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12 Writing Tips for Legal English

12 Writing Tips for Legal English | TOEFL Certification Programs in Atlanta | Scoop.it
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Here are our 12 Top Tips for writing legal English, with thanks to our visiting lawyers and course participants: 

1)  As with all writing, think about your audience – writing to another lawyer will be very different to writing to a client who is a layperson.


2)   If you’re aiming for clarity in your writing, then the Plain English campaign has two excellent writing guides.  The A to Z of alternative words gives you the ‘plain English’ versions of more formal words.  Of course, this could also help you to formalize your English if it’s too informal.  Again, the key is knowing what’s appropriate:

The A to Z to alternative words (PDF)

More specifically, The A to Z guide to legal phrases (PDF) gives clear definitions of many English legal words and expressions.

 

3)  Clarity will help you to avoid ambiguity and grey areas.  A funny example of ambiguity from criminal law is the newspaper headline ‘Juvenile court to try shooting defendant’.  In legal English ‘try’ means ‘put on trial’, but the meaning in general English is ‘attempt’, which would mean that the court tried to shoot the defendant who was on trial!

 

4)  Use layout and punctuation to clarify things, for example in a contract, number each clause and give it an underlined heading.  Use sub-clauses where necessary.

 

5)  Use the active voice to make it clear who should do what, such as ‘The seller shall deliver the goods’, rather than ‘the goods shall be delivered.’ 

 

6)  Be aware of words which have different meanings in general and legal English.  For example, in the sentence above, ‘The seller shall deliver the goods’, ‘shall’ means ‘must’, whereas in general English it’s used to make suggestions, such as ‘Shall we go to the pub?’


7)  Be careful with numbers; to avoid confusion, always write them in words as well as figures.  For instance, in English, £100.00 is one hundred pounds, not ten thousand pounds; a difference of nine thousand, nine hundred pounds!

 

8)  Similarly, dates should be written in words.  This date, 1/4/2015, is 1st April 2015 in British English but 4th January in US English.

 

9)  Don’t (do not) use contractions in formal legal writing.

 

10)  Legal English still uses a lot of formal adverbs of reference such as ‘herein’ to mean ‘in this document.’  While they can cause difficulties for the lay reader, when used correctly these adverbs help the reader to navigate the text.

 

11)  Get a good legal dictionary.  I recommend the Oxford Dictionary of Law 

 

12)  Be accurate – a lawyer’s language is their tool.  Use the Spelling and Grammar tool and proofread everything!

 

I hope this advice is useful and whether you’re a lawyer or a layperson we’d love to hear your comments and tips on writing legal English!

 

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Atlanta English Institute: Grow Your GRE Vocabulary with Word Groups

Atlanta English Institute: Grow Your GRE Vocabulary with Word Groups | TOEFL Certification Programs in Atlanta | Scoop.it
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Graduate Management Admission Test

The Graduate Management Admission Test is a computer adaptive test (CAT) intended to assess certain analytical, writing, quantitative, verbal, and reading skills in written English for use in admission to a graduate management program, such as an MBA. The GMAT does not measure business knowledge or skill, nor does it measure intelligence.

According to the test owning company, the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC), the GMAT assesses analytical writing and problem-solving abilities, while also addressing data sufficiency, logic, and critical reasoning skills that it believes to be vital to real-world business and management success. On June 5, 2012, GMAC introduced an integrated reasoning section to the exam that is designed to measure a test taker’s ability to evaluate data presented in new formats and multiple sources.

GMAT is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council. More than 5,900 programs offered by more than 2,100 universities and institutions use the GMAT exam as part of the selection criteria for their programs. Business schools use the test as a criterion for admission into a wide range of graduate management programs, including MBA, Master of Accountancy, and Master of Finance programs.

The GMAT exam is administered in standardized test centers in 112 countries around the world. According to a survey conducted by Kaplan Test Prep, the GMAT is still the number one choice for MBA aspirants despite the increasing acceptability of GRE scores. According to GMAC, it has continually performed validity studies to statistically verify that the exam predicts success in business school programs.

