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Civil Rights and the 1950s: Crash Course US History #39 - YouTube

You can directly support Crash Course at http://www.subbable.com/crashcourse Subscribe for as little as $0 to keep up with everything we're doing. Free is ni...
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The 1950"s was the most important decade in the U.S. social history. The 1950's was so important because of the civil rights movement. The civil rights movement was the national effort made to create equality for all and desegregate facilities. The civil rights movement  started before the 1950's however, in the 1950's that is when the individuals fighting for equality began to win. The key goal of the civil rights movement was to desegregate schools which started in California in the 1940's in case of Mendez v. Westminster. During the case the California Supreme court ruled that Orange County had to desegregate schools that were discriminatory to Latinos. California's Governor Earl Warren, who later became Chief Justice Warren during the historic Brown v. Board of Education case, signed a order that repealed all school segregation in the state. After the Brown v. Board of Education case the Supreme Court ruled that the segregation of public schools was unconstitutional. In order to enforce the court's decision bureaucratic agencies and/or the executive branch were used. For example when Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus used the national Guard to prevent the integration of 9 African-American students into Little Rock  Central High school, President Eisenhower sent the 101st air borne division to walk the students to school for an entire year to enforce the court's decision.  Through this video I learned that the California case Mendez v. Westminster was on of few cases that got the wheels turning to desegregate schools.   

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11. AP60X - Equal Protection Clause - YouTube

Advanced Placement Government review in 60 seconds for Xtraordinary results. Workin' it one word at a time. Presented by citizenu.org and the 2 Teachers.
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Equal protection clause is part of the 14th amendment, and prohibits states from denying any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of laws. The equal protection clause is used by the Supreme Court to establish civil rights. The clause protects citizens from discrimination under state law. According to the video the most famous equal protection clause case, was Brown v. The Board of Education. Through this case the Supreme justices interpreted the Constitution and made the decision that it was illegal to have segregation in public schools, which overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson case.The equal protection clause "empowered the federal government and slightly weakened federalism." 

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Civil Liberties & Bill of Rights - YouTube

Civil Liberties & Bill of Rights

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Civil liberties are the personal rights and freedoms that the government cannot interfere with, either by law, the Constitution, or judicial procedures. You can find your civil liberties in the Bill of Rights. Before the Constitution was written civil liberties were once state territory. Examples of civil liberties include freedom of religion, expression, and more. Before  the new Constitution was ratified, the states submitted a stern request with civil liberties that they wanted the federal government to acknowledge which included: freedom of religion, freedom from unreasonable search and seizure, and etc.. In response of the states stern request, congress proposed the Bill of Rights , the Bill of Rights included the first ten amendments of Constitution. The amendments guaranteed civil liberties states wanted recognized like freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of press, and more.

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How the Supreme Court Responds to Public Opinion

How the Supreme Court Responds to Public Opinion | 3 Boss Taylor | Scoop.it
It has been rather challenging for legal scholars to portray the Supreme Court opinions of the past few days as somehow following logically from precedent or even from the past…
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The Supreme Court is insulated from public opinion because they are appointed by the President and the justices have life long tenure. Supreme Court justices are nominated and appointed by the President, not elected by the people. So, if the justices make a decision about a specific topic that the public doesn't agree with the justices don't have to fear because they aren't elected by the people and they cannot be voted out because they don't vote the way that the public wants them to vote.  The Supreme Court is also insulated from public opinion because the have life long tenure. With a life long term of being a justice he/she doesn't have to worry about public opinion because he/she doesn't have to side with the public to get re-elected.

 

 In order for the Supreme Court to not think that it has unlimited power and deviate too far from public opinion there are two factors that keep it in check. Two factors that keep the Supreme Court from deviating too far from public opinion include the checks from congress and the reliance on other branches to enforce the court's decision. Congress can check the power of the Supreme Court by  proposing an amendment to the Constitution with a 2/3 majority vote in both houses when the Supreme Court does judicial review and nullifies congress laws, president executive orders, and regulations that are deemed unconstitutional. Another factor that keeps the Supreme Court from deviating too far from public opinion is the enforcement of their decision. Although the Justices on the Supreme Court make a decision they need other branches like the  executive branch and/or bureaucratic agencies to enforce their ruling.

