UNC Microbiology and Immunology Research
1.8K views | +0 today
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for women and infants prevents vaginal and oral HIV transmission in a preclinical model of HIV infection

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

Efficient Inhibition of HIV Replication in the Gastrointestinal and Female Reproductive Tracts of Humanized BLT Mice by EFdA

Background The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) in preclinical development exhibits improved safety and antiviral activity profiles with minimal drug resistance compared to approved NRTIs. However, the systemic antiviral efficacy of EFdA has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we utilized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice to investigate the systemic effect of EFdA treatment on HIV replication and CD4+ T cell depletion in the peripheral blood (PB) and tissues. In particular, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the female reproductive tract (FRT) and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, major sites of transmission, viral replication, and CD4+ T cell depletion and where some current antiretroviral drugs have a sub-optimal effect. Results EFdA treatment resulted in reduction of HIV-RNA in PB to undetectable levels in the majority of treated mice by 3 weeks post-treatment. HIV-RNA levels in cervicovaginal lavage of EFdA-treated BLT mice also declined to undetectable levels demonstrating strong penetration of EFdA into the FRT. Our results also demonstrate a strong systemic suppression of HIV replication in all tissues analyzed. In particular, we observed more than a 2-log difference in HIV-RNA levels in the GI tract and FRT of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. In addition, HIV-RNA was also significantly lower in the lymph nodes, liver, lung, spleen of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. Furthermore, EFdA treatment prevented the depletion of CD4+ T cells in the PB, mucosal tissues and lymphoid tissues. Conclusion Our findings indicate that EFdA is highly effective in controlling viral replication and preserving CD4+ T cells in particular with high efficiency in the GI and FRT tract. Thus, EFdA represents a strong potential candidate for further development as a part of antiretroviral therapy regimens.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

Experimental analysis of functional variation within a protein family: Receiver domain autodephosphorylation kinetics

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

Phosphoryl Group Flow within the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pil-Chp Chemosensory System: Differential Function of the Eight Phosphotransferase and Three Receiver Domains

Phosphoryl Group Flow within the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pil-Chp Chemosensory System: Differential Function of the Eight Phosphotransferase and Three Receiver Domains | UNC Microbiology and Immunology Research | Scoop.it
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

Expanded Glucose Import Capability Affords Staphylococcus aureus Optimized Glycolytic Flux during Infection

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

The K1 protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) augments viral lytic replication.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

E-cigarette use results in suppression of immune and inflammatory-response genes in nasal epithelial cells similar to cigarette smoke

Empty description
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopAF1 suppresses plant immunity by targeting methionine recycling to block ethylene induction

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

Deep Sequencing of the HIV-1 env Gene Reveals Discrete X4 Lineages and Linkage Disequilibrium Between X4 and R5 Viruses In the V1/V2 and V3 Variable Regions

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

In vivo analysis of the effect of panobinostat on cell-associated HIV RNA and DNA levels and latent HIV infection

Empty description
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

Structural Features Essential to the Antimicrobial Functions of Human SPLUNC1

Structural Features Essential to the Antimicrobial Functions of Human SPLUNC1 | UNC Microbiology and Immunology Research | Scoop.it
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

Multiple transcripts encode full-length human cytomegalovirus IE1 and IE2 proteins during lytic infection

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

Antiretroviral Therapy for the Prevention of HIV-1 Transmission

Original Article from The New England Journal of Medicine — Antiretroviral Therapy for the Prevention of HIV-1 Transmission
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

Immune Gamma Globulin Therapeutic Indications in Immune Deficiency and Autoimmunity

Immune gamma globulin (IgG) has a long history in the treatment of both primary immune deficiency and autoimmune disorders. Disease indications continue to expand and new-generation products increase
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

Cyclic diguanylate signaling in Gram-positive bacteria

The nucleotide second messenger 3′-5′ cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a central regulator of the transition between motile and non-motile lifestyles in bacteria, favoring sessility. Most research investigating the functions of c-di-GMP has focused on Gram-negative species, especially pathogens. Recent work in Gram-positive species has revealed that c-di-GMP plays similar roles in Gram-positives, though the precise targets and mechanisms of regulation may differ. The majority of bacterial life exists in a surface-associated state, with motility allowing bacteria to disseminate and colonize new environments. c-di-GMP signaling regulates flagellum biosynthesis and production of adherence factors and appears to be a primary mechanism by which bacteria sense and respond to surfaces. Ultimately, c-di-GMP influences the ability of a bacterium to alter its transcriptional program, physiology and behavior upon surface contact. This review discusses how bacteria are able to sense a surface via flagella and type IV pili, and the role of c-di-GMP in regulating the response to surfaces, with emphasis on studies of Gram-positive bacteria.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

Interbacterial signaling via Burkholderia contact-dependent growth inhibition system proteins

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

Impact of the DNA Damage Response on Human Papillomavirus Chromatin

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

Glycolysis determines dichotomous regulation of T cell subsets in hypoxia

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

JCI - Clinical responses with T lymphocytes targeting malignancy-associated κ light chains

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

LAG-3 Confers a Competitive Disadvantage upon Antiviral CD8+ T Cell Responses

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Bill Goldman
Scoop.it!

Regulatory Requirements for Staphylococcus aureus Nitric Oxide Resistance.

more...
No comment yet.