Predictive validity

The intended purpose of the GMAT is to predict student success in graduate business programs. Using data collected by GMAC between 1997 and 2004, GMAC found there to be a .459 correlation between total GMAT scores and mid-program student grades in graduate business programs.

Independent research has shown significantly different results. Independent research has shown that the GMAT can explain only 4.4% of the variance in final MBA GPA while undergraduate GPA can explain 17.4% of the variance in final MBA GPA. In addition, more recent research has shown that undergraduate grade point average and work experience are able to convey the information that the GMAT attempts to represent.

Scoring

The total GMAT score ranges from 200 to 800 and measures performance on the quantitative and verbal sections together (performance on the AWA and IR sections do not count toward the total score, those sections are scored separately). Scores are given in increments of 10 (e.g. 540, 550, 560, 570, etc.). From the most recent data released by GMAC, the average GMAT score of all test takers is about 540.

The score distribution conforms to a bell curve with a standard deviation of approximately 100 points, meaning that 68% of examinees score between 440 and 640. More precisely, the mean score is 545.6 with a standard deviation of 121.07 points.

The final score is not based solely on the last question the examinee answers (i.e. the level of difficulty of questions reached through the computer adaptive presentation of questions). The algorithm used to build a score is more complicated than that. The examinee can make a mistake and answer incorrectly and the computer will recognize that item as an anomaly. If the examinee misses the first question his score will not necessarily fall in the bottom half of the range.

After previewing his/her unofficial GMAT score, a GMAT test taker has two minutes to decide whether to keep or cancel the GMAT score. A cancelled score can be retrieved within 60 days for a fee of $100. After 60 days a cancelled score is not retrievable

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ESL Prep Test

English as a second or foreign language is the use of English by speakers with different native languages. Instruction for English-language learners may be known as English as a second language (ESL), English as a foreign language (EFL), English as an additional language (EAL), or English for speakers of other languages (ESOL).

“English as a second or foreign language…” indeed is the use of English by speakers with different native languages. English as a second language (ESL) is often used for non-native English speakers learning English in a country where English is commonly spoken. English as a foreign language (EFL) is used for non-native English speakers learning English in a country where English is not commonly spoken.

The term ESL has been misinterpreted by some to indicate that English would be of secondary importance. However, it simply refers to the order in which the language was learned. The term ESL can be a misnomer for some students who have learned several languages before learning English. The terms English Language Learners (ELL), and more recently English Learners (EL), have been used instead, and the students’ home language and cultures are considered important. (Wright, 2010). Edited

The way English learners are instructed depend on their level of English proficiency and the programs provided in their school or district. In some programs, instructions are taught in both, English and their home language. In other programs, instructions are only in English, but in a manner that is comprehensible to the students (Wright, 2010). Yet, there are other programs in which ELLs are pulled out of the classroom for separate English instruction, or the instruction can also be given in the classroom itself (Wright, 2010).

English as a language has great reach and influence; it is taught all over the world. In English-speaking countries, English language teaching has evolved in two broad directions: instruction for people who intend to live there, and instruction for those who do not. These divisions have grown firmer as the instructors of these two "industries" have used different terminology, followed distinct training qualifications, formed separate professional associations, and so on.

Crucially, these two arms have very different funding structures, public in the former and private in the latter, and to some extent this influences the way schools are established and classes are held. Matters are further complicated by the fact that the United States and the United Kingdom, both major engines of the language, describe these categories in different terms.

Although English is the principal language in both the US and the United Kingdom, it differs between the two countries, primarily in pronunciation and vocabulary. For example, some words and phrases that are inoffensive in the US are offensive in the UK and vice versa. These differences are the butt of many jokes.

"We have really everything in common with America nowadays, except, of course, language" (Oscar Wilde, in The Canterville Ghost). Similarly, Bertrand Russell said: "It is a misfortune for Anglo-American friendship that the two countries are supposed to have a common language." Variations have been misattributed to Winston Churchill, and George Bernard Shaw,[citation needed] that England and America "are two countries [or nations] divided [or separated] by a common language [or tongue]."


