The history of the Roman Empire
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The Rise of Macedonia and the Conquests of Alexander the Great | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Rise of Macedonia and the Conquests of Alexander the Great | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art | The history of the Roman Empire | Scoop.it
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Who was Alexander the great and what power did he inherit from his farther Philip ii. What did he do for the army and how?

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History of the Roman Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The broader history of the Roman Empire is the period after the Roman Republic. It extends through 16 centuries and includes several stages in the evolution of the Roman state. It encompasses the period of the ancient Roman Empire, the period in which it was divided into western and eastern halves, and the history of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire that continued through the Middle Ages and to the beginning of the Modern Era.

Octavian, the grandnephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar, had made himself a central military figure during the chaotic period following Caesar's assassination. In 43 BC at the age of twenty he became one of the three members of the Second Triumvirate, a political alliance with Marcus Lepidus, and Mark Antony.[1] Octavian and Antony defeated the last of Caesar's assassins in 42 BC at the Battle of Philippi, although after this point, tensions began to rise between the two. The triumvirate ended in 32 BC, torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members: Lepidus was forced into exile and Antony, who had allied himself with his lover Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, committed suicide in 30 BC following his defeat at the Battle of Actium (31 BC) by the fleet of Octavian. Octavian subsequently annexed Egypt to the empire.[2]

Now sole ruler of Rome, Octavian began a full-scale reformation of military, fiscal and political matters. The Senate granted him power over appointing its membership and over the governors of the provinces.[3] In doing so, the Senate had created for Octavian what would become the office of Roman emperor. In 27 BC, Octavian made a show of offering to transfer control of the state back to the Senate.[4] The senate duly refused the offer, in effect ratifying his position within the state and the new political order. Octavian was then granted the title of " Augustus" by the Senate[5] and took the title of Princeps or "first citizen".[3] Augustus (as modern scholars usually refer to him from this point) took the official position that he had saved the Republic, and carefully framed his powers within republican constitutional principles. He thus rejected titles that Romans associated with monarchy, such as rex. The dictatorship, a military office in the early Republic typically lasting only for the six-month military campaigning season, had been resurrected and abused first by Sulla in the late 80s BC and then by Julius Caesar in the mid-40s; the title dictator had been formally abolished thereafter. As the adopted heir of Julius Caesar, Augustus had taken Caesar as a component of his name, and handed down the name to his heirs of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. With Vespasian, the first emperor outside the dynasty, Caesar evolved from a family name to a formal title.

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What is the Tetrarchy period and who was involved? When did it take place and what issues did it cause for the Roman imperial Era?

Think about: Was type of ruling was it and was it negative or positive for Rome?

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