Viruses, Immunology & Bioinformatics from Virology.uvic.ca
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Viruses, Immunology & Bioinformatics from Virology.uvic.ca
Virus and bioinformatics articles with some microbiology and immunology thrown in for good measure
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Broad spectrum antiviral drug inhibits a range of emerging coronaviruses

Broad spectrum antiviral drug inhibits a range of emerging coronaviruses | Viruses, Immunology & Bioinformatics from Virology.uvic.ca | Scoop.it
Researchers have long known that RNA viruses called coronaviruses cause the common cold and pneumonia. In the last two decades or so, though, researchers have found that these viruses can jump between animal and human hosts. In recent years, coronaviruses have caused lethal outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) that span multiple continents. To date, no retroviral drug has been approved to treat these infections.
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Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Bat Coronavirus Closely Related to the Direct Progenitor of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

We report the isolation and characterization of a novel bat coronavirus which is much closer to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in genomic sequence than others previously reported, particularly in its S gene. Cell entry and susceptibility studies indicated that this virus can use ACE2 as a receptor and infect animal and human cell lines. Our results provide further evidence of the bat origin of the SARS-CoV and highlight the likelihood of future bat coronavirus emergence in humans.

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Biologists make first mouse model for MERS

Biologists make first mouse model for MERS | Viruses, Immunology & Bioinformatics from Virology.uvic.ca | Scoop.it

A remedy for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), the coronavirus outbreak from Saudi Arabia that has killed 77 of the 180 people who have contracted it, has so far eluded researchers. But they have now created the first mouse model of the disease, which could enable faster testing of drugs and vaccines. The method used to make mice susceptible to MERS might also provide a quick way to study future pandemic viruses in mice.Mice with human receptor for coronavirus provide a faster way to test vaccines.

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WHO | Novel coronavirus infection – update

WHO | Novel coronavirus infection – update | Viruses, Immunology & Bioinformatics from Virology.uvic.ca | Scoop.it
The United Kingdom (UK) has informed WHO of another confirmed case of infection with the novel coronavirus (NCoV). The patient is a UK resident and a relative of the case announced on 11 February 2013.
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ProMED Update on New Coronavirus

ProMED Update on New Coronavirus | Viruses, Immunology & Bioinformatics from Virology.uvic.ca | Scoop.it

[1] WHO update
Date: 26 Sep 2012
Source: WHO GAR [edited]
<http://www.who.int/csr/don/2012_09_25/en/index.html>;

Novel coronavirus infection - update
- -----------------
As of [25 Sep 2012], no additional cases of acute respiratory syndrome with renal failure due to infection with a novel coronavirus have been reported to WHO. WHO is continuing investigations into 2 recently confirmed infections identified as a novel coronavirus. Today WHO issued an interim case definition to help countries strengthen health protection measures against the new virus. The case definition, based on the cases so far, includes criteria for identifying a 'patient under investigation', a 'probable case' and a 'confirmed case'. 


Via Ed Rybicki
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Two-amino acids change in the nsp4 of SARS coronavirus abolishes viral replication

Infection with coronavirus rearranges the host cell membrane to assemble a replication/transcription complex in which replication of the viral genome and transcription of viral mRNA occur. Although coexistence of nsp3 and nsp4 is known to cause membrane rearrangement, the mechanisms underlying the interaction of these two proteins remain unclear. We demonstrated that binding of nsp4 with nsp3 is essential for membrane rearrangement and identified amino acid residues in nsp4 responsible for the interaction with nsp3. In addition, we revealed that the nsp3-nsp4 interaction is not sufficient to induce membrane rearrangement, suggesting the participation of other factors such as host proteins. Finally, we showed that loss of the nsp3-nsp4 interaction eliminated viral replication by using an infectious cDNA clone and replicon system of SARS-CoV. These findings provide clues to the mechanism of the replication/transcription complex assembly of SARS-CoV and could reveal an antiviral target for the treatment of betacoronavirus infection.
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New coronavirus inhibitor exhibits antiviral activity by blocking viral hijacking of host

New coronavirus inhibitor exhibits antiviral activity by blocking viral hijacking of host | Viruses, Immunology & Bioinformatics from Virology.uvic.ca | Scoop.it
Since the SARS epidemic in 2003, coronaviruses have been on the watch list for emerging pathogens, and the ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) confirmed that they represent a serious threat. No specific drugs exist against coronaviruses so far, but an article ...
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10 Emerging Viruses With No Licensed Vaccine

10 Emerging Viruses With No Licensed Vaccine | Viruses, Immunology & Bioinformatics from Virology.uvic.ca | Scoop.it

Vaccination has been successful at controlling many of the world’s diseases. However, there are many emerging viral diseases for which no licensed (US or EU) vaccine exists. Here I’ve selected 10 emerging or re-emerging viruses which I think are especially important due to their incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality and suitability of current treatment.


Via Ed Rybicki
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Ed Rybicki's curator insight, April 2, 2013 9:10 AM

Nice account, if brief!  I note Lassa, RFV, WNV and others have been covered in ViroBlogy (http://rybicki.wordpress.com) in recent years as well.

 

All candidates for Going Green...B-)

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No novel coronaviruses identified in a large collection of human nasopharyngeal specimens using family-wide CODEHOP-based primers

Novel viruses might be responsible for numerous disease cases with unknown etiology. In this study, we screened 1800 nasopharyngeal samples from adult outpatients with respiratory disease symptoms and healthy individuals. We employed a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay and CODEHOP-based primers (CT12-mCODEHOP) previously developed to recognize known and unknown corona- and toroviruses. The CT12-mCODEHOP assay detected 42.0 % (29/69) of samples positive for human coronaviruses (HCoV), including HCoV-229 (1/16), HCoV-NL63 (9/17), and HCoV-OC43 (19/36), and additionally HCoV-HKU1 (3), which was not targeted by the diagnostic real-time PCR assays. No other coronaviruses were identified in the analyzed samples.

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Detection of human coronavirus strain HKU1 in a 2 years old girl with asthma exacerbation caused by acute pharyngitis

Respiratory viral infections can trigger asthma attack which may lead to sever morbidity.
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