Cloning's Impact on the Food Industry
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The McGraw-Hill Reader: Staying Human

From the McGraw-Hill Reader Textbook 

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D’Souza, Dinesh. “Staying Human”. McGraw-Hill Reader. Ed. Gilbert H. Muller. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2011 816-824. Print.

            The essay “Staying Human” by Dinesh D’Souza is written on the issue of cloning, specifically the cloning of children. While this essay is written about children, it easily relates to the cloning of livestock. Like livestock breeders, D’Souza states that parents would want to use cloning to create the best possible outcome. Instead of leaving the chances of potential diseases and disabilities in the air, parents would control these factors when choosing the traits of their child. Livestock breeders carry out that procedure today, they choose the certain traits they want for their animals and manipulate the genetic structure to get the desired results. D’Souza also brings up the ethical issues with the practice, this issues are also prevalent in the meat industry. Both debate on how they should go about using this god-like power, and whether it is morally right or wrong. Ultimately, D’Souza believes there is no room for parental tyranny in today’s world. She likens the process to Frankenstein’s monster. “In seeking to become gods, we are going to make monsters of ourselves” (D’Souza 824). D’Souza believes that we should not have this power in our grasps, because it makes us to be monsters. This reaction is similar to consumers who disapprove of cloned animal food products. These consumers want a natural substance, not a super-powered and genetically altered food product. 

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FDA Weighs Viability of Cloned Meat

FDA Weighs Viability of Cloned Meat | Cloning's Impact on the Food Industry | Scoop.it
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"FDA Weighs Viability of Cloned Meat." Talk of the Nation 5 May 2006. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 9 July 2014.

            In this podcast, the host interviews the president of Trans Ova Genetics (Dr. Faber) to get his viewpoints and knowledgeable opinions on cloning in the meat industry. To start off the conversation, Palca ask Dr. Faber about the legitimate values in cloning livestock and how it will help the industry. Dr. Faber states that it is mainly used in the reproduction in desired genes to alter the livestock’s gene pool. For example, Dr. Faber refers to a bull with good genes but the inability to reproduce. To get these desired traits to transfer to the next generation of livestock, they would create a clone of the bull that could reproduce. Dr. Faber claims that this instance of cloning is beneficial to the industry and the product itself. Instead of these clones being grinded into burgers, Dr Faber explains that they would be used as a breeding tool. The podcast then goes on to answer questions from viewers through the phone. Dr. Faber answers these questions to inform the public, a majority of whom dislike the idea of cloned livestock. 

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Food & Drug Law Prof Blog: Cloning

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"Food & Drug Law Prof Blog: Cloning”. Law Professor Blogs Network, n.d. Web. 9 July 2014. <http://lawprofessors.typepad.com/foodlaw/cloning/>.

                This Blog gives a timeline of post that provide readers with up-to-date information on the issue of cloning in the food industry. The Food & Drug Law Prof Blog is a part of the Law Professor Blogs Network. This network  of blogs provides blogs written by law professors across various universities and colleges in the US. The Food and Drug Law Prof Blog basically summarizes current events related to the topic and provides many links to the original content as necessary. Their sources usually include the FDA, and other government associations, making this a credible source to be addressing the topic of clone food products. While they are a credible source, they are obviously against the idea of clone food products. Their blog mainly consist of articles that denounce the idea of cloning in the food industry. Like all things of the internet, you have to take this blog with a grain of salt. Not that the blog is overly biased, but the reader must know what the blog is for and against in order to understand its stance on the issue.  

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Is Beef Really What's for Dinner?

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Abdul-Aleem, Maryann. "'Is beef really what's for dinner?'. (Cover story)." New York Amsterdam News 07 Feb. 2008: 1+. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 July 2014.

            This is another, more recent, newspaper article on the topic of cloning in the food industry. Abdul-Aleem Maryann outlines the basic situation regarding the cloning of livestock, while also taking time to address some ethical concerns. Written in 2008, this article is able to give more recent information on the topic. Maryann reports that the cloning of animals will produce better meat and milk products. While cloned products may be safe to consume, many consumers are more worried about the ethics of the situation. Maryann finds that larger US food corporations are separating themselves from the production of cloned meat because of consumer concerns. These larger corporations want to allow their customers to rest at ease knowing their food is not produced from a cloned animal. Consumer confidence is such an issue that a Senator has proposed a bill that would help consumers identify clone food products. “Senator Barbara A. Mikulski, Dem. from Maryland, went on the Senate floor on January 23, to pass legislation that would require labels on cloned meat” (Maryann). This proposed bill would isolate clone food products, and could possibly slow its production. 

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USATODAY.com - Cloned food gets closer to market

USATODAY.com - Cloned food gets closer to market | Cloning's Impact on the Food Industry | Scoop.it
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Elizabeth, Weise. "Cloned food gets closer to market." USA Today n.d.: Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 July 2014.

            This newspaper article written by Elizabeth Wise discusses how the food industry will be affected by the FDA’s approval of cloned meat. According to Weise, the FDA has determined that cloned animals pose no greater threat to the food industry than normally bred livestock does. Weise also states that scientist look to alter the genetic make-up of some of the cloned animals to provide diverse products. Products like “extra-tender meat, milk naturally low in lactic acid or eggs that protect against heart disease”. The article later acknowledges the downfall to some of these cloned animals. As stated by Weise, some of the cloned animals have the potential to develop kidney abnormalities, liver problems, and even limb defects. Even with these problems the FDA claims these abnormalities are no different than results from commonly used breeding techniques. Weise looks to see if these new findings will result in the FDA lifting its ban on meat and milk products made from cloned livestock. 

