolised TMV that had been breathed in or otherwise ingested.  Proving...that oral vaccines based on TMV could work, and that most of us are probably immune to all sorts of viruses that don't replicate in us.  Including, in the case of many people in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, sampled by one Don Hendry via the local blood bank, to a virus of Pine Emperor moths - because it multiples to such high levels in its host that anyone walking in the pine forests was bound to be exposed via the environment.

 

So this is an interesting paper - and no more.  It will, of course, lead to alarmist articles ad blog posts, and people calling out for urgent surveillance of food, in which people will find many viruses.  And so what?

 

 

more...
No comment yet.
Virology News
Topical news snippets about viruses that affect people.  And other things. Like zombies B-)
Curated by Ed Rybicki
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Acquisition of functions on the outer capsid surface during evolution of double-stranded RNA fungal viruses

Acquisition of functions on the outer capsid surface during evolution of double-stranded RNA fungal viruses | Virology News | Scoop.it
Author summary Most fungal RNA viruses are transmitted by cytoplasmic interchange without leaving the host. We report the cryo-electron microscopy structure, at near-atomic resolution, of the double-stranded RNA Rosellinia necatrix quadrivirus 1 (RnQV1); this virus infects the fungus Rosellinia necatrix, a pathogenic ascomycete to a wide range of plants. At difference most dsRNA viruses, whose capsid is made of protein homodimers, RnQV1 is based on a single-shelled lattice built of 60 P2-P4 heterodimers. Despite a lack of sequence similarity, P2 and P4 have a similar α-helical domain, a structural signature shared with the dsRNA virus lineage. In addition to organizing the viral genome and replicative machinery, P2 and P4 have acquired new functions by inserting complex domains in preferential insertion sites. Whereas the P2 insertion domain has a fold like that of actin-binding proteins, the structure of the P4 insertion domain indicates proteolytic activity. Understanding the structure of a fungal virus capsid with enzyme activities could allow its development as nanoreactors for biotechnological application.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Templated co-assembly into nanorods of polyanions and artificial virus capsid proteins

Soft Matter. 2017 Dec 8. doi: 10.1039/c7sm02012k. [Epub ahead of print]
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Epidemic influenza and vitamin D

Epidemic influenza and vitamin D | Virology News | Scoop.it
In 1981, R. Edgar Hope-Simpson proposed that a ‘seasonal stimulus’ intimately associated with solar radiation explained the remarkable seasonality of epidemic influenza. Solar radiation triggers robust seasonal vitamin D production i
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Study Finds Significant Survival Disparities in HPV-related Cancer

Study Finds Significant Survival Disparities in HPV-related Cancer | Virology News | Scoop.it
Younger patients, women, and white patients with HPV-related cancers had superior survival at 5 years, indicating that increased HPV vaccination and better access to cancer screening and treatment are likely needed to reduce survival disparities
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Marburg cases in Uganda: the lowdown about Ebola's 'sister' virus

Marburg cases in Uganda: the lowdown about Ebola's 'sister' virus | Virology News | Scoop.it

What is the Marburg virus and why is it considered dangerous? The Marburg virus is probably most easily introduced as the sister of the infamous Ebola virus. The viruses are similar in their genetic and structural makeup, they’re transmitted from human-to-human and their clinical presentation in humans is similar. But there are some marked differences. For example, apart from overlapping in two countries, they have been detected in different parts of the African continent. Marburg virus has been reported in sporadic outbreaks in eastern and southern Africa – including Uganda, Kenya, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Angola. A case of Marburg virus disease in South Africa was traced back to potential exposure in Zimbabwe. For its part, Ebola has also been reported in the DRC and Uganda, as well as Sudan, Gabon, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. There are also differences in the natural ecology of the two viruses. Current evidence supports the hypothesis of circulation of Marburg virus in cave dwelling bats such as Rousettus aegyptiacus (or Egyptian fruit bat), while most believe that the Ebola virus are associated with forest dwelling bat species.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Bird flu in Uganda highlights gaps in Africa's plans to manage pandemics

