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What can biological computers be used for?

What can biological computers be used for? | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:
*What can biological computers be used for?* I am running a crowd funding campaign http://bit.ly/17dUxv8 to raise money (bit coins) and support (Tweets) for CytoComp, a biological computer As this concept might be new for many, I wish in the following to explain a bit what biological computer can be used to. I will in the following also make some posts to focus on certain diseases. *Potential applications of biological computers*Biological computers possess some distinct advantages over silicon computers . These systems can self-assemble and self- reproduce, which might provide some economic advantages. Moreover, cells can be engineered to sense and respond to environmental signals, even under extreme conditions such as high temperature, high pressure, radioactivity or toxic chemicals. Biological systems have the ability to adapt to new information from a changed environment.The ultimate goals of biocomputing are the monitoring and control of biological systems. *Monitoring of biological systems*Biological systems need to be monitored in respect to disease diagnostic, to drug screening, to understand experimental systems, and to observe the environment.In line with this, a biocomputer has been utilized to detect multiple disease indicators, such as mRNA of disease-related genes associated with small-cell lung cancer and prostate cancer. Moreover, they can be used in experimental models, such as conditional transgenes or inducible expression systems. Environmental monitoring is another interesting application. A cell based biosensor using logic gates has been used to detect arsenic, mercury and copper ion levels. *Control of biological systems*Biocomputers can potentially be used to control development, cell differentiation and re-programming, as all these processes depend on gene regulatory networks. Another application area is tissue engineering and tissue regeneration. Metabolic engineering has the potential to produce from simple, inexpensive starting materials a large number of chemicals that are currently derived from nonrenewable resources or limited natural resources. The metabolic flux can potentially be controlled by a biocomputer . Interesting might also be to control the immune system by a biocomputer, e.g. in transplantation medicine . An important application area is the control of malign growth. Some interesting experiments with logic based biological devices have been executed to detect cancer cells (e.g. small-cell lung cancer, prostate cancer, HeLa cells), and to induce selective apoptosis of these cells. Furthermore, biocomputers can be used to engineer context-dependent programmable drugs. A biocomputer with a context-sensing mechanism, which can simultaneously sense different types of molecules, has been engineered. In the future it might be used to detect a broad range of molecular disease symptoms, and react with the release of a drug molecule suitable for the treatment of the specific condition. In line with this concept a programmable NOR-based device has been developed capable of differentiating between prokaryotic cell strains based on their unique expression profile.

Ref: Moe-Behrens GHG (2013) The biological microprocessor, or how to build a computer with biological parts. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal. 7 (8): e201304003. This open-access article can be downloaded for free here http://bit.ly/1cwM43X ;
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Double Nicking by RNA-Guided CRISPR Cas9 for Enhanced Genome Editing Specificity

Double Nicking by RNA-Guided CRISPR Cas9 for Enhanced Genome Editing Specificity | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
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F. Ann Ran, Patrick D. Hsu, Chie-Yu Lin, Jonthan S. Gootenberg, Silvana Konermann, Alexandro E. Trevino, David A. Scott, Azusa Inoue, Shogo Matoba, Yi Zhang, Feng Zhang


"Targeted genome editing technologies have enabled a broad range of research and medical applications. The Cas9 nuclease from the microbial CRISPR-Cas system is targeted to specific genomic loci by a 20 nt guide sequence, which can tolerate certain mismatches to the DNA target and thereby promote undesired off-target mutagenesis. Here, we describe an approach that combines a Cas9 nickase mutant with paired guide RNAs to introduce targeted double-strand breaks. Because individual nicks in the genome are repaired with high fidelity, simultaneous nicking via appropriately offset guide RNAs is required for double-stranded breaks and extends the number of specifically recognized bases for target cleavage. We demonstrate that using paired nicking can reduce off-target activity by 50- to 1,500-fold in cell lines and to facilitate gene knockout in mouse zygotes without sacrificing on-target cleavage efficiency. This versatile strategy enables a wide variety of genome editing applications that require high specificity."

http://bit.ly/15r5dAg

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*Please help CytoComp to win the Stanford University competition* - the next step just 2 more tweets:

*Please help CytoComp to win the Stanford University  competition* - the next step just 2 more tweets: | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:
 Thanks for your help so far for the CytoComp crowd funding campaign. CytoComp has jumped on place 4 on the Top10Social (Twitter)  Place 3 has just one Tweet more. It would be awesome, if you could help to change this. Please go to this page: http://cytocomp-bitstarter-mooc.herokuapp.com and push the Twitter button (maybe behind edX You ca follow the success on the leader board here: http://startupmooc.org 
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John Melo-Synthetic Biology in Action

From an open-source anti-malarial compound to renewable energy resources, Amyris Biotechnologies CEO John Melo explains his enterprise's corporate acts of al...
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Optochemical Control of Deoxyoligonucleotide Function via a Nucleobase-Caging Approach

