Topic #3 : Volcanic Eruptions
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Madison College source

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Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 10:36 PM
This source reports on the damage of the Mount St Helens eruption and asks what could have been done to prevent people dying. The article also mentions a lawsuit against the state on behalf of the victims. It seems that the boundary that denoted the hazardous areas around the volcano may have been incorrect.
Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 10:42 PM
MLA Citation: "Aftershocks at Mount St. Helens." EBSCOhost. Columbian Journalism Review, Sept.-Oct. 1983. Web. 07 July 2013. <http://ezproxy.madisoncollege.edu:2067/ehost/detail?vid=14&sid=282c7a86-f76f-44e9-a1f3-399bb0c640cf%40sessionmgr112&hid=108&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=ufh&AN=16463315>.
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volcanic winter

volcanic winter | Topic #3 : Volcanic Eruptions | Scoop.it
Cooling at Earth’s surface resulting from the deposition of massive amounts of volcanic ash and sulfur aerosols in the stratosphere. Sulfur aerosols reflect incoming solar radiation and absorb terrestrial...
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Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 8:37 PM
This article is an introduction and definition of the term "volcanic winter. It describes the consequences and circumstances of large quantities of ash being pumped into the air by volcanoes and how it could result in a cooling of the troposphere. I will use this source to describe the possible outcomes and extreme hazards of large volcanic eruptions.
Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 8:42 PM
MLA citation: Rafferty, John P. "Volcanic Winter." Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 07 July 2013.
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Scientists identify trigger for explosive volcanic eruptions

Scientists identify trigger for explosive volcanic eruptions | Topic #3 : Volcanic Eruptions | Scoop.it
Scientists have identified a repeating trigger for the largest explosive volcanic eruptions on Earth. The Las Cañadas volcanic caldera on Tenerife, in the Canary Islands, has generated at least eight major eruptions during the last 700,000 years.
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Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 9:01 PM
This source talks about the research done to predict the triggers leading to catastrophic eruptions in the Canery Islands. This research is important because of the highly populated areas in which the volcano resides. I'll use this information in my project to show the compromising position we are in to the wrath of volcanoes and how scientists are working to make people who live near volcanoes safer.
Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 9:01 PM
MLA citation:University of Southampton. "Scientists identify trigger for explosive volcanic eruptions." ScienceDaily, 12 Oct. 2012. Web. 8 Jul. 2013.
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Are Volcanoes or Humans Harder on the Atmosphere?: Scientific American

Are Volcanoes or Humans Harder on the Atmosphere?: Scientific American | Topic #3 : Volcanic Eruptions | Scoop.it
Does one major volcanic eruption generate more climate-altering gas than that produced by humans in their entire history?
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Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 9:26 PM
This source illustrates that although Volcanoes put 200 million tons of CO2 into the atmosphere every year that they are still not responsible for the increase in CO2 emissions. This source also refers to the smaller scale hints of volcanic winters because it says that the massive explosion of Mt St Helens led to a period of cooling for the earth. I'll use this to show that on smaller scales volcanoes can be good for the earth.
Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 9:27 PM
MLA citation: "Are Volcanoes or Humans Harder on the Atmosphere?: Scientific American." Are Volcanoes or Humans Harder on the Atmosphere?: Scientific American. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 July 2013
Jennifer Lewis's comment, July 14, 2013 9:26 PM
Interesting article!
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Scientists Compile Largest Database Of Major Volcanic Eruptions - RedOrbit

Scientists Compile Largest Database Of Major Volcanic Eruptions - RedOrbit | Topic #3 : Volcanic Eruptions | Scoop.it
RedOrbit Scientists Compile Largest Database Of Major Volcanic Eruptions RedOrbit The open access database of Large Magnitude Explosive Eruptions (LaMEVE) will be able to provide crucial information to scientists and others involved in volcano...

