Venetian Plaster
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Venetian Plaster
Lime based wall covering materials, Italian traditional crafts, applied arts and interior decoration
Curated by Carlo V. Mori
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Florenceart.net - Artisan Courses - Plasters and Wall Finishes in Florence, Italy

Florenceart.net - Artisan Courses - Plasters and Wall Finishes in Florence, Italy | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it
Workshop courses in an artisan school-atelier in Florence, Italy. Participants learn water gilding, decorative painting, trompe l'oeil, fresco and wall finishes techniques.
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Lime plaster fresco in Matthew Modine's apartment in NY

See the Architectural Digest article in Richard Gillette's original site: https://www.richardgillettedesigns.com/copy-of-murals?lightbox=dataItem-jea4kjj32 - Designers Richard Gillette and Stephen Shadley created the interiors in this NYC apartment for movie actor Matthew Modine. This feature wall, together with other textures in other parts of the house, were made of several layers of multicolored Venetian Plaster by artist Carlo V. Mori.
 
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How To Apply Venetian Plaster

How To Apply Venetian Plaster | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it
How to apply a first coat of Venetian plaster.

Spread the plaster with varying lengths and angles of strokes.
Don't worry about covering every square inch evenly. Let some of the original wall surface show through in spots, but keep the surface reasonably smooth. Clean off the trowel from time to time to keep dried plaster from getting into your finish. Let the plaster dry thoroughly (about four hours) before applying the next coat.
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Glossary of Venetian Plaster

Glossary of Venetian Plaster | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it
Basic vocabulary of the trade plus some of the Italian words: calce, cera, cocciopesto, grassello, marmorino, stucco mantovano, intonachino, pozzolana, scagliola, rasato di calce, spatola, stucco, terracotta.
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History of Venetian / Italian Plaster

History of Venetian / Italian Plaster | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it
Lime plaster is among the oldest building materials known to humankind; there is evidence of its use dating as far back as 9,500 years in the area of present-day Jordan. Later the Romans were known to use it mixed with marble dust as a fine application over a coarser lime and sand aggregate, not dissimilar to the technique used today by us.

Continued use of slaked lime putty existed throughout the middle ages. Documented evidence of the Mantovano finish, resurrected by, and now reliably produced only by the Safra Co. of Villa Franca, Italy, dates to circa 1100AD.

During the Renaissance in the mid 16 th century the Marmorino finish was reintroduced in Venice largely due to the efforts of Andrea Palladio and used externally over civil plaster masonry. By the 17th century many types of interior plasters flourished, the most notable is the highly polished Stucco Veneziano found in the palaces and Villas of 16th and 17th century Most Serene Republic of Venice.
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Venetian plaster: Lime vs. Synthetic | Hawk & Trowel - Master Finisher's Journal

Venetian plaster: Lime vs. Synthetic | Hawk & Trowel - Master Finisher's Journal | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it
"In fact, being clear about naming products and materials used for this technique is critical because its use is growing rapidly in the United States, increasing the occurrence of misunderstanding and misapplication. Artisans in this industry agree that less-expensive paint or cement products should not be confused with true lime or synthetic plasters because the cheaper materials do not deliver the look or longevity of higher-quality products. "There are dozens of products calling themselves 'Venetian plaster,'" explains Victoria Bingham, founder of the Buon Fresco studio and the Academy of Wall Artistry in Falls Church, Va. "I define the product by its application and result, regardless of whether or not lime is present. A high-end Venetian plaster is applied with a steel trowel and burnishes naturally to a very high shine with the same tool prior to any top-coating. A fine plaster sings. Artificial plasters are applied like paint and have the artificial shine of paint if they shine at all."

- Natural lime plasters

"Lime plaster, sometimes called Italian plaster, Grassello or Marmorino, is based on limestone (calcium carbonate).

Limestone is baked at high temperatures to extract carbon dioxide and water, leaving calcium oxide in powder form, explains Nurit Regev of TexSton Industries Inc., Canoga Park, Calif. Next, the material is slaked - water is added and unbaked particles filtered out. The mixture is aged for up to a year, resulting in hydrated slaked lime. Pigments, marble flour or minerals are then added.