Optochemical Control of Deoxyoligonucleotide Function via a Nucleobase-Caging Approach | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:

by
Qingyang Liu  and Alexander Deiters

"Synthetic oligonucleotides have been extensively applied tocontrol a wide range of biological processes such as gene expression, gene repair, DNA replication, and protein activity. Based on well-established sequence design rules that typically rely on Watson–Crick base pairing interactions researchers can readily program the function of these oligonucleotides. Therefore oligonucleotides provide a flexible platform for targeting a wide range of biological molecules, including DNA, RNA, and proteins. In addition, oligonucleotides are commonly used research tools in cell biology and developmental biology. However, a lack of conditional control methods has hampered the precise spatial and temporal regulation of oligonucleotide activity, which limits the application of these reagents to investigate complex biological questions. Nature controls biological function with a high level of spatial and temporal resolution and in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of biological processes, researchers need tools that allow for the perturbation of these processes with Nature’s precision.

 Light represents an excellent external regulatory element since irradiation can be easily controlled spatially and temporally. Thus, researchers have developed several different methods to conditionally control oligonucleotide activity with light. One of the most versatile strategies is optochemical regulation through the installation and removal of photolabile caging groups on oligonucleotides. To produce switches that can control nucleic acid function with light, chemists introduce caging groups into the oligomer backbone or on specific nucleobases to block oligonucleotide function until the caging groups are removed by light exposure. In this Account, we focus on the application of caged nucleobases to the photoregulation of DNA function. Using this approach, we have both activated and deactivated gene expression optochemically at the transcriptional and translational level with spatial and temporal control. Specifically, we have used caged triplex-forming oligomers and DNA decoys to regulate transcription, and we have regulated translation with light-activated antisense agents. Moreover, we also discuss strategies that can trigger DNA enzymatic activity, DNA amplification, and DNA mutagenesis by light illumination. More recently, we have developed light-activated DNA logic operations, an advance that may lay the foundation for the optochemical control of complex DNA calculations."



http://bit.ly/18o8p1e

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The development of synthetic biology: a patent analysis

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The development of synthetic biology: a patent analysis http://bit.ly/19OmBUl

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A Methodology to Annotate Systems Biology Markup Language Models with the Synthetic Biology Open Language

PubMed comprises more than 23 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:

by
Roehner N, Myers CJ.

"Recently, we have begun to witness the potential of synthetic biology, noted here in the form of bacteria and yeast that have been genetically engineered to produce biofuels, manufacture drug precursors, and even invade tumor cells. The success of these projects, however, have often failed in translation and application to new projects, a problem exacerbated by a lack of engineering standards that combine descriptions of the structure and function of DNA. To address this need, this paper describes a methodology to connect the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) to the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), existing standards that describe biochemical models and DNA components, respectively. Our methodology involves first annotating SBML model elements such as species and reactions with SBOL DNA components. A graph is then constructed from the model, with vertices corresponding to elements within the model and edges corresponding to the cause-and-effect relationships between these elements. Lastly, the graph is traversed to assemble the annotating DNA components into a composite DNA component, which is used to annotate the model itself and can be referenced by other composite models and DNA components. In this way, our methodology can be used to build up a hierarchical library of models annotated with DNA components. Such a library is a useful input to any future genetic technology mapping algorithm that would automate the process of composing DNA components to satisfy a behavioral specification. Our methodology for SBML-to-SBOL annotation is implemented in the latest version of our genetic design automation (GDA) software tool, iBioSim."

http://1.usa.gov/1402xPR

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The top 20 most influential people in synthetic biology

The top 20 most influential people in synthetic biology | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
  Who are the most influential people at the scientific and commercial end of synthetic biology?This is the question we asked our blog subscribers, LinkedIn
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:

The top 20 most influential people in synthetic biology http://bit.ly/1doauCu

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Composability of regulatory sequences controlling transcription and translation in Escherichia coli

Composability of regulatory sequences controlling transcription and translation in Escherichia coli | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:

by
Sriram Kosuria, Daniel B. Goodman,, Guillaume Cambray, Vivek K. Mutalik, Yuan Gaog, Adam P. Arkin, Drew Endy, and George M. Church

"The inability to predict heterologous gene expression levels precisely hinders our ability to engineer biological systems. Using well-characterized regulatory elements offers a potential solution only if such elements behave predictably when combined. We synthesized 12,563 combinations of common promoters and ribosome binding sites and simultaneously measured DNA, RNA, and protein levels from the entire library. Using a simple model, we found that RNA and protein expression were within twofold of expected levels 80% and 64% of the time, respectively. The large dataset allowed quantitation of global effects, such as translation rate on mRNA stability and mRNA secondary structure on translation rate. However, the worst 5% of constructs deviated from prediction by 13-fold on average, which could hinder large-scale genetic engineering projects. The ease and scale this of approach indicates that rather than relying on prediction or standardization, we can screen synthetic libraries for desired behavior."



