techniques de lecture
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techniques de lecture
ressources concernant les techniques de lecture — technologies, matériels, logiciels —, la diffusion des choses écrites — l'édition, papier & numérique —, et le web
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10 Crazy and Unusual Book Designs

10 Crazy and Unusual Book Designs | techniques de lecture | Scoop.it
4 Recently, we found out about a cookbook that you can actually eat after you’re done reading the recipes inside, which to us sounds pretty much like the best idea ever. Inspired by this elegant and — let’s face it — kind of crazy book, we went hunting for other wildly unusual book designs, from the edible to the mechanical to the technically alive. True, we mostly think all books are little objets d’art, but these go above and beyond the normal standards, each one an innovative and interesting piece of design as well as a functioning book.
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Lies, Damned Lies, and Ebooks

Lies, Damned Lies, and Ebooks | techniques de lecture | Scoop.it
You might remember "The Emperor's New Clothes" the famous story by Hans Christian Andersen. It is about two weavers who promise an Emperor a new suit of clothes that is invisible to anyone who was either incompetent or stupid. At first everyone agrees that the Emperor's new clothes is the most wonderful thing anyone has ever seen. But one day, when the Emperor parades before his subjects in his new clothes, a child cries out, "But he isn't wearing anything at all!"

The story tells the tale of how people fear to speak out against what other people believe to be good.

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So the good old minister went into the hall where the two swindlers sat working at their empty looms. "Goodness!" thought the old minister, opening his eyes wide. "I cannot see a thing!" But he did not say so.

The two swindlers invited him to step closer, asking him if it wasn't a beautiful design and if the colors weren't magnificent. They pointed to the empty loom, and the poor old minister opened his eyes wider and wider. He still could see nothing, for nothing was there. "Gracious" he thought. "Is it possible that I am stupid? I have never thought so. Am I unfit for my position? No one must know this. No, it will never do for me to say that I was unable to see the material.

"You aren't saying anything!" said one of the weavers.

"Oh, it is magnificent! The very best!" said the old minister, peering through his glasses. "This pattern and these colors! Yes, I'll tell the emperor that I am very satisfied with it!

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And so begins a lie that eventually takes down an Emperor, and everyone around him.

This story is a remarkable example of the powers of persuasion and the fear of not looking foolish - even when what you see clearly isn't as remarkable as it is made up to be.

This story also fits something we all know. "The Emperor's New Clothes" exactly mimics the ebook industry of today. Publisher and authors, wanting to dazzle the world around them, are being cheated by the ebook platforms, which, in reality, are nothing but a watered down version of something that has existed for years.

But the publishers, author and their advisers, in fear of looking foolish, is living a lie, publicly marveling in the ebook brilliance and never realizing they are not doing anything at all.

It's time for us to find that little kid, who in all innocence can point out the obvious, and force the publishing industry to refocus on what really matters.

I am, of course, referring to he mass-deception of the Amazon Kindle, The B&N Nook, The Kobo Reader, and worse, the Apple iBook + iBook Author. All of which is a deception designed to cheat the emperor (the publishers and authors) into thinking he is getting a new suit a clothes.
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Laurent Jenny | Histoire de la lecture

Dans le monde occidental, on a écrit des textes sur des supports très variés. En Mésopotamie primitive, on écrivait sur des tablettes de glaise carrées de sept ou huit centimètres, qu'on rangeait sans doute dans une poche de cuir. Dans les premiers siècles de Rome, le savoir, essentiellement sacerdotal, était fixé sur des livres en toile de lin (lintei) ou sur des tablettes de bois (tabulae). C'est encore le cas pour Caton le Censeur (234-149) qui rédige ses discours sur des tablettes de bois avant de les prononcer. En Grèce ou à Rome, même à l'époque des rouleaux, on écrivait les missives privées sur des tablettes de cire réutilisables.

La grande rupture dans l'Antiquité se fait entre deux autres supports qui ont connu successivement une très grande diffusion: le volumen et le codex.

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[docu] Off Book | Typography (PBS Arts)

Type is everywhere. Every print publication, website, movie, advertisement and public message involves the creation or selection of a fitting typeface. Online, a rich and artistic typographical culture exists, where typefaces are created and graphic design seeps in to every image.

