Useful AOD Reports & Resources
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E-cigarettes and heated tobacco products: evidence review (UK)

Annual update of Public Health England’s e-cigarette evidence review by leading independent tobacco experts.
ReGenUC's insight:

See today's related media coverage of the review's findings: http://sco.lt/83CtZR

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Useful AOD Reports & Resources
A collection of good AOD research and resources
Curated by ReGenUC
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2018 NDARC Annual Research Symposium (Aus)

2018 NDARC Annual Research Symposium (Aus) | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it

The 2018 NDARC Annual Research Symposium was held on Monday, 8 October 2018. Thanks to all who presented and attended on the day. For any additional enquiries please contact ndarc.symposium@unsw.edu.au. 

ReGenUC's insight:

Presentations from last week's #NDARCSymposium are now available.

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Fentanyl use by police detainees remains unchanged (Aus)

A survey of 1,044 detainees conducted under the Drug Use Monitoring in Australia program in 2018 found that three percent of detainees reported having used fentanyl in the past 12 months. The same proportion of detainees interviewed in 2016 reported having used the drug.

ReGenUC's insight:

DUMA project data shows no indication of increased fentanyl use. It's also worth noting that the majority of detainees reporting fentanyl use stated that they started using it when it was prescribed for medical reasons, but that nearly 3/4 said they had engaged in non-medical use.  Most reported sourcing fentanyl from family and friends.

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Global status report on alcohol and health 2018

Global status report on alcohol and health 2018 | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it

21 September 2018 – Geneva. More than 3 million people died as a result of harmful use of alcohol in 2016, according a report released by the World Health Organization (WHO) today. This represents 1 in 20 deaths. More than three quarters of these deaths were among men. Overall, the harmful use of alcohol causes more than 5% of the global disease burden. 

ReGenUC's insight:

The latest WHO report reviews current global data on the impact of alcohol consumption on public health and the need for policy change.

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A Model Drug Law for West Africa

Drug laws in West Africa are not having the desired effects: neither drug use nor drug trafficking have been effectively reduced. Starting in 2014, the West Africa Commission on Drugs has called on governments in the region to change their laws.

ReGenUC's insight:

Global Commission on Drug Policy's West Africa Commission on Drugs provides policy resources to help countries adapt and reform current drug laws.

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Harm reduction for stimulant users

Harm reduction for stimulant users | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it

With the support of the Global Partnership on Drug Policies and Development (GPDPD), a project implemented by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, a team of three Mainline researchers conducted a study into effective harm reduction interventions for stimulant users. 

ReGenUC's insight:

Dutch study considers the evidence for a range of stimulant harm reduction strategies and examples of good practice in different regions around the world. The links to the final report and exec summary are included in the article.

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ReGenUC's curator insight, September 10, 7:20 PM

Dutch study considers the evidence for a range of stimulant harm reduction strategies and examples of good practice in different regions around the world. The links to the final report and exec summary are included in the article.

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Women's role in the rise in drinking in Australia 1950–80: an age–period–cohort analysis of data from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study 

In Australia, as in many countries, alcohol consumption increased dramatically during thsecond half of the 20th century, with increased availability of alcohol, relaxation of attitudes towards drinking and shifting roles and opportunities for women as facilitating factors. We sought to investigate drinking trends by gender and birth cohort in Australia during this period.
ReGenUC's insight:

Study highlights impacts of birth cohorts on post-WWII drinking patterns, including post war growth in women's consumption and the sustained reduction amongst men since 1980.

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The impact of buprenorphine and methadone on mortality: a primary care cohort study in the United Kingdom

Buprenorphine may be associated with a lower risk of mortality than methadone among people engaged in opioid substitution treatment – but is the pattern of short treatment duration in the UK preventing maximal impact at a population level?

ReGenUC's insight:

Study finds that, compared to methadone, buprenorphine was 'consistently associated with lower rates of overall mortality and specifically of drug-related poisoning deaths, including the first four weeks when patients are presumed to be at greatest risk', but that this was undermined to some extent by shorter treatment duration.

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More harm than good: Problems with parental supply of alcohol to children

More harm than good: Problems with parental supply of alcohol to children | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it
This week, The DRAM reviews a study by Richard Mattick and colleagues examining how parental supply of alcohol to children predicts alcohol-related harms and future problem drinking.
ReGenUC's insight:

Review of a longitudinal Australian study on the impacts of parental supply (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29396259), highlighting  increased risk of harm. 

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Beyond cure: patient reported outcomes of hepatitis C treatment among people who inject drugs in Australia 

Recent advances in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection provide the possibility of eliminating HCV as a public health threat. This focus on HCV elimination through treatment, however, is also driving a concomitant focus on ‘achieving cure’ as the primary outcome of treatment. The aim of this paper is to explore what people who inject drugs consider to be important in relation to outcomes of HCV treatment, and whether there are outcomes ‘beyond cure’ that might be important to understand as part of improving engagement in treatment. 

