Virology News
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Topical news snippets about viruses that affect people.  And other things. Like Led Zeppelin. And zombies B-)
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A Phase 2, Double-blind Study to Evaluate Immunogenicity and Safety of Intranasal Trivalent Influenza Virus Vaccine in Healthy Adult Volunteers

A Phase 2, Double-blind Study to Evaluate Immunogenicity and Safety of Intranasal Trivalent Influenza Virus Vaccine in Healthy Adult Volunteers | Virology News | Scoop.it
A Phase 2, Double-blind Study to Evaluate Immunogenicity and Safety of Intranasal Trivalent Influenza Virus Vaccine in Healthy Adult Volunteers - Full Text View.
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The little vaccine that couldOmny.fm

The little vaccine that couldOmny.fm | Virology News | Scoop.it
In 2000, rotavirus killed more than half a million children every year. Not many people had even heard of the disease. Then an unlikely alliance of international scientists, policymakers, one inexperienced entrepreneur and the richest man in the world teamed up to take it on.
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100 years ago, a train carrying Spanish flu pulled into Calgary. Within weeks, Alberta was in crisis

100 years ago, a train carrying Spanish flu pulled into Calgary. Within weeks, Alberta was in crisis | Virology News | Scoop.it
While those in the prime of their life were victims of both the war and the flu, the war took young men. Women (mainly volunteer nurses and expecting mothers), Indigenous people, and members of the working class were hardest hit by the influenza.
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And in January, 100 years ago, it got to Cape Town - and spread by train into the interior of South Africa.
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Flu cases on the rise in the United States, CDC says

Flu cases on the rise in the United States, CDC says | Virology News | Scoop.it
Flu activity is increasing in the United States, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported Friday.
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Research brings swine industry closer to broad virus protection from PCV2

Research brings swine industry closer to broad virus protection from PCV2 | Virology News | Scoop.it
After eight years of gathering data from more than 1,000 pigs infected with porcine circovirus 2, Nebraska researchers have identified the gene associated with pigs’ susceptibility to the deadly swine disease.
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Travel alert as Japan struggles to contain outbreak of rubella

Travel alert as Japan struggles to contain outbreak of rubella | Virology News | Scoop.it
More than 2,000 people in Japan have been diagnosed with rubella, or German measles, the worst outbreak in five years, prompting warnings to visitors – particularly pregnant women – to make sure their vaccinations are up to date.
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Porcine circovirus type 2 ORF3 protein induces apoptosis in melanoma cells

BACKGROUND: The current treatment of malignant melanoma is limited by the lack of effective therapeutic approaches, and alternative treatments are needed. Proliferative diseases such as melanoma and other cancers may be treatable by virally-encoded apoptotic proteins that are targeted to rapidly multiplying cells. Caspase-dependent apoptosis, that is frequently used in chemotherapy, can boost the cell proliferation that caspase-independent cell death does not. METHODS: In the current study, the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), proapoptotic protein ORF3 was expressed in mouse and human cancer cell lines, and its apoptotic activity was assessed. RESULTS: Quantitative assessment of the apoptotic cells by flow cytometry showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly increased in ORF3-expressing malignant cells, compared to ORF3 non-expressing cells. Our data show that PCV2 ORF3 induces apoptosis in a caspase-3 and -8 independent manner. ORF3 expression seems to cause an increase in abnormal mitosis in B16F10 melanoma cells by interacting with centrosomes and thereby disrupting the formation of the mitotic spindle. In addition, we show that ORF3 of PCV2 also exhibits significant anti-tumor effects in vivo. Although the expression of Regulator of G protein Signaling (RGS)-16 by recipient mice inhibited the development of grafted melanoma in vivo, it was not required for the antitumoral activity of ORF3. CONCLUSION: PCV2 ORF3 causes abnormal mitosis in rapidly dividing cells and increases the apoptosis of cancer cells. Apoptin might, therefore, be considered to develop future antitumoral strategies.
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Zoonotic Potential of Influenza A Viruses: A Comprehensive Overview. - PubMed - NCBI