Bird flu in Uganda highlights gaps in Africa's plans to manage pandemics | Virology News | Scoop.it

The strain of avian influenza detected in wild and domestic birds in Uganda recently is the same virus that has spread through Asia and Europe over the past four months. Revealed as the H5N8 avian influenza strain, it is thought to have spread across continents via wild migratory birds. In Africa, aside from Uganda, the H5N8 outbreak has also been recorded in Nigeria and Tunisia this year. The risk of humans being infected by H5N8 is low, but should this happen, the virus can cause severe illness and death. Since the outbreak in Uganda was reported, a number of East African countries have increased their monitoring while the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, and Tanzania have imposed a ban on poultry from Uganda. But African countries face challenges in detecting such outbreaks because they have weak avian influenza surveillance systems.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

This is the kind of shit that kills people. "Biafra Today:  How IPOB Curtailed The Spread Of Monkeypox Virus"

This is the kind of shit that kills people. "Biafra Today:  How IPOB Curtailed The Spread Of Monkeypox Virus" | Virology News | Scoop.it

Complete HORSESHIT from start to finish - and this sort of thing keeps coming out of Nigeria. And Kenya, BTW.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Health care workers refused to get vaccinated. Now they're out of jobs

Health care workers refused to get vaccinated. Now they're out of jobs | Virology News | Scoop.it
A Midwest health system fired 50 people who refused to get flu shots. Doctors say mandatory vaccination against influenza protects patients.
Ed Rybicki's insight:
Excellent!
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Bat cave solves mystery of deadly SARS virus — and suggests new outbreak could occur

Bat cave solves mystery of deadly SARS virus — and suggests new outbreak could occur | Virology News | Scoop.it

Chinese scientists find all the genetic building blocks of SARS in a single population of horseshoe bats.

After a detective hunt across China, researchers chasing the origin of the deadly SARS virus have finally found their smoking gun. In a remote cave in Yunnan province, virologists have identified a single population of horseshoe bats that harbours virus strains with all the genetic building blocks of the one that jumped to humans in 2002, killing almost 800 people around the world. The killer strain could easily have arisen from such a bat population, the researchers report in PLoS Pathogens1 on 30 November. They warn that the ingredients are in place for a similar disease to emerge again.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

The crackpot conspiracy theories and deadly denial fuelling Russia’s HIV epidemic

The crackpot conspiracy theories and deadly denial fuelling Russia’s HIV epidemic | Virology News | Scoop.it
Fewer than half of Russians with HIV are taking antiretrovirals, in part because of a conspiracy theory that the virus is a myth invented by the West
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Australia's flu season has U.S. health officials bracing for a bad winter — and wishing for a new vaccine

Australia's flu season has U.S. health officials bracing for a bad winter — and wishing for a new vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
The way the flu season has gone in Australia dos not bode well for us in North America. Our flu vaccine is not that effective against the type of strains that predominated down under.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Human Trials of 'Global HIV Vaccine' Begin in Southern Africa

Human Trials of 'Global HIV Vaccine' Begin in Southern Africa | Virology News | Scoop.it
Human testing of a new experimental HIV vaccine has been launched in southern Africa, the first time in more than a decade that two big HIV vaccine efficacy trials are being carried out concurrently.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Evidence of porcine circovirus-like virus P1 in piglets with an unusual congenital tremor.