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Supreme Court won’t hear case on Obamacare Medicare board

Supreme Court won’t hear case on Obamacare Medicare board | 3 Boss Taylor | Scoop.it
The Supreme Court on Monday declined to take up the latest lawsuit against Obamacare, this time a challenge to a board that critics label a “death panel.” The case, Coons v. Lew, contested the constitutionality of the Independent Payment Advisory Board, among other complaints against Obamacare. The IPAB is designed to limit spending growth...
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The Independent Payment Advisory Board (IPAB), "is designed to limit spending growth in Medicare." The IPAB is a controversial piece of the Affordable Care Act, due to the 15 member board decisions cannot "be overridden by Congress without a super-majority and cannot be challenged in court." The Supreme Court declined the case of Coons v. Lew,  when challengers say that the IPAB will limit care towards seniors. Also challengers against the IPAB say, that "centralized power make the IPAB illegal." Although the case was declined to be heard within the Supreme Court the challengers say they will continue to fight against the IPAB  when the board makes a decision. To help the challengers, 25 Republicans filed an Amicus  Curiae Brief to help support their petition.

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Chris Gardner's comment, April 17, 2015 10:43 AM
UNIT 7 SCOOP.IT 100%; 120/120
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CNN: Inside the Supreme Court - YouTube

Kate Bolduan takes a rare peek at what lies behind the walls of the Supreme Court.
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This video gives an inside view and the history of the Supreme Court. "The Supreme Court was basically homeless for 150 years until 1929 when Chief Justice William H. Taft convinced Congress to fund construction" of the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court was completed and opened in 1935. From this video I learned that there has been only two times that the Supreme Court sessions has been captured on camera and those two times were in the 1930's. This video provides a view that what goes on inside of the Supreme Court is very private because of the limited access that the public has to the Supreme Court. The video also provides a view that the Supreme Court is cautious and deliberate because of the turtles on the lamppost placed outside of the Supreme Court "symbolizing the deliberate paste of justice."

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Executive Command | iCivics

Executive Command | iCivics | 3 Boss Taylor | Scoop.it
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The Executive Command is a game to help demonstrate what the president goes through while being in the White House. During this game I learned that it was difficult to try and run a country and get what you want done. For example at my State of the Union Address I told the nation my main focus was going to be on education.  After being in the White House for a short time a war broke out. At that point I realized that it was difficult to achieve what I wanted with education and deal with the war, because my main focus was to stop the war from coming into America. Because I was so overwhelmed with the war I didn't achieve anything except stopping the war before my term was up. This game has taught me how  the life of a President can be difficult and stressful. This game has also taught me why the President has so many staff and cabinet members to help him stay informed about key issues.

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United States Department of Defense (defense.gov)

United States Department of Defense (defense.gov) | 3 Boss Taylor | Scoop.it
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This website is an overview  on the United States Department of Defense. The Secretary of Defense is Ash Carter, he is "the principal defense policy adviser to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense policy and policy related to the matters of the Department of Defense ." The Department of Defense implements defense policies. The Department of Defenses focuses on top issue like Afghanistan, cyber security, defense strategic guidance, sexual assault prevention, and targeted operation against ISIL terrorist. A current issue that the website describes on its website is that there have been a continuation of airstrikes against ISIL in Syria and Iraq.

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The White House

The White House | 3 Boss Taylor | Scoop.it
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The White House website gives an overview of what is going on in the White House like the type of issues being discussed, what's going on in the briefing room, ways to get involved,and etc.. The website also had an interactive tour of the White House and West Wing tour. Through the interactive tour I noticed that the residence was on the ground floor of the White House. On Tuesday  March 31,2015 President Obama schedule begins at 10:00 a.m where he and the Vice President will receive the Presidential daily briefing in the Oval Office and 5:15 p.m the President will meet with the Secretary of Defense Carter in the Oval Office. These roles demonstrate the President acting as a Chief Executive by holding a meeting with Secretary of Defense to discuss government business. 