ReGenUC's insight:

Study by Annie Madden, Max Hopwood, Joanne Neale and Carla Treloar highlights the importance of consumer-centred care and the value of developing patient-reported outcome measures.

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Top five studies to read about drug education (UK)

Introducing important studies in the field of drug education that have undergone the critical review of Drug and Alcohol Findings. 

ReGenUC's insight:

The D&A Findings team provide summaries of key studies, their findings and their implications for UK drug education.

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The public health burden of alcohol: evidence review (UK)

The public health burden of alcohol: evidence review (UK) | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it
This review looks at the impact of alcohol on the public health and the effectiveness of alcohol control policies.
ReGenUC's insight:

Public Health England provide an overview of alcohol-related harm in England and possible policy solutions.

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HIV incidence in Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations in Australia: a population-level observational study

HIV incidence in Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations in Australia: a population-level observational study | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it

Australia has set a national target of ending HIV by 2020, achieving this will require the inclusion of priority populations (eg, Indigenous Australians) in strategies to reach elimination. To assist in evaluating the target of elimination, we analysed HIV notification data for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

ReGenUC's insight:

Study highlights need for greater inclusion of Indigenous people in prevention strategies to prevent widening of the gap in HIV diagnosis rates between non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australians.

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Evidence for the effectiveness of minimum pricing of alcohol: a systematic review and assessment using the Bradford Hill criteria for causality (UK)

Unable to draw on evidence from ‘gold standard’ randomised controlled trials, this review used nine criteria to assess the effect of minimum unit pricing – finding on balance that setting a minimum price per unit of alcohol was likely to reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms.

ReGenUC's insight:

Study concludes that it is highly probable, but not certain, that introducing minimum unit pricing would have the desired impact, but highlights the need for further research on implemented models.

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National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program Report—August 2018 (Aus)

National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program Report—August 2018 (Aus) | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it
The National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program is a key initiative in establishing an objective evidence base on illicit drug use.
ReGenUC's insight:

Latest ACIC report highlights regional variations in AOD use and provides comparisons with EU consumption levels. As always, it's important to note that cannabis is not included in the testing regime.

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Preventing overdose deaths in Europe (Perspectives on drugs)

Preventing overdose deaths in Europe (Perspectives on drugs) | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it

More than 9 000 lives were reported to be lost to drug overdoses in Europe (28 EU Member States, Turkey and Norway) in 2016, the latest reporting year, and this is an underestimate. Reducing drug-related deaths therefore remains a major challenge for public health policy. 

ReGenUC's insight:

EMCDDA report describes factors that increase overdose risk and interventions to prevent related injuries and deaths.

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Coca Crops in Colombia at all-time high, UNODC Report finds

Coca Crops in Colombia at all-time high, UNODC Report finds | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it

19 September 2018 – The area under coca cultivation in Colombia reached the highest ever recorded figure of 171,000 hectares (ha) in 2017, according to UNODC’s Coca Cultivation Survey Report for Colombia, launched in Bogota today. This represents an increase of 25,000 hectares, or 17 per cent in 2017 compared to 2016.
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Rates of deliberate overdoses rising in young people (UK)

Rates of deliberate overdoses rising in young people (UK) | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it

'Sharp rise in young people overdosing on painkillers and antidepressants' The Guardian reports, describing a UK study that looked at rates of "poisoning events" in recent years.

ReGenUC's insight:

NHS analysis of recent research findings that paracetamol (40%), alcohol (33%) and anti-inflammatory drugs, like ibuprofen (12%) were the most common drugs involved in deliberate overdoses.

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Opioid, amphetamine, and cocaine-induced deaths in Australia: August 2018 

Opioid, amphetamine, and cocaine-induced deaths in Australia: August 2018  | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it
Each year, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) makes available to Drug Trends in-depth data on drug-induced deaths in Australia.
ReGenUC's insight:

New resources from NDARC summarising ABS data on trends in overdose deaths between 1997 & 2016.

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Thomas Lemelin's comment, September 10, 1:16 AM
This is nice to see that it is not only the United States that is having an opioid issue. I do enjoy the interactive graph that makes it easy to track just which age group you want to see. My question comes from what was going on in 1999 in Australia to bring about such a rise in deaths from opioid use? The trends seem to be stable amongst age groups until 2014 where some age groups spiked above other, which could be due to the group of users becoming older and changing age categories. I would be interested to compare Australia’s numbers of opioid deaths compared to the United states side by side, as well as compare the number of reports and arrest on drug calls.
ReGenUC's comment, September 10, 2:12 AM
Australia saw a significant increase in the availability and use of heroin in the 90s. It was recognised as a public health crisis and led to the establishment of the Medically Supervised Injecting Centre in Kings Cross in Sydney (which had the highest concentration of overdose deaths). In early 2001, we then experienced a sudden 'heroin drought' as supply dried up. This led to a range of other harms as people shifted to other drugs. In the 90s, overdose deaths were mainly amongst people in their 30s. This has changed over time, as this cohort has aged, and we're now seeing much higher numbers of overdose deaths amongst older people.
Rob Duke's comment, September 10, 2:16 AM
ReGenUC: thanks for chiming in. As a street cop in the 90's in the Los Angeles basin, we had similar problems with heroin, but not nearly as a progressive response. I wish we'd have had the foresight to have supervised injection, which would have helped with the spread of HIV through shared needles, as well as, reducing overdoses.
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Hangovers have 'serious consequences' for driving and working, study finds (UK)