In episode 2 of Off Book, typeface designers Jonathan Hoefler and Tobias Frere-Jones outline the importance of selecting the right font to convey a particular feeling. Graphic designer Paula Scher talks about building identity in messaging, while Eddie Opara uses texture to create reaction. Infographic designers Julia Vakser and Deroy Peraza map complicated data sets into digestible imagery, mixing color, graphics and type

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Ian Frazier | Typewriter Man

I write on a manual typewriter, but don't bug me about it, okay? I know that recently certain machines have been developed that produce manuscripts more efficiently than a manual typewriter ever could. When these machines began to take over, people constantly asked if I used one; for a while that was the fact about me people seemed most interested to know. When I replied that I didn't, people usually became vexed, or in some cases nearly enraged. The arguments that followed were of a pattern. Those in favor of the new machines described their many advantages, never failing to include the ease with which the new machines could move paragraphs around. I defended myself with explanations that started out mild and reasonable and quickly descended to a whiny "I just don't like them!" None of this got anybody anywhere. Then one day a champion of the new machines pinned me down on the subject, extolling them, as usual, and finally confronting me with the inevitable question: Did I use one? My panic began to mount as I saw what lay ahead -- the arguments, the rebuttals, the recriminations. I took a deep breath. "No ... I mean, yes!" I replied. Satisfied, the prosecutor moved on to other topics, as my heart rate returned to normal.
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Organize your writing in Scrivener

Organize your writing in Scrivener | techniques de lecture | Scoop.it
Writers have a nearly endless choice of tools. The number of word processors, text editors and other text software available today is staggering. But most of them are designed for a specific type of writing: linear writing, where you start at the beginning, then write until you get to the end.

Literature and Latte’s Scrivener is designed with the assumption that most writers of long-form works—novels, non-fiction books, theses, screenplays, and so on—don’t write in a linear manner. Scrivener provides a unique environment that frees you from the strict constraints of beginning, middle, and end. You can start at the end of your work, then write the beginning, then fill out the middle, if you wish. As you write, you can easily move around scenes, sections, and chapters, until your work is exactly as you want.

As a writer of either fiction or non-fiction, you have myriad options for the tool you use to record your words. However, you may find that Scrivener can replace the current program you use for writing, and provide you with powerful features that your current writing program doesn’t offer.
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EPUB 3 Proposed Specification Released | International Digital Publishing Forum

The International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF) today announced that EPUB® 3 is now a Proposed Specification for final member and public review. EPUB, an XML and Web Standards based format developed by the IDPF, has become a key global standard in the rapidly developing digital publishing industry, enabling digital books and publications to be portable across devices and reading systems. EPUB 3 is a major revision of the standard that aligns EPUB with HTML5 and adds support for key emerging requirements including video, audio, interactivity, vertical writing and other global language capabilities, improved accessibility, MathML, and styling and layout enhancements.

"EPUB 3 is by far the most significant advance in the over ten year history of the IDPF," said George Kerscher, President, IDPF and Secretary-General, DAISY Consortium. "In just one year, IDPF member organizations and invited experts, from around the world, have significantly enhanced all aspects of this standard. I’m particularly delighted that EPUB 3 marks the mainstreaming of accessibility capabilities within the universal commercial digital publication format standard –now every eBook can be a fully accessible eBook."
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Hubert Guillaud | Pour une anthropologie de la lecture

Hubert Guillaud | Pour une anthropologie de la lecture | techniques de lecture | Scoop.it
Plus j’explore le sujet de la lecture, plus je me rends compte que nous ne savons pas grand-chose de la lecture et des modes de partage que celle-ci induit, et ce, pas seulement dans le numérique, mais même dans le monde du papier.
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The origins of abc | Where does our alphabet come from?