http://bit.ly/14BnQpi

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Rapid, modular and reliable construction of complex mammalian gene circuits

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Patrick Guye, Yinqing Li, Liliana Wroblewska, Xavier Duportet and Ron Weiss

"We developed a framework for quick and reliable construction of complex gene circuits for genetically engineering mammalian cells. Our hierarchical framework is based on a novel nucleotide addressing system for defining the position of each part in an overall circuit. With this framework, we demonstrate construction of synthetic gene circuits of up to 64 kb in size comprising 11 transcription units and 33 basic parts. We show robust gene expression control of multiple transcription units by small molecule inducers in human cells with transient transfection and stable chromosomal integration of these circuits. This framework enables development of complex gene circuits for engineering mammalian cells with unprecedented speed, reliability and scalability and should have broad applicability in a variety of areas including mammalian cell fermentation, cell fate reprogramming and cell-based assays."

 http://bit.ly/16GnNED

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Synthetic Biology - Cheemeng Tan lab

Synthetic Biology - Cheemeng Tan lab | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
Synthetic Cellular Systems Group
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:

Cheemeng Tan: Engineering Artificial Cellular Systems for Biotechnological Applications

Their "work is unified under one theme: the engineering of synthetic biological systems for therapeutic treatment. We approach this issue through two fundamental directions. To improve the control of synthetic cellular systems, we harness functioning mechanisms in natural cells to control dynamics of synthetic cells and organisms. In parallel, we investigate how heterogenous cellular populations respond to drug treatment. We aim to merge the two directions to create novel treatment strategies using artificial cellular systems. We are honored to work with biologists, statistician, engineers, physicist, and chemists in the pursue of our research goals. Our work is multi-disciplinary and strives to create new frontier in synthetic & quantitative biology by synergizing ideas from different fields."

 http://bit.ly/1443uRM

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The CRISPR Craze

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Elizabeth Pennisi
"Bacteria have a kind of adaptive immune system, which enables them to fight off repeated attacks by specific viruses, that works through precise targeting of DNA. In January, four research teams reported harnessing the system, called CRISPR, to target the destruction of specific genes in human cells. And in the following 8 months, various groups have used it to delete, add, activate or suppress targeted genes in human cells, mice, rats, zebrafish, bacteria, fruit flies, yeast, nematodes and crops, demonstrating broad utility for the technique. With CRISPR, scientists can create mouse models of human diseases much more quickly than before, study individual genes much faster, and easily change multiple genes in cells at once to study their interactions."


 http://bit.ly/1581FJQ

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Synbio Courses - London

Synbio Courses - London | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:

An Introduction to Synthetic Biology London, September 19, 2013 http://bit.ly/16EavMq

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One-Step Generation of Mice Carrying Reporter and Conditional Alleles by CRISPR/Cas-Mediated Genome Engineering

One-Step Generation of Mice Carrying Reporter and Conditional Alleles by CRISPR/Cas-Mediated Genome Engineering | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:

by
Hui Yang, Haoyi Wang, Chikdu S. Shivalila, Albert W. Cheng, Linyu Shi, Rudolf Jaenisch

"Highlights

One-step generation of mice with reporters in endogenous genesOne-step generation of conditional mutant miceOff-target analysis suggests high specificity of the CRISPR/Cas9 systemSummary The type II bacterial CRISPR/Cas system is a novel genome-engineering technology with the ease of multiplexed gene targeting. Here, we created reporter and conditional mutant mice by coinjection of zygotes with Cas9 mRNA and different guide RNAs (sgRNAs) as well as DNA vectors of different sizes. Using this one-step procedure we generated mice carrying a tag or a fluorescent reporter construct in the Nanog, the Sox2, and the Oct4 gene as well as Mecp2 conditional mutant mice. In addition, using sgRNAs targeting two separate sites in the Mecp2 gene, we produced mice harboring the predicted deletions of about 700 bps. Finally, we analyzed potential off-targets of five sgRNAs in gene-modified mice and ESC lines and identified off-target mutations in only rare instances."

http://bit.ly/1duolGz

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A brief introduction to Bitcoins - the currency of the future