Hangovers have 'serious consequences' for driving and working, study finds (UK) | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it
The effects of an alcohol-fuelled bank holiday could last longer than might be anticipated due to cognitive impairments that stretch into the next day, a new study suggests. Psychologists at the University of Bath found hungover people had poorer attention, memory and psychomotor skills such as coordination and speed, even with little to no alcohol left in their bloodstreams.
ReGenUC's insight:

See yesterday's related post on the global study of alcohol's impact on 23 health problems: http://sco.lt/5S902D

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ReGenUC's curator insight, August 28, 8:04 PM

See yesterday's related post on the global study of alcohol's impact on 23 health problems: http://sco.lt/5S902D

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Response to the Parliamentary Inquiry into Drug Law Reform

Response to the Parliamentary Inquiry into Drug Law Reform | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it

Victorian Govt's response to recommendations from the Inquiry.

ReGenUC's insight:

The Govt's response is a bit disappointing. The response includes plenty of references to current policy measures but there's nothing here about drug law reform. Good to see a commitment to reducing access barriers to naloxone. If you're interested, you can see our submission to the inquiry here (under Policy and Inquiry Submissions): http://www.regen.org.au/news-advocacy/advocacy-in-action

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Are the “Best Buys” for Alcohol Control Still Valid? An Update on the Comparative Cost-Effectiveness of Alcohol Control Strategies at the Global Level

Evidence on the comparative cost-effectiveness of alcohol control strategies is a relevant input into public policy and resource allocation. At the global level, this evidence has been used to identify so-called best buys for noncommunicable disease prevention and control. This article uses global evidence on alcohol use exposures and risk relations, as well as on intervention costs and impacts, to re-examine the comparative cost-effectiveness of a range of alcohol control strategies.

ReGenUC's insight:

Review confirms pricing measures and restricting availability are still the most cost-effective policy measures available to governments.

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Majority of opioid overdose deaths in Australia are related to pharmaceutical opioids 

Majority of opioid overdose deaths in Australia are related to pharmaceutical opioids  | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it

There were 1,045 Australians aged 15-64 who died of an opioid overdose in 2016, according to a report released today by the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre at UNSW Sydney. 

ReGenUC's insight:

New NDARC report finds three quarters of these deaths involved pharmaceutical opioids.

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Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia

The consumption of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs is a major cause of preventable disease and illness in Australia. This report consolidates the most recently available information on alcohol, tobacco and other drug use in Australia, including key trends in the availability, consumption, harms and treatment for vulnerable populations. Further, information on a range of health, social and economic impacts of alcohol, tobacco and other drug use are highlighted.

ReGenUC's insight:

Updated AIHW data highlights increasing non-medical use of pharmaceuticals, poor health outcomes for people who inject drugs, psychological distress amongst people who recently used tobacco or illicits and (positively) a significant reduction in smoking rates amongst Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

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EMCDDA–Europol 2017 Annual Report on the implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA

EMCDDA–Europol 2017 Annual Report on the implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it

This report presents the key activities performed by the EMCDDA and Europol in 2017 and the results of the implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA on the information exchange, risk assessment and control of new psychoactive substances, including new psychoactive substances notified in 2017, Joint Reports produced, risk assessments conducted and public health-related alerts and advisories issued to the EU Early Warning System Network.

ReGenUC's insight:

New report includes details of 11 new fentanyl variants assessed.

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The impact of medically supervised injection centres on drug-related harms: A meta-analysis

Medically Supervised Injection Centres (MSICs) are legally-sanctioned facilities where users can consume pre-obtained drugs under medical supervision. Although there is a substantial body of research exploring their effectiveness, there have been few attempts to quantify outcomes across studies. 

ReGenUC's insight:

(Abstract only) Meta-analysis of eight studies finds: 'Overall, MSICs had a significant, but small, positive effect on outcomes based on the fixed effect analysis and no effect based on random effect analysis. The results of the independent outcome analyses showed that MSICs had a significant favourable result in relation to drug-related crime and a significant unfavourable result in relation to problematic heroin use or injection. MSICs were found to have no effect on overdose mortality or syringe/equipment sharing.'

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