Technology

Language has a very significant role in our lives. It symbolizes the cultures in our societies where individuals interact and use it to communicate between each other. The development of transportation has influenced the global relations to be more practical where people need to interact and share common interests. However, communication is the key power to facilitate interactions among individuals which would provide them with stronger relationships. In places like the United States where immigration plays a role in social, economic and cultural aspects, there is an increase in the number of new immigrants yearly. "The number of non-native English speaking children in U.S. public schools continues to rise dramatically.

Although many non-English speakers tend to practice English classes in their countries before they migrate to any anglophone country to make it easier for them to interact with the people, many of them still struggle when they experience the reality of communicating with a real anglophone. Therefore, society forces them to improve their communication skills as soon as possible. Immigrants cannot afford to waste time learning to speak English especially for those who come with certain financial issues. 

 

The most common choice people make to build up their communication skills is to take some ESL classes. There are many steps that need to be followed in order to be successful in this aspect. However, the use of the new technology makes the learning process more convenient, reliable and productive.

Computers have made an entry into education in the past decades and have brought significant benefits to teachers and students alike. The use of Computers is a tool one can use to improve his/her learning skills. Computers help learners to be more responsible for their own learning abilities. Studies have shown that one of the best ways of improving one's learning ability is to use a computer where all the information one might need can be found. 

 

In today's developed world, a computer is one of a number of systems which help learners to improve their language. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is a system which aids learners to improve and practice language skills. It provides a stress-free environment for learners and makes them more responsible.

Computers can provide help to the ESL learners in many different ways such as teaching students to learn a new language. The computer can be used to test students about the language they already learn. It can assist them to practice certain tasks. The computer permits students to communicate easily with other from different places. 

 

Nowadays the increasing use of mobile technology, such as smartphones and tablet computers, has led to a growing usage applications created to facilitate language learning, such as The Phrasal Verbs Machine from Cambridge. In terms of online materials, there are many forms of online materials such as blogs, wikis, webquest. For instance, blogs can allow English learners to voice their opinions,sharpen their writing skills and build their confidence. 

 

However, some who are introverted may not feel comfortable sharing their ideas on the blog. Class wikis can be used to promote collaborative learning through sharing and co-constructing knowledge.[ Its vitally important to remember that on-line materials are still just materials and thus need to be subject to the same scrutiny of evaluation as any other language material or source.

The learning ability of language learners can be more reliable with the influence of the a dictionary. Learners tend to carry or are required to have a dictionary which allows them to learn independently and become more responsible for their own work. 

 

In these modern days, education has upgraded its methods of teaching and learning with dictionaries where digital materials are being applied as tools. Electronic dictionaries are increasingly a more common choice for ESL students. Most of them contain native-language equivalents and explanations, as well as definitions and example sentences in English. They can speak the English word to the learner, and they are easy to carry around. However, they are expensive and easy to lose, so students are often instructed to put their names on them.

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Test of English as a Foreign Language

Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is a standardized test of English language ability for non-native speakers wishing to enroll in American universities. The test is accepted by many English-speaking academic and professional institutions. TOEFL is one of the two major English-language tests in the world, the other being the IELTS.

TOEFL is a trademark of the Educational Testing Service (ETS), a private non-profit organization, which designs and administers the tests. ETS issues official score reports, sent independently to institutions, for two years following the test.

Reading

The Reading section consists of questions on 4–6 passages, each approximately 700 words in length. The passages are on academic topics; they are the kind of material that might be found in an undergraduate university textbook. Passages require understanding of rhetorical functions such as cause-effect, compare-contrast and argumentation. Students answer questions about main ideas, details, inferences, essential information, sentence insertion, vocabulary, rhetorical purpose and overall ideas. New types of questions in the TOEFL iBT test require filling out tables or completing summaries. Prior knowledge of the subject under discussion is not necessary to come to the correct answer.