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Chris Gardner's comment, April 2, 2015 11:37 AM
UNIT 6 SCOOP.IT GRADE 100%; 200 POINTS. GREAT JOB PROVIDING INSIGHT ON THE CONTENT. YOUR ANALYSIS IS STRONG ON ALL OF YOUR SCOOPS. YOU DEMONSTRATE STRONG UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLES OF THE PRESIDENT. GREAT WORK!
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Why Presidents Are Also Celebrities

Why Presidents Are Also Celebrities | 3 Boss Taylor | Scoop.it
The Roosevelts transformed the United States—and made its leaders into stars.
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This article discuss why presidents are sometimes also referred to as celebrities and how Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt are to blame for establishing presidents as huge media figures. For example after Theodore Roosevelt was shot in the chest he still delivered his speech to the people instead of going to the hospital. Illustrating to the people that he was their for the people and he was just like them. The Roosevelts illustrated human and superhuman qualities at the same time which is what people wanted. The Roosevelts also became historical media figures because they were close with the people by performing their  ceremonial roles like throwing the first pitch at a baseball game , having fireside chats, and etc. the "people felt like the presidents cared about the common people." The Roosevelts are why people in today's society ask for presidents to "propose policies and charm the people." This article provides a view that Americans want a president who provides a sense of responsibility to all Americans and not a few. As well as  for presidents to "act as out superstars."

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The President - Strengths and Weaknesses - YouTube

Listen and learn the basics about the American presidency. Is the President of the United States the most powerful person in the world or a pitiful helpless ...
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This video discussed the strengths and weaknesses of a President. The video also discussed the entire Executive Branch also known as the Administration. The President, White House Office, executive office, cabinet, executive departments, and independent agencies make up the Executive Branch. In the executive office the advisors and staff oversee policy and policy agenda. Through this video I learned that the difference between the members of the executive office and the members of the cabinet is that the members of the executive office are the most loyal and most times are picked from the campaign, while members of the cabinet their loyalty is divided trying to defend their own agency. The cabinet is less important to the President than the members of the executive office. According to the video the President's real powers are his informal powers. The President has the most power when h can bargain with Congress and mobilize public opinion. This video provides a view that the President can get more things that he wants to achieve by bargaining and getting alone with Congress.

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Bill: A Memoir - YouTube

Learn how a bill becomes a law.

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From this video I learned the series of steps of how a bill becomes a law. Before a bill becomes a  law it must be introduced in the Senate or in the House. If a bill starts in the House it must be introduced in the "hopper". After being introduced in the "hopper" the speakers assigns it to committees where the committees study the bill, mark up the bill, and hold hearings about the bill. Then the bill goes to Rules committees, once it passes through the committees it can be debated on the House floor , if the bill passes in the House then the bill will be sent to the Senate. In the Senate the same thing happens except there is no Rules of committee so the bill goes to the Senate floor to be debated on after it comes from the standing committees. If the bill passes the Senate it must go through the Conference committee for reconciliation. After reconciliation the bill goes to the President's desk to be signed or vetoed by the President.  If signed by the President the bill becomes a law ;however, if the bill is vetoed Congress can override the vetoed with 2/3 majority vote and then the bill will become a law.  

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History of the Filibuster - YouTube

Discover the interesting history of the filibuster, from Cato the Younger to Rand Paul, and see why it is an important part of the American system of governm...
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The term filibuster comes from the "Dutch word meaning "pirate", filibusters became popular in the 1850s, when it was applied to efforts to hold the Senate floor in order to prevent a vote on a bill." The term cloture is the only formal procedure that Senate rules provide for breaking a filibuster. In order for the cloture rule to be invoked there is a requirement of 60 votes or more by Senators to end a filibuster. From watching this video I learned that once a filibuster starts the senator who begins it must stand up the entire time, cannot eat, and cannot leave the room, if the senator does that the filibuster will end. I also learned that the most recent filibuster was on March 6, 2013 held by Senator Rand Paul to force a clear statement from the White House that it was unconstitutional to use drones  to kill Americans in the United States just because they are suspected as terrorist. Although Rand Paul spoke for 12 hours there have been other senators who have spoken longer than that like Senator Strom Thurmond who spoke for 24 hours and 18 minutes by filibustering the Civil Rights Act of 1957.