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Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 9:55 PM
This research expands on the information collected by scientists and compiled into a database for Large Magnitude Explosive Eruptions. The database invites other research to be added to it in order to create a well developed resource for people who wish to see the hazards of volcanoes. I'll use this to show how volcanoes are becoming less of a threat.
Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 9:59 PM
MLA citation: Rannals, Lee. "Scientists Compile Largest Database Of Major Volcanic Eruptions." Major Volcanic Eruption Database Compiled. Red Orbit, 18 Jan. 2013. Web. 08 July 2013.
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Database Details 2000 Major Volcanic Eruptions - Laboratory Equipment

Database Details 2000 Major Volcanic Eruptions - Laboratory Equipment | Topic #3 : Volcanic Eruptions | Scoop.it
Laboratory Equipment
Database Details 2000 Major Volcanic Eruptions
Laboratory Equipment
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Volcanic Eruptions

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Katherine Maule's insight:

This source shows that there are benefits to the presence of terrestrial volcanoes erupting because they emit more oxygen into the air.  In contrast, this source indicates that submarine volcanoes don't produce oxygen and may prove to be a detriment to the atmosphere. 

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Madison College Source

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Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 10:25 PM
In depth article about what is going on after the earthquake in 2011 that has Mt Fuji queued to erupt soon. This article is important for my project because it talks about human consequence because it talks of the nuclear power plant that leaked. It talks about how some natural disasters can disrupt human practices and lead to further destruction.
Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 10:26 PM
MLA citation: Lewis, Jeff, and Belinda Lewis. "UNDER THE VOLCANO: MEDIA, ECOLOGY AND THE CRISIS OF NATURE." Media International Australia 145 (2012): 50-63. Madison College Libraries. Nov. 2012. Web. 07 July 2013.
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Doubt over 'volcanic winter' after Toba super-eruption - University of Oxford

Doubt over 'volcanic winter' after Toba super-eruption - University of Oxford | Topic #3 : Volcanic Eruptions | Scoop.it
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Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 8:59 PM
This research article says that the largest eruption of the past 2 million years, which took place 75,000 years ago did not play a hand in altering the climate as the "volcanic winter" theory would predict. Scientists found that the amount of ash that was pumped into the atmosphere during that time is actually more than what was originally thought, as well. I'll use this information to demonstrate the uncertainty of the past research and the resilience of the earth. This will also be used to compare the past volcanoes with the present volcano's potential strength.
Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 9:13 PM
MLA citation: "Doubt over 'volcanic Winter' after Toba Super-eruption." News RSS. N.p., 30 Apr. 2013. Web. 08 July 2013.
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Volcanic Ash -- Effects on Health and Mitigation Strategies

Volcanic Ash -- Effects on Health and Mitigation Strategies | Topic #3 : Volcanic Eruptions | Scoop.it
A description of the effects of volcanic ash on human health and measures to minimize exposure to airborne ash particles.
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Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 9:19 PM
Ash accumulating on a roof can result in collapsing and that can cause death to those in the building. Short-term exposure to ash that is exhaled has not shown significant health problems. However, long-term exposure can cause death. No volcanic eruption in recent history has been significant enough to produce enough ash to kill large numbers of people through suffocation. This source will be great to use in demonstrating the different health hazards and irritations from ash and how in a major scale it could cause mass extinction.
Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 9:21 PM
MLA citation: "Volcanic Ash -- Effects on Health and MitigationStrategies." Volcanic Ash -- Effects on Health and MitigationStrategies. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 July 2013.
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Unrestricted access to the details of deadly eruptions

Unrestricted access to the details of deadly eruptions | Topic #3 : Volcanic Eruptions | Scoop.it
Bristol UK (SPX) Jan 22, 2013 - Details of around 2,000 major volcanic eruptions which occurred over the last 1.8 million years have been made available in a new open access database, complied by scientists at the University of Br...

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Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 9:31 PM
This source explains the importance and actions of the scientists researching over 2,000 major volcanic eruptions from the last 2 million years. This research will be used to save and prevent any air traffic interruptions in the future.
Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 9:33 PM
MLA citation: "Unrestricted Access to the Details of Deadly Eruptions." Unrestricted Access to the Details of Deadly Eruptions. N.p., 22 Jan. 2013. Web. 08 July 2013.
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Mt Fuji may erupt by 2015, says Ryukyu University professor

Mt Fuji may erupt by 2015, says Ryukyu University professor | Topic #3 : Volcanic Eruptions | Scoop.it

TOKYO —

Since the Great Tohoku Earthquake of March 2011, scientists have been anxiously watching the massive volcano known as Mt Fuji for signs of activity. In September of last year, a report was released stating that Mt Fuji’s magma chamber pressure had risen to a worrisome 1.6 megapascals, which is estimated to be higher than when it last erupted.