Viruses. 2018 Sep 13;10(9). pii: E497. doi: 10.3390/v10090497. Research Support, Non-U.S.Gov't; Review...
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Dust or disease? Perceptions of influenza in rural Southern Malawi

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution...
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This Is What Vaccines Have Saved The World From

This Is What Vaccines Have Saved The World From | Virology News | Scoop.it
The polio vaccine changed lives in the mid-1950s, a decade during which thousands of children were being devastated by the disease. At its height in 1952, the virus infected almost 60,000 kids in the United States.
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Pandemic 1918 - News and events,

This talk will use previously unpublished records, memoirs, diaries and government publications to uncover the human story of the Spanish Flu in 1918...
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*Bullshit Alert!!* Did a Military Experimental Vaccine in 1918....

*Bullshit Alert!!* Did a Military Experimental Vaccine in 1918.... | Virology News | Scoop.it
The “Spanish Flu” killed an estimated 50-100 million people during a pandemic 1918-19. What if the story we have been told about this pandemic isn’t true? What if, instead, the killer infection was neither the flu nor Spanish in origin? Newly analyzed documents reveal that the “Spanish Flu” may have been a military vaccine experiment gone awry. In looking back on the 100th anniversary of the end of World War I, we need to delve deeper to solve this mystery. Summary The reason modern technology has not been able to pinpoint the killer influenza strain from this pandemic is because influenza was not the killer. More soldiers died during WWI from disease than from bullets. The pandemic was not flu. An estimated 95% (or higher) of the deaths were caused by bacterial pneumonia, not influenza/a virus. The pandemic was not Spanish. The first cases of bacterial pneumonia in 1918 trace back to a military base in Fort Riley, Kansas. Louise Kuo Habakus (ed... Buy New $14.95 (as of 01:05 EST - Details) From January 21 – June 4, 1918, an experimental bacterial meningitis vaccine cultured in horses by the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York was injected into soldiers at Fort Riley. During the remainder of 1918 as those soldiers – often living and traveling under poor sanitary conditions – were sent to Europe to fight, they spread bacteria at every stop between Kansas and the frontline trenches in France. One study describes soldiers “with active infections (who) were aerosolizing the bacteria that colonized their noses and throats, while others—often, in the same “breathing spaces”—were profoundly susceptible to invasion of and rapid spread through their lungs by their own or others’ colonizing bacteria.” (1) The “Spanish Flu” attacked healthy people in their prime.  Bacterial pneumonia attacks people in their prime. Flu attacks the young, old and immunocompromised. When WW1 ended on November 11, 1918, soldiers returned to their home countries and colonial outposts, spreading the killer bacterial pneumonia worldwide. During WW1, the Rockefeller Institute also sent the antimeningococcic serum to England, France, Belgium, Italy and other countries, helping spread the epidemic worldwide. During the pandemic of 1918-19, the so-called “Spanish Flu” killed 50-100 million people, including many soldiers. Many people do not realize that disease killed far more soldiers on all sides than machine guns or mustard gas or anything else typically associated with WWI. I have a personal connection to the Spanish Flu.  Among those killed by disease in 1918-19 are members of both of my parents’ families. On my father’s side, his grandmother Sadie Hoyt died from pneumonia in 1918. Sadie was a Chief Yeoman in the Navy.  Her death left my grandmother Rosemary and her sister Anita to be raised by their aunt. Sadie’s sister Marian also joined the Navy.  She died from “the influenza” in 1919. On my mother’s side, two of her father’s sisters died in childhood. All of the family members who died lived in New York City. I suspect many American families, and many families worldwide, were impacted in similar ways by the mysterious Spanish Flu. In 1918, “influenza” or flu was a catchall term for disease of unknown origin.  It didn’t carry the specific meaning it does today. It meant some mystery disease which dropped out of the sky.  In fact, influenza is from the Medieval Latin “influential” in an astrological sense, meaning a visitation under the influence of the stars. WHY IS WHAT HAPPENED 100 YEARS AGO IMPORTANT NOW? Between 1900-1920, there were enormous efforts underway in the industrialized world to build a better society.  I will use New York as an example to discuss three major changes to society which occurred in NY during that time and their impact on mortality from infectious diseases. 1. Clean Water and Sanitation In the late 19th century through the early 20th century, New York built an extraordinary system to bring clean water to the city from the Catskills, a system still in use today.  New York City also built over 6000 miles of sewer to take away and treat waste, which protects the drinking water. The World Health Organization acknowledges the importance of clean water and sanitation in combating infectious diseases. (2) 2. Electricity In the late 19th century through the early 20th century, New York built a power grid and wired the city so power was available in every home.  Electricity allows for refrigeration. Refrigeration is an unsung hero as a public health benefit. When food is refrigerated from farm to table, the public is protected from potential infectious diseases.  