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The First Amendment for Dummies: The Basics of the 1st Amendment Explained - YouTube

 Continuing the Constitution for Dummies Series with the Bill of Rights and Amendment One. Explained simply so you can understand the Constitution of the Unit...
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The first amendment states that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances." The freedoms in the 1st amendment  are important because it protects the freedom of religion, speech, press, freedom to peacefully assemble, and the freedom to petition the government.  In the 1st amendment there are two clauses, the establishment clause and the free exercise clause regarding religion. Freedom of religion is important because it allows citizens to practice and be apart of any religion without being criminalized. Freedom of speech is a way to state your opinion verbally and/or symbolically, as long as an individual isn't using slander or libel to  damage and defame the character of others. Freedom of press allows individuals to publish materials and express their opinion through media outlets as long as the material doesn't present harm and danger to citizens of the United States. The freedom to a peaceful assemble and petition the government is important because it allows individuals to gather and have a peaceful protest on common interest and to make the government make up for its wrongdoings. The freedoms that are included in the 1st amendment are important because it allows citizens voices to be heard and be themselves without interference from the government.

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What is the 14th Amendment Due Process Clause? - YouTube

What is the 14th Amendment Due Process Clause? This video discusses the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment and its relationship to the 5th Amendment Du...
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Due process of law is a person's legal right to fair government procedures. The due process clause is in the 5th amendment and in the 14th amendment. The due process clause is used by the Supreme Court to do selective incorporation. Selective incorporation is when the Supreme Court use the due process clause of the 14th amendment to apply part of the Bill of Rights to states in cases. The 5th amendment states that the "federal government cannot take away a person's life, liberty, or property without due process of law" and the 14th amendment say, "states cannot take away a person's life, liberty, or property without due process of law". The relationship between the 5th and 14th amendment is that state governments  and the federal government are limited by the Constitution to take away an individual's life, liberty, or property. The due process clause protects citizens from imprisonment without a trial.

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Supreme%20Court%20Procedure%20_%20Cases.pdf

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The Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court is  appellate. The supreme Court has the power to settle controversies between states and citizens, states and states, constitutional questions,treaties, officials,and etc.. The Supreme Court has the power to review, revise, or return a case. In order for a case to be chosen by the Supreme Court it must have been appealed or have appellate jurisdiction. For the Supreme Court to consider the case, the case must have a  writ of certiorari which is a request from lower courts  so the justices can be more informed and  the case must have constitutional questions and/or controversies between other federal or state courts. After the hearing and the case is decided two opinions will be released to the public which are the majority opinions and the minority opinions. An explanation of the case and the justices decision will also be released. 

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GOP homes in on controversial Sotomayor speeches - CNN.com

GOP homes in on controversial Sotomayor speeches - CNN.com | 3 Boss Taylor | Scoop.it

Questions surrounding Judge Sonia Sotomayor's past speeches generated more controversy in the final day of her Supreme Court confirmation hearings Thursday, as Democrats again called her a mainstream jurist and Republicans portrayed her as a liberal activist likely to legislate from the bench.

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Three characteristics of Supreme Court nominees include their personal views, judicial philosophies, and ethnicity.Through the Sotomayor appointment process, her personal views were politically relevant because interest groups like the NRA made a statement saying that "any individual who does not agree that the Second Amendment guarantees a fundamental right and who does not respect our God-given right of self-defense should not serve on any court, much less the highest court in the land" based off of what Sotomayor said earlier in that week which was "she recognizes the right to bear arms" but she never said if she believed that bearing arms was a fundamental right. With her personal views on the right to bear arms it caused political relevance because the Supreme Court spends most of its time taking up cases on gun control. Another political relevance issue is the judicial philosophies. Whether a nominee has a philosophy of being a judicial restraint with  strict construction or  judicial activist with loose construction or vice versa with a judge having a philosophy of judicial restraint with loose construction or judge with judicial activism with strict construction. The philosophies cause tension because it demonstrates how a judge understands and interpret the law and how he/she will vote. Through Sotomayor's appointment process Sotomayor said in a controversial statement "that a wise Latina could reach a better decision than a white man" which brings up that race is another political relevance issue. Race is a political relevance issue because some people will agree with Sotomayor that she can bring a different perspective to the voting process as a judge because she has a different background. While people against her might argue that her statement was racist and offensive.

