Type 1 diabetes
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Regulatory T cell therapy for type 1 diabetes

Regulatory T cell therapy for type 1 diabetes | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Metabolic and immune effects of immunotherapy with proinsulin peptide in human new-onset type 1 diabetes

Metabolic and immune effects of immunotherapy with proinsulin peptide in human new-onset type 1 diabetes | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
Immunotherapy using peptides has been successful for some patients with allergies, but has not yet been deployed in autoimmune diseases, which may involve greater safety risks. Alhadj Ali et al . designed a placebo-controlled trial to determine whether a proinsulin peptide could safely elicit immune and metabolic responses in people recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes without accelerating disease. This small trial showed that treatment seemed to modify T cell responses and did not interfere with residual β cell function. In contrast to subjects in the placebo arm, treated subjects did not need to increase their insulin use. These encouraging results support a larger trial to investigate efficacy of the peptide therapy for treating disease.

Via Gilbert C FAURE
Remi Creusot's insight:
Results from a small immunotherapy trial with insulin peptide to induce tolerance. After one year, treatment seems to stabilize the progression of beta-cell loss and is safe.
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New Theory About the Cause of Type 1 Diabetes

New Theory About the Cause of Type 1 Diabetes | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
City of Hope’s Dr. Bart Roep has been able to justify a new theory about the cause of type 1 diabetes that suggests beta cells, not the immune system, may be to blame.

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Gut microbial metabolites limit the frequency of autoimmune T cells and protect against type 1 diabetes

Gut microbial metabolites limit the frequency of autoimmune T cells and protect against type 1 diabetes | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
The gut microbiota can influence immune-cell function by the production of short-chain fatty acids. Mackay and colleagues show that diets enriched for acetate and butyrate protect non-obese diabetic mice from insulitis and diabetes progression.

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Type 1 diabetes: Blocking immune signal may prevent disease onset

Type 1 diabetes: Blocking immune signal may prevent disease onset | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune system attacks pancreas cells. Now, scientists suggest blocking some signaling molecules might prevent the attacks.
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Researchers identify protein that delays type 1 diabetes onset in new mouse model

A new study reveals a counterintuitive cellular strategy that may protect insulin-producing cells from destruction during type 1 diabetes.
Remi Creusot's insight:
C-Rel is one of many break that prevent autoimmunity. Deficiency of C-Rel in NOD mice accelerates disease.
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Combination therapy for type 1 diabetes improves blood glucose control

A combination of three medications -- dapagliflozin, liraglutide and insulin -- helped people with Type 1 diabetes improve blood sugar control and lose weight, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical...
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Gut microbiota translocation to the pancreatic lymph nodes triggers NOD2 activation and contributes to T1D onset

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is triggered by both genetic and environmental factors, resulting in the destruction of pancreatic β cells. The disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier and consequent escape of microbial products may be one of these environmental triggers. However, the immune receptors that are activated in this context remain elusive. We show here that during streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2), but not NOD1, participates in the pathogenesis of the disease by inducing T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells in the pancreatic LNs (PLNs) and pancreas. Additionally, STZ-injected wild-type (WT) diabetic mice displayed an altered gut microbiota compared with vehicle-injected WT mice, together with the translocation of bacteria to the PLNs. Interestingly, WT mice treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics (Abx) were fully protected from STZ-induced T1D, which correlated with the abrogation of bacterial translocation to the PLNs. Notably, when Abx-treated STZ-injected WT mice received the NOD2 ligand muramyl dipeptide, both hyperglycemia and the proinflammatory immune response were restored. Our results demonstrate that the recognition of bacterial products by NOD2 inside the PLNs contributes to T1D development, establishing a new putative target for intervention during the early stages of the disease.

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JDRF’s Top Advances on Type 1 Diabetes Cure & Treatment Research

JDRF’s Top Advances on Type 1 Diabetes Cure & Treatment Research | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
“JDRF made exciting progress this year in our mission of accelerating life-changing breakthroughs to cure, prevent and treat type 1 diabetes (T1D) and its complications,” explains Emily Howell from JDRF.
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Top advances in T1D treatment from the past year according to JDRF
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Toward Targeted Therapies for Autoimmune Disorders

Toward Targeted Therapies for Autoimmune Disorders | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
Training the immune system to cease fire on native tissues could improve outcomes for autoimmune patients, but clinical progress has been slow.
Remi Creusot's insight:
Antigen-specific therapies for Type 1 diabetes: a perspective by Dr. Larry Steinman.
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Is an insulin pump the best therapy for everyone with type 1 diabetes?

