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Mammals Made By Viruses | The Loom | Discover Magazine

Mammals Made By Viruses | The Loom | Discover Magazine | Virology News | Scoop.it
A Planet of Viruses | If not for a virus, none of us would ever be born.In 2000, a team of Boston scientists discovered a peculiar gene in the human genome.

 

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Virology News
Topical news snippets about viruses that affect people.  And other things. Like zombies B-)
Curated by Ed Rybicki
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Future astronauts could get water from ice on Mars - Futurity

Future astronauts could get water from ice on Mars - Futurity | Virology News | Scoop.it
Ice sheets just beneath the surface of Mars hold clues about the red planet's climate history—and could be a source of water for future explorers.
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I nearly died from the president's herbal HIV 'cure'

I nearly died from the president's herbal HIV 'cure' | Virology News | Scoop.it
The Gambia's former leader, Yahya Jammeh, who left the country a year ago after two decades in power, has been accused of many crimes.
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How the government shutdown will affect flu season across the U.S.

How the government shutdown will affect flu season across the U.S. | Virology News | Scoop.it
If the shutdown continues, mutant virus strains could be missed.
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A Recombinant Antibody-Expressing Influenza Virus Delays Tumor Growth in a Mouse Model

Influenza virus has potential as an anti-cancer agent. Hamilton et al. engineer antibody-expressing
influenza viruses and demonstrate that encoding a single-chain antibody blocking the
immune checkpoint CTLA4 enhances the anti-cancer activity of influenza virus. These
data suggest a strategy for improving the oncolytic nature of Orthomyxoviruses.
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Canine Influenza: What You Need to Know

Canine Influenza: What You Need to Know | Virology News | Scoop.it
November 14, 2013---Human flu season is in full swing now, but man's best friend is at risk of catching canine influenza year round. Do you know if your beloved pooch is at risk and in need of a vaccine?
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12-Year Follow-up on the Long-Term Effectiveness of the Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in 4 Nordic Countries

12-Year Follow-up on the Long-Term Effectiveness of the Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in 4 Nordic Countries | Virology News | Scoop.it
We summarize the long-term effectiveness of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine in Nordic women, followed via different national registries. qHPV v
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TNX-801 (live virus vaccine) for Smallpox Prevention 

TNX-801 (live virus vaccine) for Smallpox Prevention  | Virology News | Scoop.it
Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp. TNX-801 (live virus vaccine) for Smallpox Prevention: <p>TNX-801 is a novel, live virus vaccine grown in cell culture. Tonix is developing TNX-801 as a potential smallpox preventing vaccine for…
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Important changes in the timing of influenza epidemics in Western and Eastern Europe

Important changes in the timing of influenza epidemics in Western and Eastern Europe | Virology News | Scoop.it
A study carried out by Nivel and published in Eurosurveillance has found that the timing of influenza epidemics has changed in Europe over the last 20 years. These findings have important implications for influenza vaccination programmes in the region. Climate change and/or changes in population movement may be underlying factors that explain these developments.Main findings
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A Coxsackievirus B vaccine protects against virus-induced diabetes in an experimental mouse model of type 1 diabetes

A Coxsackievirus B vaccine protects against virus-induced diabetes in an experimental mouse model of type 1 diabetes | Virology News | Scoop.it
E pidemiological studies suggest a role for Coxsackievirus B (CVB) seroty pes i n the pathoge nesis of ty pe 1 diabetes, but their actual co ntributio n remai ns elusive. I n the prese nt study, we ha
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The Not-Aussie Flu crisis continues: Stark UK NHS warning as hospitals struggle to cope

There were 27 flu-related deaths in the first week of January, bringing the winter total up to 85, statistics released today revealed. Health experts warne
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Bird Flu Prevention Zone Introduced Across England