Listening

The Listening section consists of questions on six passages, each 3–5 minutes in length. These passages include two student conversations and four academic lectures or discussions. The conversations involve a student and either a professor or a campus service provider. The lectures are a self-contained portion of an academic lecture, which may involve student participation and does not assume specialized background knowledge in the subject area. Each conversation and lecture passage is heard only once. Test-takers may take notes while they listen and they may refer to their notes when they answer the questions. Each conversation is associated with five questions and each lecture with six. The questions are meant to measure the ability to understand main ideas, important details, implications, relationships between ideas, organization of information, speaker purpose and speaker attitude.

Speaking

The Speaking section consists of six tasks: two independent and four integrated. In the two independent tasks, test-takers answer opinion questions on familiar topics. They are evaluated on their ability to speak spontaneously and convey their ideas clearly and coherently. In two of the integrated tasks, test-takers read a short passage, listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and answer a question by combining appropriate information from the text and the talk. In the two remaining integrated tasks, test-takers listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and then respond to a question about what they heard. In the integrated tasks, test-takers are evaluated on their ability to appropriately synthesize and effectively convey information from the reading and listening material. Test-takers may take notes as they read and listen and may use their notes to help prepare their responses. Test-takers are given a short preparation time before they have to begin speaking. The responses are digitally recorded, sent to ETS’s Online Scoring Network (OSN), and evaluated by three to six raters.

Writing

The Writing section measures a test taker's ability to write in an academic setting and consists of two tasks: one integrated and one independent. In the integrated task, test-takers read a passage on an academic topic and then listen to a speaker discuss it. The test-taker then writes a summary about the important points in the listening passage and explains how these relate to the key points of the reading passage. In the independent task, the test-taker must write an essay that states their opinion or choice, and then explain it, rather than simply listing personal preferences or choices. Responses are sent to the ETS OSN and evaluated by at least 3 different raters.

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AEI offers Test Preparation courses for international ESL students

AEI offers Test Preparation courses for international ESL students | TOEFL Certification Programs in Atlanta | Scoop.it
AEI Test Prep courses are taught by qualified native English speaking instructors at our campus in Atlanta, GA
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Learn English in Atlanta, a beautiful, active city

Learn English in Atlanta, a beautiful, active city | TOEFL Certification Programs in Atlanta | Scoop.it
Learn English in Atlanta and enhance your educational experience with diverse entertainment, culture, dining and outdoor activity
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TOEFL certification programs in atlanta

TOEFL certification programs in atlanta | TOEFL Certification Programs in Atlanta | Scoop.it
The best value in English language schools, located in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Atlei's insight:

USMLE Courses,
GRE verbal course,
TOEFL Prep Course,
GMAT test prep atlanta,
Best TOEFL and Test Preparation Schools.

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Atlanta English Institute (atlei) on about.me

Atlanta English Institute (atlei) on about.me | TOEFL Certification Programs in Atlanta | Scoop.it
View Atlanta English Institute on about.me. About.me makes it easy for you to learn about Atlanta English Institute’s background and interests.
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How much does your AWA score matter on the GMAT?

How much does your AWA score matter on the GMAT? | TOEFL Certification Programs in Atlanta | Scoop.it
Atlei's insight:

Focus on verbal and quant

Most test takers have high ambitions for their scores. If someone is going to score highly on the verbal section of the GMAT, then that person will be very likely to score well on the AWA also. I would advise you to focus your preparation on the verbal and quant sections of the GMAT. If you improve your verbal abilities generally, the AWA score will take care of itself. There is no magic score number that schools require on the AWA.

Non-native English speakers

One exception to the advice above is the case of non-native English speakers. For such people the AWA can be a way that schools use to gain information about their English language skills. The situation becomes complicated if the AWA score is terrible, but someone produces business school application essays of Shakespearean standard! This can be a potential red flag that someone has cheated on the application.

AWA on test day

The best situation for everyone would be if the AWA came at the end of the test. Unfortunately, it is the very first part of the test that you have to do. Sometimes people ask me whether they should just skip the essay if schools are not really interested in your score. You could write a few words, end the section and go to the next section. I advise against this, especially if people are not sure of which school they are going to. Some schools require a score on the AWA, not just a 0, which someone who skipped the section would receive. In that case, you would have to take the whole GMAT again, and nobody wants to do that.