Insulin pump therapy contributes to better blood glucose control in type 1 diabetes and, as pump technology continues to improve and become part of sensor-controlled feedback and artificial pancreas systems, essentially all patients would benefit...
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Gene Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes: Preclinical Promise

Gene Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes: Preclinical Promise | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
Despite eclectic ways of delivering insulin to control blood glucose level in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D), no approach precisely replicates what happens in the body. Gene therapy may hold the answer.
Via Gilbert C FAURE
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What our gut tells us about the 'hygiene hypothesis'

What our gut tells us about the 'hygiene hypothesis' | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
Over the past few decades, the healthcare community has observed an intriguing phenomenon: diseases related to the immune system—type 1 diabetes (T1D) and other autoimmune diseases, allergies, and the like—have taken hold in countries that have...
Remi Creusot's insight:
Interesting differences seen between the microbiome of kids in Finland (high incidence of T1D) and a neighboring region of Russia (6X lower incidence of disease).
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Imaging the emergence and natural progression of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes

National Academy of Sciences

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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New reporter mice reveal the dynamic of leukocyte infiltration of islets in NOD mice.
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LAG3 limits regulatory T cell proliferation and function in autoimmune diabetes

LAG3 limits regulatory T cell proliferation and function in autoimmune diabetes | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
Inhibitory receptors on T cells, including lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3), serve as brakes that limit immune-mediated damage to the host. LAG3 is expressed by exhausted conventional T cells in the tumor microenvironment and has emerged as a key target for tumor immunotherapy. The role of LAG3 in regulatory T cells (Tregs) has remained unclear. Using a mouse model of autoimmune diabetes, Zhang et al. report that Treg-specific deletion of LAG3 led to enhanced Treg proliferation and reduced the incidence of type 1 diabetes. Their studies highlight the cell-type dependence and context specificity of the role of LAG3 and call for a more holistic assessment of the functions of inhibitory receptors that emerge as targets for tumor immunotherapies.

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Type 1 diabetes mellitus

Type 1 diabetes mellitus | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disease characterized by insulin deficiency as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell loss.

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Protein packaging may cause the immune attacks of type 1 diabetes

Type-1 diabetes occurs when immune cells attack the pancreas. EPFL scientists have now discovered what may trigger this attack, opening new directions for treatments.
Remi Creusot's insight:
Exosomes produced by stressed by beta cells may contain enough antigens and signals to trigger autoimmunity
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FDA Approves Medtronic’s New Automated Insulin Pump

FDA Approves Medtronic’s New Automated Insulin Pump | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration said it has approved an insulin pump by medical device company Medtronic that automatically manages glucose levels within a target range.
Remi Creusot's insight:
A very important advance in the management of Type 1 diabetes.

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Antibiotic treatment increased risk for type 1 diabetes in animal study

Antibiotic treatment increased risk for type 1 diabetes in animal study | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
In doses equivalent to those used regularly in human children, antibiotics changed the mix of gut microbes in young mice to dramatically increase their risk for type 1 diabetes.
Remi Creusot's insight:
Another link between dysbiosis (alteration of the gut microbiome) and the progression to Type 1 diabetes. Although the study was exclusively done in mice, this could one explanation for the rise on the disease in humans in the past 50 years or so.
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Reversion of β-Cell Autoimmunity Changes Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: TEDDY Study

Reversion of β-Cell Autoimmunity Changes Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: TEDDY Study | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
OBJECTIVE β-Cell autoantibodies are a feature of the preclinical phase of type 1 diabetes. Here, we asked how frequently they revert in a cohort of children at risk for type 1 diabetes and whether reversion has any effect on type 1 diabetes risk.
Via Gilbert C FAURE
Remi Creusot's insight:
Conversion is when a subject acquire an autoantibody, reversion is when an antibody disappears. This study looked at what it mean for a subject to "revert" and whether it reduces the risk of T1D. The study showed that the risk of having type 1 diabetes was 1.8 and 0.14 per person-years among children who remained single-autoantibody positive and those who reverted from single autoantibodies to autoantibody negative, respectively, compared with 0.06 among children who never developed autoantibodies. Researchers examined the frequency of beta cell autoantibody reversion in children at risk for type 1 diabetes, aged up to 10, and found that reversion for autoantibodies to GAD65 and insulin was 19% and 29%, respectively, and generally seen among those with single autoantibodies.
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In type 1 diabetes, gut microbiome may influence autoimmune processes

In type 1 diabetes, gut microbiome may influence autoimmune processes | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
In type 1 diabetes, gut microbiome may influence autoimmune processes.
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Type 1 diabetes occurs more frequently in patients with JIA

Type 1 diabetes occurs more frequently in patients with JIA | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
The results of a study involving more than 9,000 patients, presented today at the European League Against Rheumatism Annual Congress showed that Type 1 diabetes occurs significantly more frequently in patients with Juvenile Inflammatory Arthritis...
Remi Creusot's insight:
Juvenile Inflammatory Arthritis patients have a greater chance of developing T1D than the general population. 58% of the time, T1D develops first, prior to JIA.
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Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Children with Type 1 Diabetes

Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Children with Type 1 Diabetes | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
A recent study found a high prevalence of a large population of children with type 1 diabetes to be deficient in vitamin D.
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Type 1 diabetes may be triggered by bacteria

Type 1 diabetes may be triggered by bacteria | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
Some forms of bacteria may cause killer T cells to destroy insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to type 1 diabetes, a new study suggests.
Remi Creusot's insight:
New evidence for cross-reactivity to bacterial antigens for the etiology of T1D
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Could infant colds, other infections raise type 1 diabetes risk?

Could infant colds, other infections raise type 1 diabetes risk? | Type 1 diabetes | Scoop.it
(HealthDay)— Colds and other infections in the first six months of life may boost the odds of a child developing type 1 diabetes by nearly 20 percent, new research suggests.
Remi Creusot's insight:
Respiratory infections during infancy may increase the risk of developing T1D.
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