In addition, acrylic or other resins may be added to improve adhesion to sealed surfaces, such as primed drywall. "Very few to none of the natural decorative plasters being sold commercially in North America are purely natural," Sickler says. "A plaster that has no man-made (synthetic) ingredients in it has to be applied over an absorbent substrate like unsealed stucco, fondo (a specialty primer), plaster or masonry. The market standard for a mineral plaster to be called natural is that it should be at least 95 percent natural ingredients."
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Calcium oxide

Calcium oxide | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. It is a white, caustic and alkaline crystalline solid at room temperature.

The broadly used term lime connotes calcium-containing inorganic materials, in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides of calcium, silicon, magnesium, aluminum, & iron predominate, such as limestone. By contrast, quicklime specifically applies to a single chemical compound.

Calcium oxide is usually made by the thermal decomposition of materials such as limestone, that contain calcium carbonate (CaCO3; mineral calcite) in a lime kiln.
This is accomplished by heating the material to above 825 °C,
a process called calcination or lime-burning, to liberate a molecule of carbon dioxide (CO2); leaving quicklime.

The quicklime is not stable and, when cooled, will spontaneously react with CO2 from the air until, after enough time, it is completely converted back to calcium carbonate.
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Lime through history | by Beri Calce

Lime through history | by Beri Calce | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it

"Finishing products based of lime.


Types of lime

- Hydrated lime (Superfine Lime)
It's obtained when transforming limestones, with a quantity of water more or less equal to that of lime.
The hydrated compound results to be a soft powder . It's sold in paper sacks, like cement, and it must be kept in a dry place. This hydrated lime powder is less sensible to froast respect to the slaked lime putty.

- Slaked lime putty (Grassello)
This is obtained when hydrating lime, with a quantity of water higher than with lime (ratio 3:1). It becomes, in this way, a plastic fatty mass called "slaked lime putty" (grassello).

In the past, rarely at these days, lime was transformed in a ditch where it was kept under water for many months (seasoning). It's important to remember that an insufficient calcination of the stones causes serious problems to the mortar: in fact, the grumes can swell and crumble after use with negative results. "Grassello" is sold ready to use in plastic sacks."

 

(Beri Calce new site: http://www.bericalce.com)

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and exists in Earth's atmosphere in this state. CO2 is a trace gas comprising 0.039% of the atmosphere.
As part of the carbon cycle known as photosynthesis, plants, algae, and cyanobacteria absorb carbon dioxide, sunlight, and water to produce carbohydrate energy for themselves and oxygen as a waste product. By contrast, during respiration they emit carbon dioxide, as do all other living things that depend either directly or indirectly on plants for food. Carbon dioxide is also generated as a by-product of combustion; emitted from volcanoes, hot springs, and geysers; and freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution.
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La Calce del Brenta

La Calce del Brenta | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it
The VIVASTILE series includes wall coatings (intonachino, marmorino and rasatura) based on slaked lime and coloured marble chippings and obtained following the antique processing techniques.
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in Italian: Forum Italiano Calce - Cos'è la calce?

in Italian: Forum Italiano Calce   -   Cos'è la calce? | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it
"La calce è uno dei più diffusi materiali prodotti su scala mondiale.
La calce è tra i più antichi e apprezzati leganti utilizzati dall'uomo per le edificare, decorare e proteggere le sue costruzioni, e sono moltissimi i settori industriali e produttivi (chimica, siderurgia, agricoltura, ambiente ecc.) che beneficiano delle delle sue straordinarie proprietà.

La Calce da Costruzione

L'impiego più conosciuto della calce è quello in edilizia.
Mescolata con sabbia, ha trovato impiego nelle malte da muratura e da intonaco, e reperti archeologici ottimamente conservati ne attestano valore e durabilità.
La calce dispersa in acqua ha rappresentato da sempre il sistema di tinteggiatura e igenizzazione delle superfici architettoniche; unita alle terre colorate e ai pigmenti minerali, si è imposta come materiale di riferimento per coloriture, decori murali e affreschi.