Cheap renewable energy is important for many reasons, including combating infectious diseases. Suzanne Humphries MD, ... Best Price: $19.95 Buy New $22.78 (as of 08:20 EST - Details) 3. Pharmaceutical In the late 19th century through the early 20th century, New York became the home of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now Rockefeller University).  The Institute is where the modern pharmaceutical industry was born. The Institute pioneered many of the approaches the pharmaceutical industry uses today, including the preparation of vaccine serums, for better or worse.  The vaccine used in the Fort Riley experiment on soldiers was made in horses. US Mortality Rates data from the turn of the 20th century to 1965 clearly indicates that clean water, flushing toilets, effective sewer systems and refrigerated foods all combined to effectively reduce mortality from infectious diseases BEFORE vaccines for those diseases became available. Have doctors and the pharmaceutical manufacturers taken credit for reducing mortality from infectious disease which rightfully belongs to sandhogs, plumbers, electricians and engineers? If hubris at the Rockefeller Institute in 1918 led to a pandemic disease which killed millions of people, what lessons can we learn and apply to 2018? THE DISEASE WAS NOT SPANISH While watching an episode of American Experience on PBS a few months ago,  I was surprised to hear that the first cases of “Spanish Flu” occurred at Fort Riley, Kansas in 1918.  I thought, how is it possible this historically important event could be so badly misnamed 100 years ago and never corrected? Why “Spanish”? Spain was one of a few countries not involved in World War I.  Most of the countries involved in the war censored their press. Free from censorship concerns, the earliest press reports of people dying from disease in large numbers came from Spain.  The warring countries did not want to additionally frighten the troops, so they were content to scapegoat Spain. Soldiers on all sides would be asked to cross no man’s land into machine gun fire, which was frightening enough without knowing that the trenches were a disease breeding ground. One hundred years later, it’s long past time to drop “Spanish” from all discussion of this pandemic.  If the flu started at a United States military base in Kansas, then the disease could and should be more aptly named. In order to prevent future disasters, the US (and the rest of the world) must take a hard look at what really caused the pandemic. It is possible that one of the reasons the Spanish Flu has never been corrected is that it helps disguise the origin of the pandemic. If the origin of the pandemic involved a vaccine experiment on US soldiers, then the US may prefer calling it Spanish Flu instead of The Fort Riley Bacteria of 1918, or something similar.  The Spanish Flu started at the location this experimental bacterial vaccine was given making it the prime suspect as the source of the bacterial infections which killed so many. It would be much more difficult to maintain the marketing mantra of “vaccines save lives” if a vaccine experiment originating in the United States during the years of primitive manufacturing caused the deaths of  50-100 million people. “Vaccines save lives … except we may have killed 50-100 million people in 1918-19” is a far less effective sales slogan than the overly simplistic “vaccines save lives.” THE DISEASE WHICH KILLED SO MANY WAS NOT FLU OR A VIRUS.  IT WAS BACTERIAL. During the mid-2000’s there was much talk about “pandemic preparedness.”  Influenza vaccine manufacturers in the United States received billions of taxpayer dollars to develop vaccines to make sure that we don’t have another lethal pandemic “flu,” like the one in 1918-19. Capitalizing on the “flu” part of Spanish flu helped vaccine manufacturers procure billion dollar checks from governments, even though scientists knew at the time that bacterial pneumonia was the real killer. Neil Z. Miller Best Price: $13.25 Buy New $12.60 (as of 11:55 EST - Details) It is not my opinion that bacterial pneumonia was the real killer – thousands of autopsies confirm this fact. According to a 2008 National Institute of Health paper, bacterial pneumonia was the killer in a minimum of 92.7% of the 1918-19 autopsies reviewed.  It is likely higher than 92.7%. The researchers looked at more than 9000 autopsies, and “there were no negative (bacterial) lung culture results.” “… In the 68 higher-quality autopsy series, in which the possibility of unreported negative cultures could be excluded, 92.7% of autopsy lung cultures were positive for ≥1 bacterium. … in one study of approximately 9000 subjects who were followed from clinical presentation with influenza to resolution or autopsy, researchers obtained, with sterile technique, cultures of either pneumococci or streptococci from 164 of 167 lung tissue samples. There were 89 pure cultures of pneumococci; 19 cultures from which only streptococci were recovered; 34 that yielded mixtures of pneumococci and/or streptococci; 22 that yielded a mixture of pneumococci, streptococci, and other organisms (prominently pneumococci and nonhemolytic streptococci); and 3 that yielded nonhemolytic streptococci alone. There were no negative lung culture results.” (3) Pneumococci or streptococci were found in “164 of (the) 167 lung tissue samples” autopsied.  That is 98.2%. Bacteria was the killer. Read the Whole Article
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An example of the utter and complete horseshit out there. It really is our duty to debunk this garbage - and the simple fact is that PEOPLE HAVE ISOLATED THE ACTUAL VIRUS SEQUENCE FROM CORPSES AND TISSUE SAMPLES!!
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Overview of Influenza Surveillance in the United States | Seasonal Influenza (Flu) | CDC