The best way to approach things is to use the half hour you have for the AWA as a warm-up. Get used to the testing centre and the keyboard. Don’t spend too much mental energy on this section. You will need your energy for the more demanding verbal and quant sections. Good luck!

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English as a second or foreign language

English as a second or foreign language is the use of English by speakers with different native languages. Instruction for English-language learners may be known as English as a second language (ESL), English as a foreign language (EFL), English as an additional language (EAL), or English for speakers of other languages (ESOL).

“English as a second or foreign language…” indeed is the use of English by speakers with different native languages. English as a second language (ESL) is often used for non-native English speakers learning English in a country where English is commonly spoken. English as a foreign language (EFL) is used for non-native English speakers learning English in a country where English is not commonly spoken.

The term ESL has been misinterpreted by some to indicate that English would be of secondary importance. However, it simply refers to the order in which the language was learned. The term ESL can be a misnomer for some students who have learned several languages before learning English. The terms English Language Learners (ELL), and more recently English Learners (EL), have been used instead, and the students’ home language and cultures are considered important. (Wright, 2010). Edited

The way English learners are instructed depend on their level of English proficiency and the programs provided in their school or district. In some programs, instructions are taught in both, English and their home language. In other programs, instructions are only in English, but in a manner that is comprehensible to the students (Wright, 2010). Yet, there are other programs in which ELLs are pulled out of the classroom for separate English instruction, or the instruction can also be given in the classroom itself (Wright, 2010).

English as a language has great reach and influence; it is taught all over the world. In English-speaking countries, English language teaching has evolved in two broad directions: instruction for people who intend to live there, and instruction for those who do not. These divisions have grown firmer as the instructors of these two "industries" have used different terminology, followed distinct training qualifications, formed separate professional associations, and so on.

Crucially, these two arms have very different funding structures, public in the former and private in the latter, and to some extent this influences the way schools are established and classes are held. Matters are further complicated by the fact that the United States and the United Kingdom, both major engines of the language, describe these categories in different terms.

Although English is the principal language in both the US and the United Kingdom, it differs between the two countries, primarily in pronunciation and vocabulary. For example, some words and phrases that are inoffensive in the US are offensive in the UK and vice versa. These differences are the butt of many jokes. "We have really everything in common with America nowadays, except, of course, language" (Oscar Wilde, in The Canterville Ghost).

Similarly, Bertrand Russell said: "It is a misfortune for Anglo-American friendship that the two countries are supposed to have a common language." Variations have been misattributed to Winston Churchill, and George Bernard Shaw,[citation needed] that England and America "are two countries [or nations] divided [or separated] by a common language [or tongue]."

Interaction with native speakers

ESL students often have difficulty interacting with native speakers in school. Some ESL students avoid interactions with native speakers because of their frustration or embarrassment at their poor English. Immigrant students often also lack knowledge of popular culture, which limits their conversations with native speakers to academic topics. In classroom group activities with native speakers, ESL students often do not participate, again because of embarrassment about their English, but also because of cultural differences: their native cultures may value silence and individual work at school in preference to social interaction and talking in class. These interactions have been found to extend to teacher–student interactions as well.

In most mainstream classrooms, teacher-led discussion is the most common form of lesson. In this setting, some ESL students will fail to participate, and often have difficulty understanding teachers because they talk too fast, do not use visual aids, or use native colloquialisms. ESL students also have trouble getting involved with extracurricular activities with native speakers for similar reasons. Students fail to join extra-curricular activities because of the language barrier, cultural emphasis of academics over other activities, or failure to understand traditional pastimes in their new country.

Social benefits

Supporters of ESL programs claim they play an important role in the formation of peer networks and adjustment to school and society in their new homes. Having class among other students learning English as a second language relieves the pressure of making mistakes when speaking in class or to peers. ESL programs also allow students to be among others who appreciate their native language and culture, the expression of which is often not supported or encouraged in mainstream settings. ESL programs also allow students to meet and form friendships with other non-native speakers from different cultures, promoting racial tolerance and multiculturalism.