According to retired professor Masaki Kimura of Ryukyu University, this and other recent phenomena indicate an eruption of Mt Fuji should have taken place in 2011 with a four-year margin of error ending in 2015.

First, a little background on Mt Fuji. Japan sits on the edge of a “subduction zone” which is where one layer of the Earth’s crust is pushed under another. This pushing is an ongoing process and results in part of the Earth’s crust being pushed down into the hot magma of the Earth’s mantle. However, because this crust is saturated with water, it mixes differently with the magma in the mantle causing a lighter material to rise back up through the top layer of crust.

This rising magma then becomes a magma chamber. Here, away from the mantle, various gases are released from the magma and accumulate. When pressure becomes stronger than the rock containing it, the rock pops open in a volcanic eruption.

Mt Fuji was formed in this manner, and the subduction which occurs during large-scale earthquakes is believed to cause an increase in the magma chamber. The previous 1707 eruption of Mt Fuji is said to have been triggered by a massive earthquake occurring near Osaka a month before.

Prof Kimura believes that aside from the Tohoku earthquake there has been an overall increase in more “normal” seismic activity around the mountain – particularly on its northeast side.

“Magma is rising from beneath Mt Fuji. Cracks in the crust have been growing. Some things hanging above have been falling. No one is pointing it out, but I think there is a possibility.”

By “things hanging”, Prof Kimura is possibly alluding to the partial collapse of the Sasago expressway tunnel in December last year, which killed nine. Authorities are still investigating the cause of the collapse and no earthquake was detected at the time, but deformation of the tunnel is speculated as being the cause.

Prof Kimura also mentions the rise of the water level at Lake Sai which is located to the northeast of Mt Fuji. At the time of the Tohoku earthquake, the lake’s water-level rose by one meter. Kimura believes that this was caused by the permafrost near Fuji’s summit melted by rising magma.

Prof Kimura also claims that there have been a large number of phreatic eruptions – explosions of steam caused by heating of ground water from rising magma – around the mountain. No lava is released during these explosions, only water and rock.

However, some say that phreatic eruptions are precursors to major volcanic eruptions. Prior to the 1980 eruption of Mt Saint Helens in the US, there were numerous reports of phreatic eruptions. This is a theory which Prof. Kimura seems to agree with.

“It looks like the danger of eruption is in the northeast corner of Mt Fuji, but there is also a possibility of an eruption from the summit crater at the same time. Volcanic earthquakes are increasing, and their epicenters are becoming increasingly shallow.”

It should be noted that Prof Kimura is co-author of “Fujisan No Funka Wa Hajimatteiru!” (The Eruption of Mt Fuji Has Begun!), a book released in June last year, as well as author of 2011’s “Fujisan Dai Funka! Bukimina Itsutsu No Choko” (Mt Fuji’s Big Eruption! Five Eerie Signs).

Also, despite the evidence at hand it is still difficult to predict disasters like earthquakes and volcanic eruptions with absolute accuracy.

However, in the event of a Mt Fuji eruption, many speculate the cost to human life would be low due to the slow moving lava that would likely occur. On the other hand, the cost of damage to public and private property would undoubtedly be immense.

So if you’re planning purchasing any property in the vicinity of Mt Fuji, you might want to sit on it for a while.


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Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 10:09 PM
This article informs about the possibility of Mt. Fuji exploding by 2015. An earthquake in 2011 has triggered scientists to anticipate an eruption in the near future. However, nothing is certain in the prediction of volcanic eruptions. Scientists say that the risk of human life being lost is low because the lava would be slow moving however, there will be significant property damage. I'll use this to point out the current active volcanoes in the news and what scientists are worried about in present day compared to in the past (ie loss of human life).
Katherine Maule's comment, July 8, 2013 10:12 PM
MLA Citation: "Mt Fuji May Erupt by 2015, Says Ryukyu University Professor." Japan Today RSS. Japan Today, 9 Jan. 2013. Web. 08 July 2013.
Zach Owen's curator insight, October 29, 2014 2:50 PM

If you had family in Japan, would you be concerned for this "active" volcano or would you dismiss this controvercy and only see it as a media misperception? 

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Hazards

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Katherine Maule's insight:

This source illustrates both the positives and negatives in volcanic eruptions.  It emphasizes the secondary hazards of a volcano that people may be unaware of.  One such secondary hazard is the health problems people may face when they are exposed to the enormous ash concentration in the air near a volcanic eruption.

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