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FDA Affirms Cloned Animal Safety But Objections Raised

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Edney, Anna. "FDA Affirms Cloned Animal Safety But Objections Raised." CongressDaily 15 Jan. 2008: 7. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 July 2014.

            Anna Edney wrote this newspaper article for Congress Daily to inform the public on the arguments against cloned meat products. This article was written directly after the FDA’s public address that confirmed cloned animal food products to be safe for consumption. She states that while the FDA has approved the practice, they still have asked industry leaders to slow production on clone products for a couple of years to make an easy transition. This need for a transition comes from the public disapproval of cloned animal food products. The majority of people surveyed were uneasy on the idea of cloned meat. The FDA attributes this disapproval to the lack of consumer knowledge on the practice. They believe that if consumers were given time to learn about clone animal food products, then consumers would feel more comfortable towards it. Edney also shows the push for Congress to get involved in the issue. She states that the Consumer Federation of America (CFA) is strongly opposed to the practice of cloned livestock, and want to have congressional hearings on the ethical implications. The CFA also worries about animal safety and the potential environmental impacts of the practice of cloned livestock. Edney also cites a senator who claims the FDA rushed its decision to approve clone animal food products. The senator also degrades the FDA saying the FDA acts on behalf of corporate and political interest. If this senator’s claims are true, then are clone animal food products really safe?

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'Food, Inc.' Challenges the Industry - YouTube

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"Food inc Challenges the industry." YouTube.com. ABC News, n.d. Web. 9 July 2014. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dHf7UHDgMHc&gt;.

            This Youtube clip discusses the film Food inc., while also addressing the negative impacts of cloned livestock in the food industry. Food inc. is a movie that takes viewers behind the scenes of the food industry, and gives numerous statistics and data on the industry’s harmful practices. One of those practices, as mentioned in the youtube clip, is animal cloning to genetically alter the livestock. Starting around 5 minutes and 10 seconds into the video, an ABC interviewer debates with a beef industry leader on whether or not cloned meat should be labeled. The woman claims that the industry wants to inform consumers on the product before they start labeling the meat as “cloned”. The interviewer, however, states that the consumer should be aware of what product they are buying and what is in it. He claims that if consumers knew that the meat was a product of cloning, then most consumers would reject it. Also shown in the video is a court case over the same topic of labeling. At the time of the case, the FDA did not require there to be labels informing consumers if the meat was a product of cloning. 

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Animal Cloning - FDA.gov

Animal Cloning - FDA.gov | Cloning's Impact on the Food Industry | Scoop.it
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"U.S. Food and Drug Administration." Animal Cloning. FDA, n.d. Web. 9 July 2014. <http://www.fda.gov/animalveterinary/safetyhealth/AnimalCloning/default.htm>.

            This source is a .gov website that gives current information on cloning in the food industry. The FDA, US Food and Drug Administration, aims to protect the health of American citizens by ensuring the safety of many food products on the market. It also assesses the safety of medical drugs, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. The FDA is a part of the US Department of Health & Human Services, making it a government organization. This webpage gives useful information and links that provide American citizens with credible research on clone food products. This information includes the FDA’s assessment of clone food products, credible and relevant news updates, and consumer health information. Some of the links provided are referenced in the other sources on the Scoop it. The Risk assessment as mentioned in one of the scholarly journals can be found on this webpage. Many of the news articles on the Scoop it also reference this webpage when reporting on the issue of clone food products. The FDA aims to disprove the beliefs that clone food products are bad for consumers by providing links to research conducted within the FDA. Although this webpage addresses  the science behind cloning, it does not address the ethics associated with it. 

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FDA Informative Poster

FDA Informative Poster | Cloning's Impact on the Food Industry | Scoop.it
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Animal Cloning and Food Safety." . FDA, 1 Jan. 2008. Web. 8 July 2014. <http://www.fda.gov/downloads/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/UCM203337.pdf>.   ;

        This poster made by the FDA informs the public of its research on cloned livestock. There are pictures of a cow, a pig and a goat. These animals represent beef, pork and dairy in the food industry. The most important quote of the poster, the main idea, is presented in bold and enlarged to provide emphasis on the point they are trying to get across. The quote claims that food products from cloned animals are as safe as the products we eat today. This poster is informative in its information, and persuasive in its use. The FDA presents their findings on cloned livestock on this poster by presenting facts and data. The FDA also wants to ensure the public that clone products are no different than the foods we already consume. 

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Brave New Beef: Animal Cloning and Its impacts

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Riddle, James A. "Brave New Beef: Animal Cloning and Its Impacts." Brown Journal Of World Affairs 14.1 (2007): 111-119. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 July 2014.

            This scholarly journal by James Riddle discusses animal cloning within the beef and livestock industry. At the time, Riddle was the Organic Outreach Coordinator at the University of Minnesota. Riddle’s journal “Brave New Beef: Animal Cloning and Its Impacts” analyzes the flaws in the FDA’s risk assessment of cloned beef and pork livestock. It also explains the processes and environmental impacts of animal cloning for the reader. Along with the negative environmental impacts that Riddle finds with animal cloning, he states that this livestock cloning also holds many social issues. According to the journal, cloning of livestock also negatively impacts the American economy, organic foods, and ethical values. There are many dangers that come with the production of cloned livestock. Riddle explains that many of the cloned animals go unregulated, and contaminate the livestock population by breeding and contaminating the gene pool. This contamination can lead to an unhealthy livestock population due to the poor genes of the animals. With all of the risk involved, Riddle does not see the advantages of cloning in the beef industry. He even states that there are no shortages on meat or dairy. While there is no problem with the current system, Riddle finds it hard to justify the risk involved in the cloning. 

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