Nell'edilizia moderna e contemporanea, la calce trova impiego in ambiti molto ristretti, i leganti di tipo cementizio e polimeri di sintesi l'hanno sostituita ovunque e comunque, e del valore dell'antico legante rimane soltanto la memoria impressa negi edifici storici e nei trattati di arte ed architettura.

Felicemente, oggi, si fa sempre più strada la consapevolezza che le prerogative e la qualità della calce debbano essere rivalutate: non sono negli interventi di restauro, dove è necessario un uso corretto e coerente dei materiali simili agli originali, ma anche e soprattutto nell’edilizia tradizionale, in bio-architettura, dove i materiali moderni hanno definitivamente mostrato i loro limiti."
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Malte naturali, cocciopesto e murature storiche

Malte naturali, cocciopesto e murature storiche | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it
Area tecnica, finalizzata al recupero conservativo, attraverso l'uso di malte naturali idraulicamente attive, esenti da additivi e coloranti, a base di cocciopesto.
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Lime plaster fresco in Matthew Modine's apartment in NY

Lime plaster fresco in Matthew Modine's apartment in NY | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it

Designers Richard Gillette and Stephen Shadley created the interiors in this NY apartment for movie actor Matthew Modine. The feature wall was made of several layers of multicolored Venetian Plaster by artist Carlo V. Mori. The photo, with an article on Architectural Digest, appears on Richard Gillette's site.

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Venetian Plaster application methods on video

Venetian Plaster application methods on video | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it
This channel is the promotional side of the I Venetian Virtual Institute, an online DIY training school. Here you will see full demonstrations and segments of actual job sites and segments of the Institutes downloadable classes.

http://www.fauxflix.net
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Venetian Plaster: the procedure and the trowel handling

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This video shows the handling of the trowel.

Different approaches in the handling result in different final results. The final aspect of the plastered wall is always a combination of several factors. Learn to watch the differences. Lime plasters are very sensitive materials.

The thickness of each stroke produce variations in the overall texture. Variations are the beauty of the material: they result into a sort of a marble effect with its own unique 'touch and feel' aspect; at the same time, strokes 'calligraphies' define the style of each application approach together with how calligraphies vary in each coat of the application.
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Marmorino, Stucco Veneziano and the Mantovano

Marmorino, Stucco Veneziano and the Mantovano | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it
"Through many years of non-use, the historic Venetian plaster formulas and techniques were almost lost. But during the 1960's and 1970's, a small handful of pioneering Italian companies began to rediscover the plaster finishes and techniques which were traditional to their decorative heritage. By 1980, "Stucco Veneziano" (translated into English as "Venetian Plaster") and other rediscovered unique historical decorative effects were being enthusiastically accepted by the Italian market. "
One of the traditional wall covering materials is called Marmorino.

Marmorino is one of the Venetian plasters which is currently gaining popularity. The word "marmorino" means, literally, "little marble". The plaster is made of coarsely ground Carrara marble; when skillfully applied, the subtle sparkle of marble is evident.

Cool as stone to the touch, with a satiny look and feel, Marmorino gives your walls an understated elegance.
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Why Lime? History & Benefits | Stucco Italiano

Why Lime? History & Benefits | Stucco Italiano | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it
Marmorino is well known as a classic Venetian plaster. However, its origins are much older, dating to ancient Roman times. We can see evidence of it today in the villas of Pompei and in various Roman structures. In addition, it was written about in Vitruvio’s “De Architectura”, a 1st Century B.C. history of Rome.

Marmorino was rediscovered centuries later after the discovery of Vitruvio’s ancient treatise in the 15th century.