Bird Flu Prevention Zone Introduced Across England | Virology News | Scoop.it
The NGO is advising its members that Defra has today (18 January 2018) introduced an Avian Influenza Prevention Zone to cover the whole of England. Strict biosecurity is now a legal requirement.
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You can leave the EU, but diseases know no borders...
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A rapid virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) method for assessing resistance and susceptibility to cassava mosaic disease

A rapid virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) method for assessing resistance and susceptibility to cassava mosaic disease | Virology News | Scoop.it
Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is a major constraint to cassava production in sub-Saharan Africa. Under field conditions, evaluation for resistance to CMD takes 12–18 months, often conducted across multiple years and locations under pressure from whitefly-mediated transmission. Under greenhouse or laboratory settings, evaluation for resistance or susceptibility to CMD involves transmission of the causal viruses from an infected source to healthy plants through grafting, or by using Agrobacterium-mediated or biolistic delivery of infectious clones. Following inoculation, visual assessment for CMD symptom development and recovery requires 12–22 weeks. Here we report a rapid screening system for determining resistance and susceptibility to CMD based on virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of an endogenous cassava gene. A VIGS vector was developed based on an infectious clone of the virulent strain of East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-K201). A sequence from the cassava (Manihot esculenta) ortholog of Arabidopsis SPINDLY (SPY) was cloned into the CP position of the DNA-A genomic component and used to inoculate cassava plants by Helios® Gene Gun microparticle bombardment. Silencing of Manihot esculenta SPY (MeSPY) using MeSPY1-VIGS resulted in shoot-tip necrosis followed by death of the whole plant in CMD susceptible cassava plants within 2–4 weeks. CMD resistant cultivars were not affected and remained healthy after challenge with MeSPY1-VIGS. Significantly higher virus titers were detected in CMD-susceptible cassava lines compared to resistant controls and were correlated with a concomitant reduction in MeSPY expression in susceptible plants. A rapid VIGS-based screening system was developed for assessing resistance and susceptibility to CMD. The method is space and resource efficient, reducing the time required to perform CMD screening to as little as 2–4 weeks. It can be employed as a high throughput rapid screening system to assess new cassava cultivars and for screening transgenic, gene edited and breeding lines under controlled growth conditions.
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Geminiviruses: seriously useful toys.
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[NO] Association between Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and risk of Multiple Sclerosis: a systematic review

[NO] Association between Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and risk of Multiple Sclerosis: a systematic review | Virology News | Scoop.it
Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2018 Jan 15:0. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2017.1423155. [Epub ahead of print]
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Spoiler necessary B-)
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HPV by the numbers (Infographic)

HPV by the numbers (Infographic) | Virology News | Scoop.it
Since the HPV vaccine first became available in 2006, HPV infections have dropped by more than half among girls age 14 to 19 in the United States.
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Japanese flu is spreading – here are the signs you should watching out for

Japanese flu is spreading – here are the signs you should watching out for | Virology News | Scoop.it
Japanese flu is a type of influenza B which means it can only be spread from human to human
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Type A viral hepatitis: A summary and update on the molecular virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and prevention

Although epidemic jaundice was well known to physicians of antiquity, it is only in
recent years that medical science has begun to unravel the origins of hepatitis A
virus (HAV) and the unique pathobiology underlying acute hepatitis A in humans. Improvements
in sanitation and the successful development of highly efficacious vaccines have markedly
reduced the worldwide occurence of this enterically-transmitted infection over the
past quarter century, yet the virus persists in vulnerable populations and those without
HAV immunity and remains a common cause of food-borne disease outbreaks in economically-advantaged
societies.
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Influenza vaccination might reduce the risk of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation

Influenza vaccination might reduce the risk of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation | Virology News | Scoop.it
Oncotarget. 2017 Nov 9;8(68):112697-112711. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.22352. eCollection 2017 Dec 22.
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CDC study reveals lasting impact of Zika virus