The origins of abc | Where does our alphabet come from? | techniques de lecture | Scoop.it
Where does our alphabet come from? We see it every day on signs, billboards, packaging, in books and magazines; in fact, you are looking at it now — the Latin or Roman alphabet, the world’s most prolific, most widespread abc. Typography is a relatively recent invention, but to unearth the origins of alphabets, we will need to travel much farther back in time, to an era contemporaneous with the emergence of (agricultural) civilisation itself.
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Improve the Quality of ePub eBooks with Sigil

Improve the Quality of ePub eBooks with Sigil | techniques de lecture | Scoop.it
Would you like to correct errors in your ePub formatted eBooks, or even split them into chapters and create a Table of Contents?  Here’s how you can with the free program Sigil.
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Paule Mackrous | La "Web curation" : au-delà du hype!

L'idée du "curateur Web" est inspirée du métier du conservateur de musée, ce dernier étant tout bêtement défini comme quelqu'un qui "choisit des tableaux pour organiser une exposition." Donc voilà pour l'inspiration de départ. Iniminimanimo! Quoi de plus simple? Si tout le monde est historien d'art aujourd'hui, au sens wikipédien du terme, alors selon la pseudo-théorisation de la Web curation qui explose depuis quelques mois, tout le monde est curateur. Plus encore, les curateurs du Web seraient des...rédacteurs en chef (lui aussi dit ça)? Ça y est, les métiers reliés à la formation universitaire d'historien d'art sont considérés, sur le Web, comme l'apanage de tout un chacun! Étrange, tout de même...
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The lost art of editing (The Guardian)

The lost art of editing (The Guardian) | techniques de lecture | Scoop.it
The long, boozy lunches and smoke-filled parties are now part of publishing's past, but has rigorous line-by-line editing of books been lost too, a casualty of the demands of sales and publicity?
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Michaël Trahan | commissariat web : sélectionner, trier et organiser les contenus (introduction à Scoop.it)

L'un des enjeux déterminants du web, c'est de savoir gérer la quantité d'informations — entendu au sens large : visuelle, textuelle, etc. Il y a des choses de qualité qui se font et se défont sur internet; il ne faut pas bouder la pratique du web en disant qu'il s'agit d'un dépotoir duquel il est impossible d'extraire les «bons» éléments. Bien sûr, quand il y a trop de contenu disponible, ça devient du bruit, comme quand tout le monde parle en même temps — et la question de la qualité des contenus devient alors difficile à gérer : qui écouter ? Quoi écouter ? Dans cette optique, donc, c'est chose déterminante de trouver des outils qui nous conviennent pour choisir, trier, et organiser les contenus.
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How New York Pay Phones Became Guerrilla Libraries

How New York Pay Phones Became Guerrilla Libraries | techniques de lecture | Scoop.it
John Locke thinks people should read more. So in the past few months, the Columbia architecture grad has slipped around Manhattan with a sack of books and custom-made shelves, converting old pay phones into pop-up libraries.
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Peter Sloterdijk | Plagiat universitaire : le pacte de non-lecture

Peter Sloterdijk | Plagiat universitaire : le pacte de non-lecture | techniques de lecture | Scoop.it
"Aucun universitaire ne le niera : il est temps de compléter la théorie du lecteur implicite par celle du non-lecteur implicite. On devrait avoir à peu près rendu compte de la situation en partant de l'idée qu'entre 98 % et 99 % de toutes les productions de textes issues de l'université sont rédigées dans l'attente, si justifiée ou injustifiée soit-elle, d'une non-lecture partielle ou totale de ces textes. Il serait illusoire de croire que cela pourrait rester sans effet sur l'éthique de l'auteur."
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Fétichisme de la marchandise digitale et exploitation cachée : les cas Amazon et Apple