Overview of Influenza Surveillance in the United States | Seasonal Influenza (Flu) | CDC | Virology News | Scoop.it
Overview of Influenza Surveillance in the United States - CDC...
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Connecticut Flu Shot Law To Ban No-Compliant Pre-Schoolers After Dec. 31

Connecticut Flu Shot Law To Ban No-Compliant Pre-Schoolers After Dec. 31 | Virology News | Scoop.it
Connecticut's Department Of Public Health is warning parent's of pre-K children that "time's up" for flu shots.
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FDA approves new vaccine to fight 6 diseases 

FDA approves new vaccine to fight 6 diseases  | Virology News | Scoop.it
WASHINGTON D.C. (WREX) — The FDA approves a new vaccine that protects children against six diseases. Vaxelis is designed to prevent diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio, hepatitis and HIB, which is a type of bacteria that causes serious illness.
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Most of the world has had it for some years, but hey - not a bad thing the USA catches up, right??
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Ukraine: More Measles Cases Than 27 EU Countries Combined

Ukraine: More Measles Cases Than 27 EU Countries Combined | Virology News | Scoop.it
The Vaccine Confidence Project is an academic research group based at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.
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Shingles vaccine shortage is driving patients, doctors nuts

Shingles vaccine shortage is driving patients, doctors nuts | Virology News | Scoop.it
The Shingrix vaccine is at least 90 percent effective in warding off shingles, a painful rash that can erupt decades after childhood chicken pox.
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New Zealand’s experience of the 1918–19 influenza pandemic: a systematic review after 100 years 