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TOEFL

The Test of English as a Foreign Language, or TOEFL, is a test which measures people’s English language skills to see if they are good enough to take a course at university or graduate school in English-speaking countries. It is for people whose native language is not English. It measures how well a person uses listening, reading, speaking and writing skills to perform academic tasks. This test is accepted by more than 7,500 colleges, universities, and agencies in more than 130 countries; which means it is the most widely recognized English test in the world.

The format of the TOEFL test has been changed three times. The first was the PBT (paper-based TOEFL test). It tests listening, reading and grammar skills with a perfect score being 677. Some centers where computers are not available still offer this format. The second format is the CBT (computer-based TOEFL test). People are each provided with a computer to take the test. A writing section was added as well as the three sections. The level of listening and grammar skills are automatically changed depending on a person’s English level. The third change is the iBT (Internet-based test) that is being brought in around the world which measures listening, speaking, reading and writing.

There are three procedures that people are following to take the test. First it is decided where and when you are going to take the test because the format of the test could be either iBT or CBT depending on location. People need to register 2–3 months in advance to get a place. Second is registration in person, online, by phone, or through email. Online registration is most common and payment will be required to complete the registration. The cost changes depending on what kind of exam is taken.

As more universities and colleges want a TOEFL more people are wanting to do the test. In Korea in 2010, nearly 115,000 people took the test to demonstrate their ability in English. This was 20% of the total for people doing the test. It is considered as one of the ways for middle or high school students to apply for the high ranked domestic universities. By studying at such an advanced level, it could help to improve their English skills to get high scores in other English exams.

Test scores

TOEFL iBT Test

The TOEFL iBT test is scored on a scale of 0 to 120 points.

Each of the four sections Reading, Listening, Speaking, and Writing) receives a scaled score from 0 to 30. The scaled scores from the four sections are added together to determine the total score.

Each speaking question is initially given a score of 0 to 4, and each writing question is initially given a score of 0 to 5. These scores are converted to scaled scores of 0 to 30.

Paper-based Test

The final PBT score ranges between 310 and 677 and is based on three subscores: Listening (31–68), Structure (31–68), and Reading (31–67). Unlike the CBT, the score of the Writing component (referred to as the Test of Written English, TWE) is not part of the final score; instead, it is reported separately on a scale of 0–6.

The score test takers receive on the Listening, Structure and Reading parts of the TOEFL test is not the percentage of correct answers. The score is converted to take into account the fact that some tests are more difficult than others. The converted scores correct these differences. Therefore, the converted score is a more accurate reflection of the ability than the raw score is.

Accepted TOEFL Scores

Most colleges use TOEFL scores as only one factor in their admission process, with a college or program within a college often setting a minimum TOEFL score required. The minimum TOEFL iBT scores range from 61 (Bowling Green State University) to 110 (University of Oxford).

ETS has released tables to convert between iBT, CBT and PBT scores.

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United States Medical Licensing Examination

The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) is a multi-part professional exam sponsored by the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). Physicians with an M.D. degree are required to pass this examination before being permitted to practice medicine in the United States; see below for requirements of physicians with a D.O. degree

 

 

Purpose:

 

The USMLE assesses a physician's ability to apply knowledge, concepts, and principles, and to determine fundamental patient-centered skills that are important in health and disease and that constitute the basis of safe and effective patient care. Examination committees composed of medical educators and clinicians from across the United States and its territories prepare the examination materials each year.

 

Overview:

 

Students and graduates of U.S. or Canadian medical school programs accredited by either the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) or Committee on Accreditation of Canadian Medical Schools, leading to the Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree, or by the American Osteopathic Association (AOA), leading to the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree, register for Step 1 and Step 2 of the USMLE with the NBME. Students and graduates of medical schools outside the United States or Canada register for Step 1 and Step 2 with the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG).