Fétichisme de la marchandise digitale et exploitation cachée : les cas Amazon et Apple | techniques de lecture | Scoop.it
La semaine dernière [1], The Morning Call, un quotidien de Pennsylvanie, a publié une enquête longue et détaillée, intitulée « Inside Amazon’s Warehouse », sur les terribles conditions de travail dans les entrepôts Amazon de la Lehigh Valley. Le reportage, résultat de mois d’interviews et de vérifications, est en train de faire le tour du monde et il a été repris par le New York times et d’autres médias mainstream. Le tableau est sombre : extrême précarité du travail, climat de chantage permanent et absence de droits, rythmes inhumains, avec vitesse redoublée d’un jour à l’autre (de 250 à 500 colis par jour, sans préavis), par une température qui dépasse les 40° et en une occasion au moins, a atteint les 45°, mesures disciplinaires aux dépens de ceux qui ralentissent le rythme ou, simplement, s’évanouissent (un rapport du 2 juin dernier évoque le chiffre de 15 travailleurs évanouis sous l’effet de la chaleur), licenciements « exemplaires » instantanés, le réprouvé étant raccompagné à la porte sous les yeux de ses collègues. Et ce n’est pas tout. Lisez-la toute entière, l’enquête. Elle en vaut la peine. La phrase-clé est prononcée par un ex-magasinier : « They’re killing people mentally and physically. »

À en juger par les commentaires en ligne, beaucoup tombent des nues, découvrant seulement maintenant qu’Amazon est une méga-corporation, et Jeff Bezos un patron qui – comme il est courant chez les patrons – veut réaliser des profits au mépris de toute autre considération sur la dignité, l’équité et la sécurité. Comme on aurait dû le soupçonner, le « miracle » Amazon (super-réductions, expéditions très rapides, « longue traîne » [2], offre apparemment infinie) repose sur l’exploitation de la force de travail dans des conditions vexatoires, dangereuses, humiliantes. Exactement comme le « miracle » Walmart, le « miracle » Marchionne [3] et tout autre miracle entrepreneurial que les médias nous ont proposés pendant des années. Ce qu’on vient d’écrire devrait être évident, et ne l’est pourtant pas. La révélation ne concerne pas une entreprise quelconque, mais Amazon, sorte de « bon géant » dont – en Italie aussi – on a toujours parlé de manière acritique, sinon adoratrice et populiste. The Morning Call a rompu l’enchantement. Il y a quelques jours encore, à quelques exceptions près, les médias (et les consommateurs eux-mêmes) achetaient rubis sur l’ongle la propagande d’Amazon. Désormais, on cherchera peut-être plus souvent confirmation, on fera les vérifications nécessaires, on ira voir les bluffs éventuels. Avec l’aggravation de la crise, le nombre de sceptiques semble augmenter.

Le problème des multinationales perçues comme moins « entrepreneuriales », plus « cool » et éthiquement – presque spirituellement – meilleures que les autres concerne beaucoup de compagnies associées à Internet de manière si étroite qu’on les identifie avec le réseau lui même.
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10 Essential Books on Typography

10 Essential Books on Typography | techniques de lecture | Scoop.it
Whether you’re a professional designer, recreational type-nerd, or casual lover of the fine letterform, typography is one of design’s most delightful frontiers, an odd medley of timeless traditions and timely evolution in the face of technological progress. Today, we turn to 10 essential books on typography, ranging from the practical to the philosophical to the plain pretty.
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Freeman Dyson| How We Know (The New York Review of Books)

Freeman Dyson| How We Know (The New York Review of Books) | techniques de lecture | Scoop.it
According to Gleick, the impact of information on human affairs came in three installments: first the history, the thousands of years during which people created and exchanged information without the concept of measuring it; second the theory, first formulated by Shannon; third the flood, in which we now live. The flood began quietly. The event that made the flood plainly visible occurred in 1965, when Gordon Moore stated Moore’s Law. Moore was an electrical engineer, founder of the Intel Corporation, a company that manufactured components for computers and other electronic gadgets. His law said that the price of electronic components would decrease and their numbers would increase by a factor of two every eighteen months. This implied that the price would decrease and the numbers would increase by a factor of a hundred every decade. Moore’s prediction of continued growth has turned out to be astonishingly accurate during the forty-five years since he announced it. In these four and a half decades, the price has decreased and the numbers have increased by a factor of a billion, nine powers of ten. Nine powers of ten are enough to turn a trickle into a flood.
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Jack Kerouac on the app road

Jack Kerouac on the app road | techniques de lecture | Scoop.it
There's a certain poetic justice in the fact that "On the Road" is one of Apple's top grossing book apps. Released on Saturday, the iPad app for Jack Kerouac's landmark novel -- featuring a variety of enriched content, including commentary, maps, audio recordings and other ephemera -- hit No. 4 four on Apple's list on Tuesday, ahead of Bible and T. S. Eliot's "The Wasteland." That's a testament to the power of the digital project, but also to the novel, which has occupied a visionary place in the culture since it was first published in 1957.
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Amazon to accept ePub files

Amazon to accept ePub files | techniques de lecture | Scoop.it
Amazon has told US publishers that it will begin accepting digital files in the ePub format in the near future and will also allow users of its Kindle device to read ePub files.