CDC study reveals lasting impact of Zika virus | Virology News | Scoop.it
While the threat from the Zika crisis has calmed, the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention released a study last week exploring the effects of the virus on babies born with brain damage from the virus, who are now toddlers. Pam Belluck from The New York Times joins CBSN to discuss the lasting impact of the Zika virus on toddlers.
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Muslim MLA Of Kerala’s Ruling Communist Party Joins Anti-Vaccination Brigade

Muslim MLA Of Kerala’s Ruling Communist Party Joins Anti-Vaccination Brigade | Virology News | Scoop.it
Now Muslim MLA from the ruling party in Kerala comes out against vaccination. 
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Making It In Botswana - Botswana Vaccine Institute BVI & Fibre Land

Click once and get to know how Botswana Vaccine (BVI) and Fibre Land thrive in Botswana.
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There's a once-a-week HIV pill coming that will change the lives of millions of people

There's a once-a-week HIV pill coming that will change the lives of millions of people | Virology News | Scoop.it
Research has shown that 20% to 30% of medication prescriptions are never filled, while 50% of medications for chronic disease are not taken as prescribed.
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Efficacy, safety, cost: India’s decade-old debate on the cervical cancer vaccine erupts again

The health ministry recently indicated that it would not include the HPV vaccine in the national immunisation programme.
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Sigh...if African countries can do it, surely India could too??
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Missouri is epicenter of US national flu outbreak, according to 'smart thermometer' app 

The flu is bad this year and no state in the country is seeing higher rates of it than Missouri. That’s according to Kinsa, a company that makes “smart thermometers” and has analyzed data collected from more than 1 million users nationwide.
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This Man With HIV Just Won His Battle To Change The Rules So He Can Become An Airline Pilot

This Man With HIV Just Won His Battle To Change The Rules So He Can Become An Airline Pilot | Virology News | Scoop.it
Following a BuzzFeed News story, the Civil Aviation Authority announced on Thursday that people with HIV would no longer be barred from becoming commercial pilots.
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Transcriptome profiling of whitefly guts in response to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection

Transcriptome profiling of whitefly guts in response to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection | Virology News | Scoop.it
Plant viruses in agricultural crops are of great concern worldwide, and over 75% of them are transmitted from infected to healthy plants by insect vectors. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a begomovirus, which is the largest and most economically important group of plant viruses, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. The circulation of TYLCV in the insect involves complex insect-virus interactions, whereas the molecular mechanisms of these interactions remain ambiguous. The insect gut as a barrier for viral entry and dissemination is thought to regulate the vector specificity. However, due to its tiny size, information for the responses of whitefly gut to virus infection is limited. We investigated the transcriptional response of the gut of B. tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 species to TYLCV infection using Illumina sequencing. A total of 5207 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between viruliferous and non-viruliferous whitefly guts were identified. Enrichment analyses showed that cargo receptor and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters were enriched in DEGs, and might help the virus to cross gut barrier. TYLCV could perturb cell cycle and DNA repair as a possible result of its replication in the whitefly. Our data also demonstrated that TYLCV can activate whitefly defense responses, such as antimicrobial peptides. Meanwhile, a number of genes involved in intracellular signaling were activated by TYLCV infection. Our results reveal the complex insect-virus relationship in whitefly gut and provide substantial molecular information for the role of insect midguts in virus transmission.
Ed Rybicki's insight:
Back to my mid-term roots in geminivirology...it is an open question as to whether geminiviruses and especially TYLCV can replicate in vector insects, seeing as they do seem to be able to set them up to be persistent circulative vectors. Some swear they do; others that they don't - but I am willing to bet that TYLCV at any rate undergoes either partial replication, or expression from "repaired" dsDNA forms of the genomic DNA, in insect cells, so as to effect some of the changes seen in insect transcription.

I have another theory concerning trans-replication of gemini- and other ssDNA virus genomes by Reps or RCR-mediating proteins endogenous to or from viruses or even bacteria co-infecting the vectors, but that is the subject for another posting.
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