 

Graduates of medical schools in and outside the United States and Canada register for Step 3 with the FSMB or with a medical licensing authority in the United States. Each of the three steps of the USMLE examination complements the other; no step stands alone in the assessment of readiness for medical licensure. The USMLE program recommends that for Step 3 eligibility, licensure authorities require the completion, or near completion, of at least one postgraduate training year in a program of graduate medical education accredited by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) or the American Osteopathic Association (AOA).

 

All three steps of the USMLE exam must be passed before a physician with an M.D. degree is eligible to apply for an unrestricted license to practice medicine in the United States. U.S. osteopathic medical school graduates are permitted to take the USMLE for medical licensure, which they can also obtain by passing the multi-part Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (COMLEX) professional exam. Students who have graduated from medical schools outside the US and Canada must pass all three steps of the USMLE to be licensed to practice in the US, regardless of the title of their degree.

 

Overall pass rates for USMLE Step 1 test takers in 2013-2014 are: 95% for U.S. M.D. medical school graduates (97% in first-time takers), 94% for U.S. D.O. osteopathic medical school graduates (94% in first-time takers), and 72% for international medical school graduates (79% for first-time takers). Overall USMLE Step 2 CK test taker pass rates in 2013-2014 are: 97% for U.S. M.D. medical school graduates (98% in first-time takers) and 96% for U.S. D.O. medical school graduates (96% in first-time takers).

 

Overall USMLE Step 2 CS test taker pass rates in 2013-2014 are: 97% for U.S. M.D. medical school graduates (98% in first-time takers) and 89% for U.S. D.O. medical school graduates (89% in first-time takers), though this figure may be somewhat misleading since there were 19,757 M.D. first-time test takers and 63 D.O. first-time test takers. Overall pass rates for USMLE Step 3 test takers in 2013-2014 are: 96% for U.S. M.D. medical school graduates (97% in first-time takers), 92% for U.S. D.O. medical school graduates (96% in first-time takers), and 83% for international medical school graduates (87% in first-time takers).

 

These statistics may be somewhat misleading since there were 19,086 M.D. first-time test takers for Step 3 and 23 D.O. first-time test takers. (In these statistics, "U.S. M.D. medical school graduates" includes graduates of Canadian M.D. programs.)

 

Performance:

 

Grade point average in undergraduate science courses and performance on the MCAT, particularly the biological sciences and physical sciences sections, are strong predictors of performance on the USMLE step 1 and step 2 exams, though it is unclear whether the verbal reasoning portion of the MCAT has any predictive value. The selectivity of undergraduate institution is also a predictor of step 1 and step 2 performance, even when controlling for undergraduate GPA and MCAT score

 

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Get English lessons from our highly qualified instructors

Get English lessons from our highly qualified instructors | TOEFL Certification Programs in Atlanta | Scoop.it
How to learn English? Find out be enrolling at the Atlanta English Institute. There is no better place to learn American English than in America at AEI.
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Get English lessons from our highly qualified instructors

Get English lessons from our highly qualified instructors | TOEFL Certification Programs in Atlanta | Scoop.it
How to learn English? Find out be enrolling at the Atlanta English Institute. There is no better place to learn American English than in America at AEI.
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AEI offers Test Preparation courses for international ESL students

AEI offers Test Preparation courses for international ESL students | TOEFL Certification Programs in Atlanta | Scoop.it
AEI Test Prep courses are taught by qualified native English speaking instructors at our campus in Atlanta, GA
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TOEFL certification programs in atlanta | GMAT Preparation Course Atlanta | GMAT Courses Atlanta | GMAT Classes Atlanta

TOEFL certification programs in atlanta | GMAT Preparation Course Atlanta | GMAT Courses Atlanta | GMAT Classes Atlanta | TOEFL Certification Programs in Atlanta | Scoop.it
Students Resources Improve English Language Learning At AEI
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Our mission is English instruction and English language test preparation

Our mission is English instruction and English language test preparation | TOEFL Certification Programs in Atlanta | Scoop.it
Atlanta English Institute provides English instruction and English language test preparation in a nurturing environment
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