 

Two methods that have been used by interest groups to influence the appointment process includes lobbying and advertisement. Interest groups like the NRA who are concern with a hot button issue like gun control would use both methods to influence the appointment process. Through lobbying the NRA would go to the Senate and persuade to the Senate why the appointed nominee should not be confirmed. For example, during the Sotomayor's appointment process the NRA made the statement of "any individual who does not agree that the Second Amendment guarantees a fundamental right and who does not respect our God-given right of self-defense should not serve on any court, much less the highest court in the land" to persuade the Senate not to confirm Sotomayor to become a Justice on the Supreme Court.  Another method that the NRA could use to influence the appointment process is through advertisement. The NRA could use televised advertisements or online advertisements to make an appointed nominee shine in good light or in a negative light to influence the appointment process. If the nominee has support from interest groups and members of the Senate agree then the members of Senate might confirm the nominations and vice versa.

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Chris Gardner's comment, April 17, 2015 10:42 AM
OUTSTANDING!!!!
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Supreme Court

Supreme Court | 3 Boss Taylor | Scoop.it

Click here to edit the title

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This scoop is  an overview of the Supreme Court's website. On the website there is detailed information about the history of the Supreme Court and its justices, rules and guidelines of the court, opinions, press releases, oral arguments, case documents, and a calender that depicts the argument schedule and conference days. The website also gives detailed information about their recent rulings on court cases. As well as the transcripts and audio of each oral argument at the end of each argument week. A case that the Supreme Court is considering is the case of Bank of America,N.A v. Caulkett. The  case is about a section 506(d) bankruptcy code which states "[t]o the extent that a lien secures a claim against the debtor that is not an allowed secured claim, such lien is void."When the case of Dewnsup v. Timm, 502 US (1992), the court "held that 506(d) does not permit a chapter 7 debtor to strip down a mortgage lien to the current value of collateral." The ruling   of the case in 1992 presents a question that states  does  "the section 506(d) permits a chapter 7 debtor to “strip off” a junior mortgage lien in its entirety when the outstanding debt owed to a senior lienholder exceeds the current value of the collateral."

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What to look for in an Iran nuclear deal

What to look for in an Iran nuclear deal | 3 Boss Taylor | Scoop.it
As President Barack Obama pushes to reach a nuclear deal with Iran by a Tuesday deadline, a small army of critics — from congressional Republicans to Israeli leaders to the Saudi royal family — is ready to pounce on any weaknesses to persuade Congress and the global community to turn against the pact. “They are about to make a mistake...
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As the established deadline of March 31, 2015 approach for Obama  and his administration to come up with an agreement with Iran about the nuclear deal, Congress members become skeptical and weary. This article  covers six concerns of what to look for in the  Iran nuclear deal which include: setting the clock, centrifuges, nuclear material, coming clean, sunset time ,and  sanctions. Although March 31, is the established deadline for the Obama Administration to show progress to Congress the true deadline is April 13,2015 before Senate comes back from Easter recess and is ready to begin the legislative process to start cracking down on Iran. This article relates to the Presidency because it illustrates how he is Chief Legislator and Chief Diplomat. The article illustrates how he is Chief Legislator because he is recommending laws to Congress about the nuclear deal. The article also illustrates how he is Chief Diplomat because he is interacting with Iran in an effort to develop a foreign policy with help from Congress and Secretary of State John Kerry who is in other countries like Japan, Canada, and etc. negotiating the policy.

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FRB: News & Events

FRB: News & Events | 3 Boss Taylor | Scoop.it
The Federal Reserve Board of Governors in Washington DC.
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This is an overview of the Federal Reserve(The Fed) website. Janet  L. Yellen is the Board Chairman of the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve implements Monetary policy. The Fed is independent from Congress and the President so that it can make the best decision on what is best for the economy in the long run and not politically advantageous. Because Congress is made up of politicians who have political aspirations to get re-elected  the economy wouldn't be stable due to the politicians trying to achieve their political aspirations and make their political party look good. On March 18, 2015 the Fed released a statement describing how well the economy has been doing ;however, there will be a rise in inflation projected to about 2% but will be closely monitored. Also discussed in the press release was the  current federal funds rate of  0 to .25 will be appropriate  to support maximum employment and price stability.