Users of the Kindle have up to now only been able to use Amazon's own format, meaning they have been locked into buying e-books off the Amazon e-commerce site.
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Eric Chevillard | Mystère et boule de blog

Eric Chevillard | Mystère et boule de blog | techniques de lecture | Scoop.it
C’est pour moi un grand sujet d’étonnement : comment se fait-il que si peu d’écrivains aient le désir d’ouvrir un blog ? Est-ce la laideur du mot qui les en dissuade ? Elle me rebute aussi : on croirait entendre éclater une bulle de chewing-gum, à moins que ce ne soit un poulpe qui se mouche ou une grenouille qui gobe un hanneton. Il est possible pourtant de se parer de références glorieuses : Monsieur Teste ne tient-il pas un Log-Book ? Dès lors, pourquoi hésiter ? La peur de l’informatique et de ses arcanes ? Souvent l’écrivain se complaît en sabotier, il a la main rugueuse, sa méditation interroge les aubes, les sources, les enfances. Il affecte envers toute technologie nouvelle un scepticisme hautain qui ressemble plutôt à une frilosité de petit vieux. Mais ouvrir un blog ne demande aucune compétence particulière si, du moins, l’on opte paresseusement comme moi, pour l’une de ces plateformes nombreuses sur Internet qui les proposent clés en main. Faudrait-il donc chercher de moins avouables motifs à cette réticence ? Un réflexe avaricieux ? Pourquoi mettrais-je en ligne gracieusement le fruit de mon travail ? Tout pour le livre en cours, pour le précieux grimoire que je compose secrètement et qui fera en septembre prochain l’effet d’une bombe ? Peut-être. Cette gratuité est cependant garante aussi d’une liberté absolue que l’édition traditionnelle, soucieuse justement de rentabilité, ne favorise pas toujours. Le blogueur n’a de comptes à rendre à personne, il peut expérimenter toutes les formes à sa guise – publier l’impubliable.
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comment ajouter structure et table des matières à vos livres numériques (introduction à Sigil)

comment ajouter structure et table des matières à vos livres numériques (introduction à Sigil) | techniques de lecture | Scoop.it
L'une des choses que je trouve le plus détestable dans la plupart des livres numériques est leur manque de structure. Par exemple, j'ouvre ce matin un livre de Raymond Chandler intitulé The High Window. Le texte est classiquement séparé en chapitre. Or le fichier numérique ne propose aucune séparation de chapitre : on se retrouve donc avec un fichier de 200 ou 300 pages d'un bloc, sans aucune indication interne pour marquer le rythme du texte. En plus du repérage mental que permet un livre numérique bien structuré, une séparation en chapitres bien fait permet de naviguer à l'aide des outils que proposent les liseuses : par exemple, sur le Kindle, avec les flèches de navigation on peut se promener d'un chapitre à l'autre d'un clic. Sans structure, c'est impossible : on est condamné au page à page. Et plus important encore : la séparation en chapitres permet automatiquement la construction d'une table des matières hiérarchisée avec laquelle peuvent interagir les liseuses.

Voici comment remédier à ce problème.
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Blake Morrison: Black day for the blue pencil | The Observer

Once they were key figures in literary publishing, respected by writers who acknowledged their contribution to shaping books. But, argues Blake Morrison, editors are now an endangered species.
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François Bon | Publie.net décolle

François Bon | Publie.net décolle | techniques de lecture | Scoop.it
Il se passe quelque chose d'impressionnant, depuis une dizaine de semaines seulement, dans le décollage enfin perceptible de l'édition numérique.
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