This ‘new’ plaster conformed well to the classical ideal that had recently become fashionable in the 15th century Venetian lagoon area.
The first record of work being done with marmorino is a building contract with the nuns of Santa Chiara of Murano in 1473. In this document, it is written that before the marmorino could be applied, the wall had to be prepared with a mortar made of lime and “coccio pesto” (ground terra cotta). This “coccio pesto” was then excavated from tailings of bricks or recycled from old roof tiles.
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Classical Venetian Plaster Application how to; step by step

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'Le Belle Mura' Italian Plaster by Atova, demonstration.
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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rock in all parts of the world, and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, pearls, and eggshells. Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime, and is usually the principal cause of hard water. It is commonly used medicinally as a calcium supplement or as an antacid, but excessive consumption can be hazardous.
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Calcium hydroxide

Calcium hydroxide | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it
Properties

When heated to 512 °C, the partial pressure of water in equilibrium with calcium hydroxide reaches 101 kPa, which decomposes calcium hydroxide into calcium oxide and water.

Ca(OH)2 → CaO + H2O

A suspension of fine calcium hydroxide particles in water is called milk of lime. The solution is called lime water and is a medium strength base that reacts with acids and attacks many metals in presence of water. Lime water turns milky in the presence of carbon dioxide due to formation of calcium carbonate:

Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O

Calcium hydroxide crystallizes in the same motif as cadmium iodide. The layers are interconnected by hydrogen bonds.
Preparation and occurrence

Calcium hydroxide is produced commercially by treating lime with water:

CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2

In the laboratory it can be prepared by mixing an aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium hydroxide. The mineral form, portlandite, is relatively rare but can be found in some volcanic, plutonic, and metamorphic rocks. It has also been known to arise in burning coal dumps.
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ARD - f.lli raccanello s.p.a. - centri storici Calce

ARD - f.lli raccanello s.p.a. - centri storici Calce | Venetian Plaster | Scoop.it
Italian Grassello products (lime based wall coverings) of a good quality.
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Lime (material)

"Lime is a general term for calcium-containing inorganic materials, in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides predominate. Strictly speaking, lime is calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. It is also the name for a single mineral (native lime) of the CaO composition, occurring very rarely.[citation needed] The word "lime" originates with its earliest use as building mortar and has the sense of "sticking or adhering." Lime can also refer to a sticky substance (birdlime) smeared on branches to catch small birds.

These materials are still used in large quantities as building and engineering materials (including limestone products, concrete and mortar) and as chemical feedstocks, among other uses. Lime industries and the use of many of the resulting products date from prehistoric periods in both the Old World and the New World.

The rocks and minerals from which these materials are derived, typically limestone or chalk, are composed primarily of calcium carbonate. They may be cut, crushed or pulverized and chemically altered. "Burning" (calcination) converts them into the highly caustic material quicklime (calcium oxide, CaO) and, through subsequent addition of water, into the less caustic (but still strongly alkaline) slaked lime or hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2), the process of which is called slaking of lime.

When the term is encountered in an agricultural context, it probably refers to agricultural lime. Otherwise it most commonly means slaked lime, as the more dangerous form is usually described more specifically as quicklime or burnt lime."
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Lime mortar

"Lime mortar is a type of mortar composed of lime, an aggregate such as sand, and water. It is one of the oldest known types of mortar, dating back to the 4th century BC and widely used in Ancient Rome and Greece, when it largely replaced the clay and gypsum mortars common to Ancient Egyptian construction.

With the introduction of ordinary portland cement (OPC) during the 19th century the use of lime mortar in new constructions gradually declined, largely due to portland's ease of use, quick setting and compressive strength. However the soft, porous properties of lime mortar provide certain advantages when working with softer building materials such as natural stone and terracotta. For this reason, while OPC continues to be commonly used in brick and concrete construction, in the repair of older, stone-built structures and the restoration of historical buildings the use of OPC has largely been discredited.

Despite its enduring utility over many centuries, lime mortar's effectiveness as a building material has not been well understood; time-honoured practices were based on tradition, folklore and trade knowledge, vindicated by the vast number of old buildings that remain standing. Only during the last few decades has empirical testing provided a scientific understanding of its remarkable durability"
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