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C-SPAN Survey of Presidential Leadership - Overall Ranking - C-SPAN

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From the C-Span Survey of Presidential Leadership I chose Abraham Lincoln to be the best President in history.  According to the survey Abraham had exceptionally high rankings across majority of the categories but he had rankings in the following categories in what I deem as important for a President including: crisis leadership, vision/setting an agenda, moral authority, and pursued equal justice for all. In the crisis leadership category Lincoln scored a 97.6% which illustrates how well he handled difficult situations during his time. He also scored a 97.3% in vision/setting the agenda which also demonstrates how he was a strong advocate for what he wanted like keeping the Union together. I chose Abraham Lincoln to be the best President because of how he dealt with situations and his overall performance within his time.

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Celebrities, Diplomats Attend Obama's First State Dinner: Video - YouTube

Nov. 25 (Bloomberg) -- Bloomberg's Hans Nichols reports on President Barack Obamas first state dinner held yesterday, which honored Indian Prime Minister Man...
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This video was a clip of Obama's first state dinner which honored an Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. "More than three hundred executives from India and U.S diplomats, lawmakers, and celebrities were invited to the state dinner from President Obama and First Lady Obama ."  This video clip illustrates the role of the President as Chief Diplomat and Chief of State. In this clip the President serves as Chief Diplomat because he was interacting with leaders from other countries such as Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. This clip also show the  President serving as Chief of State by having the ceremonial role which allowed him to fellowship with celebrities, lawmakers, and diplomats in the White House.

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Video: State of the Union 2015 in 90 seconds

Video: State of the Union 2015 in 90 seconds | 3 Boss Taylor | Scoop.it
POLITICO recaps the highlights of President Barack Obama's 2015 State of the Union address in 90 seconds.
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This is a video clip of Obama's 2015 State of the Union Address. Through this video clip I learned that  President Obama was  performing his role as Chief of State mainly the ceremonial role by delivering the State of the Union Address. In the 90 second clip of the 2015 State of the Union Address Obama expressed how  enthusiastic he was  on how well the economy is doing, with deficits being cut by 2/3, stock markets doubling, and the healthcare inflation being at its lowest rate in 50 years. The President also expressed his views on terrorism in in Pakistan to Paris, as well as his views on women being paid the same wages as men if they are preforming the same job. This video clip provides a view that the President  makes an address in the beginning of the year annually to the people of the United States to let them know what is happening in America as well as what is happening overseas. The State of the Union Address  also provides the public an understanding of what the President is planning on doing throughout his term in office.

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Senate Session

Senate Session | 3 Boss Taylor | Scoop.it

The Senate met to consider articles of impeachment passed by the House of Representatives on December 19, 1998. Chief Justice Rehnquist was sworn in as presiding officer by President Pro-tempore…

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This video showed the Senate trial to impeach President Clinton. After the articles of impeachment passed by the House of Representatives, the Senate met on December 19, 1998 to consider the impeachment of President Clinton. The House of Representatives have the power to impeach members from the Executive or Judicial Branch. Senate members have the right to remove a sitting President or hold impeachment trials. President Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives on lying under oath to a federal grand jury and obstructing justice. Although Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives Clinton was acquitted in the Senate. From this video I seen how long the process it took for Senate members to deliberate on the trial. I also seen how the Senators had to do a quorum call and each Senator had to sign their name in an Oath book for records. From watching the videos on the C-Span I learned how things work in Senate when it comes to the impeachment process.  

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The crazy shape of politics: gerrymandered districts - YouTube

The GOP scored 33 more seats in the House this election even though Democrats earned a million more votes in House races. Professor Jeremy Mayer says gerryma...
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''Gerrymandering is the nickname for the drawing of oddly shaped congressional districts by a state legislature in an attempt to ensure a certain political outcome. Criticized by those who see it as "rigging" elections to the House of Representatives'' for instance the GOP scored 33 more seats in the House  even though the Democrats earned a million more votes in the House races during the 2012 election. In this video Dr. Jeremy Mayer associate professor at George Mason University discussed how he talks with members of British Parliament and explains to them how members of congress get elected into the House and one member of parliament said," the voters aren't choosing the representatives, that's  the representatives are choosing the voters. The professor also discussed Scorpions in a Bottle, a method used several years ago by the Republican party in Michigan. Scorpions in a Bottle brought a district together with two democratic incumbents where they had to make of choice of leaving their home of 30-40 years or have a battle during the primary. Gerrymandering provides a view that seems like "rigging" an election as well as what the member of the British Parliament said," the voters aren't choosing the representatives, that's the representatives choosing the voters" because of the odd shaped congressional districts.

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