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Historically Speaking: The 1918 influenza outbreak | SeacoastOnline.com

Historically Speaking: The 1918 influenza outbreak | SeacoastOnline.com | Virology News | Scoop.it
"We should surely remain calm and not lose our good sense," advised the New Hampshire State Board of Health.
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Virology News
Topical news snippets about viruses that affect people.  And other things. Like zombies B-)
Curated by Ed Rybicki
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Development of a novel Newcastle disease virus (NDV) neutralization test based on recombinant NDV expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein

Development of a novel Newcastle disease virus (NDV) neutralization test based on recombinant NDV expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein | Virology News | Scoop.it
Newcastle disease is one of the most important infectious diseases of poultry, caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). This virus is distributed worldwide and it can cause severe economic losses in the poultry industry due to recurring outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated flocks. Protection against NDV in chickens has been associated with development of humoral response. Although hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and ELISA do not corroborate the presence of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs); they are used to measure protection and immune response against NDV. In this study, we established a system to recover a recombinant NDV (rLS1) from a cloned cDNA, which is able to accept exogenous genes in desired positions. An enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene was engineered in the first position of the NDV genome and we generated a recombinant NDV carrying eGFP. This NDV- eGFP reporter virus was used to develop an eGFP-based neutralization test (eGFP-NT), in which nAbs titers were expressed as the reciprocal of the highest dilution that expressed the eGFP. The eGFP-NT gave conclusive results in 24 h without using any additional staining procedure. A total of 57 serum samples were assayed by conventional neutralization (NT) and eGFP-NT. Additionally, HI and a commercial ELISA kit were evaluated with the same set of samples. Although HI (R
2 = 0.816) and ELISA (R
2 = 0.791) showed substantial correlation with conventional NT, eGFP-NT showed higher correlation (R
2 = 0.994), indicating that eGFP-NT is more accurate method to quantify nAbs. Overall, the neutralization test developed here is a simple, rapid and reliable method for quantitation of NDV specific nAbs. It is suitable for vaccine studies and diagnostics.
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Can defective interfering RNAs affect the live attenuated influenza vaccine? – Authors' reply

Reduced effectiveness of LAIV has been observed only in the past 7 years, whereas internal gene components of vaccine viruses that give rise to defective interfering RNAs have remained unchanged since its development. One explanation for the emergence of reduced effectiveness would be a change in the manufacturing process—eg, virus inadvertently being propagated at high multiplicity. Quantification of Ann Arbor LAIV components is currently by focus-forming assay—a convenient method that quantifies virus in a single cycle of replication. This could mistakenly score defective interfering particles as infectious virus. Validation using assays that detect multicycle replication competent virus would be valuable. The presence of defective interfering RNAs in preparations of LAIV from different years and production lines should also be tested. In particular, batches of Leningrad LAIV (manufactured in Russia and India), which uses a different viral genetic background and manufacturing process should be assessed, especially given that low vaccine effectiveness against the pH1N1 component has also been noted in clinical trials with this vaccine.5
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Confirming cross-protection of bivalent HPV vaccine

Confirming cross-protection of bivalent HPV vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have exceeded expectations in preventing infection with oncogenic HPV, the underlying cause of cervical cancer. Both the bivalent HPV vaccine and quadrivalent HPV vaccine contain virus-like particles that induce high-level antibody responses to HPV types 16 and 18, the two most oncogenic HPV types, which are responsible for 71% of cervical cancer cases globally.1 In the 11 years since their first licensure, the vaccines have been distributed globally in over 270 million doses and are demonstrably safe in population usage.2 The vaccines are remarkably effective in real-world prevention of targeted type HPV infection and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN; potentially pre-cancerous lesions, the target for detection and treatment in cervical screening programmes).3, 4 In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Kimberley Kavanagh and colleagues5 confirm an initially unanticipated benefit of the bivalent vaccine: clinically important cross-protection against three further oncogenic HPV types (31, 33, and 45), detected in approximately 13% of cervical cancers globally.1
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This is an important result: it's been rumoured for years, but here's proof that Cervarix - because that's what they're talking about - actually does protect against off-type HPVs. Which Gardasil appears not to do, BTW - probably a factor of the adjuvants used, which are alum for Gardasil and AS04 (=3-O-desacyl-4'- monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) 50 micrograms adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide) for Cervarix.
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Vaccinia Virus Natural Infections in Brazil: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