 Summary The 1918–1919 influenza pandemic has been New Zealand’s most severe disaster event (around 9,000 deaths) and while it is a relatively well-studied disaster, there remain important research questions relating to this pandemic in New Zealand. This systematic review summarises all known published literature on the epidemiological, societal and transmission characteristics of the pandemic in New Zealand. Nevertheless, some research gaps remain, including the apparent marked reduction in birth rates in 1918–1919 and the reasons for no socioeconomic gradient despite other New Zealand evidence for occupational class variation in lifespan at this time. In the Centenary year of the 1918–19 Influenza Pandemic, now is the time for New Zealand to reflect on its impact and to ensure appropriate plans are in place to deal with future pandemics. Abstract Aim The 1918–1919 influenza pandemic has been New Zealand’s most severe disaster event (around 9,000 deaths). We aimed to review the literature related to this pandemic in New Zealand and among New Zealanders overseas, to identify any remaining research gaps (given ongoing risks of future influenza pandemics and from new pathogens, eg, synthetic bioweapons). Method Systematic literature searches and comparisons with international findings for this pandemic to facilitate identification of research gaps. Results A total of 61 relevant publications were identified. The epidemiological patterns reported were largely consistent with the international literature for this pandemic. These features included the w-shaped age-distribution for mortality, and the much higher mortality rates for indigenous people (ie, seven-fold for Māori vs New Zealand European). But some novel risk factors were identified (eg, large chest size as a risk factor for death in military personnel), and there was an extremely high mortality troop ship outbreak (probably related to crowding). In contrast to some international work, there was an apparent lack of a socio-economic gradient in mortality rates in two studies using modern analytical methods. New Zealand work has clearly shown how the pandemic spread via the rail network and internal shipping routes and the rarity of successful measures to prevent spread in contrast to some other jurisdictions. It has also found a marked lack of memorials to the pandemic (in contrast to war memorials). Nevertheless, some research gaps remain, including on the apparent marked reduction in birth rates in 1918–1919 and the reasons for no socio-economic gradient despite other New Zealand evidence for occupational class variation in lifespan at this time. Conclusion This is a relatively well-studied disaster event but there remain important research questions relating to this pandemic in New Zealand. Filling these gaps may contribute to improved planning for managing future pandemics. 

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HPV vaccine recommendations expanded

VIDEO: New guidelines for the HPV vaccine could help protect you against some deadly forms of cancer.
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Squeezing in a workout after a flu shot could make the vaccine more effective

MSN - Just got your flu shot and wondering if it's safe to push through your usual workout?
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I promised you zombies. And their viruses.

I promised you zombies. And their viruses. | Virology News | Scoop.it
An exam question I set for MCB3024S this November B-)
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Merck takes key step toward approval of experimental Ebola vaccine

Merck takes key step toward approval of experimental Ebola vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
The FDA indicated in the summer of 2016 that it had given Merck’s vaccine, provisionally called V920, a “breakthrough therapy designation.”...
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Taiwan working to "eradicate" avian influenza

TAIWAN, 13 November 2018 - Taiwan's Council of Agriculture said it plans to eradicate avian influenza virus by stepping up monitoring and prevention measures at domestic poultry farms as it opened its new Research Center for Avian Influenza Control and Prevention...
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Characterization of Haartman Institute snake virus-1 (HISV-1) and HISV-like viruses—The representatives of genus hartmanivirus, family Arenaviridae

Characterization of Haartman Institute snake virus-1 (HISV-1) and HISV-like viruses—The representatives of genus hartmanivirus, family Arenaviridae | Virology News | Scoop.it
Author summary From the 1930s to 2015 arenaviruses were known as mainly rodent-borne viruses, which occasionally infect humans, causing a severe disease. After isolation of novel arenaviruses from snakes, the family Arenaviridae now comprises three genera, Mammarenavirus, Reptarenavirus, and...
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Goodbye 'Gluten-Free'? Celiac Disease Vaccine May Make It Possible

Goodbye 'Gluten-Free'? Celiac Disease Vaccine May Make It Possible | Virology News | Scoop.it
People with celiac disease must follow a very restrictive diet, but an experimental vaccine may offer many of them the freedom to eat more normally.
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