Outbreaks of trembling and shaking were reported among pigs at two pig farms in Jiangsu Province, China. Serum and tissue samples tested positive for porcin
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Immunotherapy HPV Protein Used in Cervical Cancer Shows Low Response Rate But Overall Improvement of Over 50%

Immunotherapy HPV Protein Used in Cervical Cancer Shows Low Response Rate But Overall Improvement of Over 50% | Virology News | Scoop.it
Don Dizon, MD of Massachusetts General Hospital discusses the use of immunotherapy in cervical cancer treatment. He explains a clinical trial where an HPV protein was used for treatment and although there was a low response rate, there was overall improvement of over 50%. This was recorded at the 2017 Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO)’s Annual Meeting on Women’s Cancer® in National Harbor, MD.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

HIV/AIDS is no longer the leading cause of death in Africa

HIV/AIDS is no longer the leading cause of death in Africa | Virology News | Scoop.it
The World Health Organization’s most recent data on global deaths has good news for the African continent, including fewer people dying of HIV/AIDS and malaria.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Canadian doctor suggests 'man flu' is real

Canadian doctor suggests 'man flu' is real Canadian doctor suggests 'man flu' is real. t's a term mocking a man's ability to handle the flu, but a Canadia
Ed Rybicki's insight:
Of course it is!
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Marijuana may help HIV patients keep mental stamina longer

Marijuana may help HIV patients keep mental stamina longer | Virology News | Scoop.it
A chemical found in marijuana, known as tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, has been found to potentially slow the process in which mental decline can occur in up to 50 percent of HIV patients, says a new study.
Ed Rybicki's insight:
Weed: good for many things B-)
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

An outbreak of Ebola in the DRC has been contained. What went right this time?

An outbreak of Ebola in the DRC has been contained. What went right this time? | Virology News | Scoop.it

The World Health Organisation recently declared the end of the most recent outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). By the time the outbreak was contained, eight people had been infected. Four survived. The first patient diagnosed in the outbreak (the index case) – a middle aged man who died on his way to hospital - got ill in April. It’s not clear how he became infected. But those who helped transport him to the hospital also became sick. This outbreak had the second lowest number of patients among all the eight Ebola outbreaks in DRC since 1976. The last one in 2014 lasted for three months and three quarters of the 66 people diagnosed with the disease died. The outbreak was traced back to a pregnant woman who had slaughtered a monkey brought home by her husband. The disease spread when she underwent a traditional surgical operation after becoming ill.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Sanofi updates information on dengue vaccine | Sanofi

New analysis of long-term Dengvaxia® data found differences in vaccine performance based on prior dengue infection Company will ask regulators to update product

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

WHO supports the immunization of 874 000 people against yellow fever in Nigeria

WHO supports the immunization of 874 000 people against yellow fever in Nigeria | Virology News | Scoop.it
The International Coordinating Group (ICG) on vaccine provision for yellow fever has provided 1.4 million vaccine doses for an immunization campaign that starts on Saturday (2 December) to help control an ongoing yellow fever outbreak in Nigeria.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

UN voices alarm about spread of HIV in Egypt | African Independent

UN voices alarm about spread of HIV in Egypt | African Independent | Virology News | Scoop.it
The UN is voicing alarm over the spread of HIV in Egypt, where the number of new cases is growing by up to 40 percent a year.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

HPV vaccine is effective, safe 10 years after it’s given

Credit: Phil Jones, Senior Photographer, Augusta University AUGUSTA, Ga. (Nov. 29, 2017) - A decade of data on hundreds of boys and girls who received the HPV vaccine indicates the vaccine is safe ..
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Australia's new cervical cancer test 'much more sensitive' – Cancer Council

Australia's new cervical cancer test 'much more sensitive' – Cancer Council | Virology News | Scoop.it
Women will need the test for the human papillomavirus (HPV) every five years rather than a pap smear every two years
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Japanese doctor wins global prize for standing up to anti-vaccine activists

Japanese doctor wins global prize for standing up to anti-vaccine activists | Virology News | Scoop.it
Japanese doctor wins global Maddox prize for standing up for science in the face of a lawsuit, media blacklisting and other harassment by anti-vaccine activists.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Circovirus in Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment | petMD

Circovirus in Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment | petMD | Virology News | Scoop.it
Circoviruses are small viruses that can affect our canine companions. Researchers and veterinarians say the prevention and treatment of dog circovirus involves a large dose of common sense, yet the source of the illness and how it functions remain largely a mystery.
more...
No comment yet.