Vaccinia Virus Natural Infections in Brazil: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly | Virology News | Scoop.it
The orthopoxviruses (OPV) comprise several emerging viruses with great importance to human and veterinary medicine, including vaccinia virus (VACV), which causes outbreaks of bovine vaccinia (BV) in South America. Historically, VACV is the most comprehensively studied virus, however, its origin and natural hosts remain unknown. VACV was the primary component of the smallpox vaccine, largely used during the smallpox eradication campaign. After smallpox was declared eradicated, the vaccination that conferred immunity to OPV was discontinued, favoring a new contingent of susceptible individuals to OPV. VACV infections occur naturally after direct contact with infected dairy cattle, in recently vaccinated individuals, or through alternative routes of exposure. In Brazil, VACV outbreaks are frequently reported in rural areas, affecting mainly farm animals and humans. Recent studies have shown the role of wildlife in the VACV transmission chain, exploring the role of wild rodents as reservoirs that facilitate VACV spread throughout rural areas. Furthermore, VACV circulation in urban environments and the significance of this with respect to public health, have also been explored. In this review, we discuss the history, epidemiological, ecological and clinical aspects of natural VACV infections in Brazil, also highlighting alternative routes of VACV transmission, the factors involved in susceptibility to infection, and the natural history of the disease in humans and animals, and the potential for dissemination to urban environments.
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To eat, this beetle depends on organs full of bacteria

To eat, this beetle depends on organs full of bacteria | Virology News | Scoop.it
"This insect is a leaf eater largely because of these bacteria...And the bacteria have actually become developmentally integrated into the insect's body."
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In us, on us, with us - and seriously helping us.
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Flu vaccine prevents hospitalization in children

Flu vaccine prevents hospitalization in children | Virology News | Scoop.it
FLU VACCINE PREVENTS HOSPITALIZATION IN CHILDREN November 17/2017 Children vaccinated against influenza are significantly less likely to experience serious complications from the virus that could land them in hospital, new research led by Dalla Lana School of Public Health (DLSPH) PhD candidate...
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Special focus on phylogenetically related and non-vaccine targeted HPV genotypes.

HPV is the major causative agent for cervical cancer. Study on the risk of cervical cancer associated with different hr-HPV genotypes would be useful fo
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Increasingly, a matter of concern: what emerges after you've prevented infection by by the restricted number of high-risk HPVs in the vaccines?
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Serologic response to porcine circovirus type 1  in infants vaccinated with the human rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix™

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017 Jan 2;13(1):237-244. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2016.1231262.
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Doctor, there's a pig virus in my vaccine...
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HPV vaccine developed in China gets permission for clinical testing

The second-generation human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine developed in China has been officially approved by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) for clinical testing, according to multiple Chinese media sources on Wednesday.
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Three decades on, stigma still stymies HIV prevention and treatment

Three decades on, stigma still stymies HIV prevention and treatment | Virology News | Scoop.it
Stigma stops people from getting tested for HIV, and staying on their treatment. Unless it's addressed, the AIDS epidemic will persist.
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HIV/AIDS news from UCT by our own Linda-Gail Bekker
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1918 influenza pandemic survivor interview

Mrs. Robinson, a 97 year-old resident of Clanton, Alabama gives her account of people staying home during the terrible times of the 1918 flu pandemic. As she … source
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Oral viral archaeology!
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Molecular evolution of hemagglutinin gene of Influenza A virus.

In the history of human civilization, influenza is the second most catastrophic killer disease for mankind with plague ranking first in the medieval times. Th
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Kaspersky Anti-Virus is being impersonated by a CIA’s Spying Program

Kaspersky Anti-Virus is being impersonated by a CIA’s Spying Program | Virology News | Scoop.it
The tool itself is impressive enough, serving as the backbone of the CIA's malware processes, but there's more. What's interesting about the first leak in the Vault 8 line is that it seems to show the agency portraying Kaspersky, by making use of a fake certificate for the anti-virus company. WikiLeaks describes the purpose and weaknesses of Vault 8: "This publication will enable investigative journalists, forensic experts, and the obscure public to better identify and assume covert CIA infrastructure components. Source code declared in this series contains software created to run on servers controlled by the CIA. Like WikiLeaks' earlier Vault7 series, the stuff published by WikiLeaks does not contain 0-days or related security vulnerabilities which could be repurposed by others." It then goes on to explain the purpose of Hive and gives links to the Hive container as well as the Hive Commit History. It also presents a brief description of the purpose of the tool: Hive solves a dangerous problem for the malware operators at the CIA. Even the most complicated malware implant on a target machine is useless if there is no way for it to interact with its operators in a secure method that does not draw attention. Using Hive even if an implant is located on a target computer, attributing it to the CIA is difficult by just looking at the interface of the malware with other servers on the internet. Hive presents a covert communications platform for a whole range of CIA malware to send exfiltrated knowledge to CIA servers and to receive new instructions from speculators at the CIA. The source code for Hive is unquestionably interesting, but the use of fake documents relating to Kaspersky labs is particularly impressive. The discovery is certain to raise a few inquiries, such as whether the US government which has outlawed the use of Kaspersky software on its computers has been trying to use the Russia security firm as a victim for some time. Take your time to comment on this
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Damn!  I had this as the premise of an unfinished story I started writing...
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The basic reproduction number (R0) of measles: a systematic review

The basic reproduction number (R0) of measles: a systematic review | Virology News | Scoop.it
The basic reproduction number, R nought (R0), is defined as the average number of secondary cases of an infectious disease arising from a typical case in a totally susceptible population, and can be estimated in populations if pre-existing immunity can be accounted for in the calculation. R0 determines the herd immunity threshold and therefore the immunisation coverage required to achieve elimination of an infectious disease. As R0 increases, higher immunisation coverage is required to achieve herd immunity. In July, 2010, a panel of experts convened by WHO concluded that measles can and should be eradicated. Despite the existence of an effective vaccine, regions have had varying success in measles control, in part because measles is one of the most contagious infections. For measles, R0 is often cited to be 12–18, which means that each person with measles would, on average, infect 12–18 other people in a totally susceptible population. We did a systematic review to find studies reporting rigorous estimates and determinants of measles R0. Studies were included if they were a primary source of R0, addressed pre-existing immunity, and accounted for pre-existing immunity in their calculation of R0. A search of key databases was done in January, 2015, and repeated in November, 2016, and yielded 10 883 unique citations. After screening for relevancy and quality, 18 studies met inclusion criteria, providing 58 R0 estimates. We calculated median measles R0 values stratified by key covariates. We found that R0 estimates vary more than the often cited range of 12–18. Our results highlight the importance of countries calculating R0 using locally derived data or, if this is not possible, using parameter estimates from similar settings. Additional data and agreed review methods are needed to strengthen the evidence base for measles elimination modelling.

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An effective and safe vaccine will not be enough to prepare us for the next Ebola outbreak

An effective and safe vaccine will not be enough to prepare us for the next Ebola outbreak | Virology News | Scoop.it
Although this study is noteworthy because it provides substantially more safety and efficacy data for the rVSV-EBOV vaccine, it also points out two major hurdles remaining that every Ebola vaccine must overcome in the future, and for the cautionary tale that it provides, one that the international community will hopefully heed. First, the reported adverse event rate in Ebola ça Suffit! was 53·9%, with 98·5% classified as mild to moderate.5 In the present study, the vaccine was better tolerated with only 16% of children and 34% of adults reporting adverse events. With an adverse event rate of up to 50%, social mobilisation efforts to encourage vaccination participation will be challenging in future Ebola outbreaks. How many people refuse the seasonal influenza vaccine each year because they think it gives them the flu? Now imagine a scenario in which people think the vaccine could give them Ebola. This issue leads directly to the vaccine's second hurdle: misconceptions, rumours, and community resistance. 34% of eligible contacts in Ebola Ça Suffit! refused or withdrew consent.5 In the current study, one affected community refused participation due to mistrust of the Ebola surveillance teams. Community resistance played a prominent part in the spread of Ebola virus during the 2013–15 outbreak.6 A weak public health infrastructure and widespread shortages of health-care workers contributed to fears and misconceptions about an unfamiliar disease with a high mortality. One that is treated in walled-off Ebola treatment units and requires medical burials, denying family members the solace provided by traditional funeral rites. These conditions fuelled rumours, mistrust, and, in some cases, violence. Surveillance, social mobilisation, and vaccination teams trained in distant capitals must seek input and support from local leaders or they risk developing a sense of coercion and distrust.7, 8

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The flip side of success: what if people won't use the vaccine for all the wrong reasons??
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Ring vaccination with rVSV-ZEBOV under expanded access in response to an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, 2016: an operational and vaccine safety report

Ring vaccination with rVSV-ZEBOV under expanded access in response to an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, 2016: an operational and vaccine safety report | Virology News | Scoop.it
The results show that a ring vaccination strategy can be rapidly and safely implemented
at scale in response to Ebola virus disease outbreaks in rural settings.
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From tonsil cancer survivor to HPV vaccine advocate

Scott Courville didn't become an advocate for the HPV vaccine until
2016, when he was diagnosed with tonsil cancer. Now, the father of three
is doing everything he can to prevent his own sons, as well as everyone
else's, from having to go through cancer like he did.
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Pneumonia vaccine saves 500,000 lives in world's poorest countries

Pneumonia vaccine saves 500,000 lives in world's poorest countries | Virology News | Scoop.it
Over 109 million children in the developing world have now received pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV).
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HPV Vaccine Prevents Childhood Respiratory Disease

The most comprehensive geo-political news service available on the Internet, covering over 263 countries and regions, all U.S. States and Industries.
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Developing a Serious Videogame for Preteens to Motivate HPV Vaccination Decision Making

Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is routinely recommended for ages 11-12, yet in 2016 only 49.5% of women and 37.5% of men had completed th
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Leisure Suit Larry would have been a good start B-)
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Phylogenetic and genetic variation analyses of porcine circovirus type 2 isolated from China

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017 Nov 17. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12768. [Epub ahead of print]
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Professor conducted back-alley herpes vaccine trial at hotels

Professor conducted back-alley herpes vaccine trial at hotels | Virology News | Scoop.it
A US researcher aiming to develop a herpes vaccine conducted illegal trials during which he injected people in hotel rooms and at a house at St Kitts.
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Use new flu vaccine in over 65s for 2018/19 flu season, says JCVI 

The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) have recommended that a different, adjuvanted flu vaccine is used in over 65s for the 2018/19 flu season. Minutes from their latest committee meeting reveal that the JCVI believe the use of an adjuvanted vaccine, as opposed to the...
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Women who have HPV jab may only need three cervical screens in a lifetime

Women who have HPV jab may only need three cervical screens in a lifetime | Virology News | Scoop.it
News story Women who have HPV jab may only need three cervical screens in a lifetime Women may only need three cervical screens in their lifetime if they have been given the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, according to a new study by Queen Mary University of London (QMUL).
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Opinion | The key to ending the HIV epidemic is empowering mothers

Opinion | The key to ending the HIV epidemic is empowering mothers | Virology News | Scoop.it
The HIV epidemic remains a real problem in Africa. These courageous mothers want to help end it.
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