A brief introduction to Bitcoins - the currency of the future | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:
Many people wish to contribute to the CytoComp crowd funding campaign http://cytocomp-bitstarter-mooc.herokuapp.com, but do not know how to use with Bitcoins. As this is a potential currency of the future, I wrote a brief introduction to Bitcoins: The basics about bitcoins BTC:  1) Get a bit coin account: go to this page https://coinbase.com and register (email and a password) That`s it.  2) Buy bit coins: http://howtobuybitcoins.info - lets you search your country more info:http://www.buybitcoinswiki.com/how-to-buy-bitcoins/ https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Buying_Bitcoins_(the_newbie_version) and if you are in the US coin base offers you instant bit coin purchase http://blog.coinbase.com/post/55203204550/instant-bitcoin-purchases-at-coinbase 3) BTC exchange rates:http://bitcoinity.org/markets 4) learn more (depending on your time): a) 2 min introduction https://www.weusecoins.com/en/ b) 10 min http://techcrunch.com/2013/04/11/bitcoin/ c) several hours https://www.secondmarket.com/education/learn/bitcoin-education-center d) several daysUdemyhttps://www.udemy.com/bitcoin-or-how-i-learned-to-stop-worrying-and-love-crypto/Khan Academy http://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/money-and-banking/bitcoin/v/bitcoin-what-is-it6 new bitcoin educational resourceshttp://www.forbes.com/sites/jonmatonis/2013/05/13/6-new-bitcoin-educational-resources/  ;
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Biology is the Technology of the Century

Biology is the Technology of the Century | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:

*Biology is the Technology of the Century*

"According to Pamela Silver, “if more than 10 percent of your experiments work, you’re doing the wrong experiments”—a sentiment that summarizes her overall philosophy of science. For Silver, it’s all about risk. Not only can big risk lead to big payoff (if you’re lucky), but it’s also where all the fun is. From her childhood in the then-fledgling Silicon Valley where she rubbed shoulders not only with technology luminaries but also with members of the Grateful Dead, to her current work as a pioneer in the field of synthetic biology, Silver’s career can be best described as one long pursuit of her scientific fascinations. Here, Silver discusses her approach to running a lab, her thoughts on the future of science, and why we should be able to engineer biology the same way we engineer electronics.  "
http://bit.ly/188Ejjt

Meet Pamela Silver 

at
#genobiotech13 

 November 21-23rd 2013 in Monterrey, Nuevo León, México.
http://bit.ly/1fjzMNK

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Embracing Open-Source Biotech: DNA Freeware May Out-Innovate Patented Genes

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 http://bit.ly/188f2G5

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A great opportunity to design your very own biological computer

A great opportunity to design your very own biological computer | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:

As you might  know, my main project is the biological computer. I have developed some computer assisted design software, which I wish to make open access. To do so I need to raise some money. I have participated in a startup engineering MOOC class provided by Stanford University. In this frame I have written the software for a crowd funding web app. Please have a look at this campaign. There are many interesting rewards for the supporters. 100 supporters can get exclusively access to the pre release of computer assisted design software to design your very own biological computer. An awesome entrepreneurial opportunity. This option will only be open for 11 days.

This project is part of a competition held by Stanford University. The winning project will get special support.

The team with the most bit coins raised or the most tweets will get promotion.

You can be a part of this in several ways:

1) Go to the app and press the tweet button

2) donate some bit coins and get exiting rewards, be one of the first 100 people in the world to get hand on a revolutionary product

Thanks for your support.

http://cytocomp-bitstarter-mooc.herokuapp.com

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Embracing Open-Source Biotech: DNA Freeware May Out-Innovate Patented Genes

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Embracing Open-Source Biotech: DNA Freeware May Out-Innovate Patented Genes http://bit.ly/17ktL2x

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INVITED SPEAKERS | GENOBIOTEC 13

INVITED SPEAKERS | GENOBIOTEC 13 | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:

I just got invited to give a talk about biological computing at an exiting conference with many great speakers:

#genobiotec

1 - Eric Davidson, California Institute of Technology.

2 - Pamela A. Silver, Harvard University
Designing Biological Systems for Health and Livability.

3 - James Ferrell, Stanford University
Bistability and trigger waves in the regulation of mitosis

4 - Julio Collado Vidés, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Accelerating information access: challenges in genomics and the 21st century

5 - Mauricio Antunes, Colorado State University, Engineering synthetic sensing and signal transduction traits in plants

6 -  Octavio Mondragón-Palomino, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Circuit design in synthetic biology

7 - J. Ruben Morones-Ramírez, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León

8 - Caroline Ajo-Franklin, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 

9 - Farren Isaacs, Yale University

10 - Peng Yin, Harvard University, Programming Nucleic Acids Self-Assembly

11 - Gerd Moe-Behrens, Leukippos Institute, CytoComp, The biological microprocessor, or how to build a computer with biological parts

PS the page get`s soon updated also with another speaker from Amyris 
--------------------------------------------------

13 Nov21-23 Monterrey,
Nuevo León,
 México.

 http://bit.ly/1fjzMNK

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Digital Conference | BioBricks Foundation SB6.0: The Sixth International Meeting on Synthetic Biology

Digital Conference | BioBricks Foundation SB6.0: The Sixth International Meeting on Synthetic Biology | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
The preeminent meeting in Synthetic Biology, covering biotechnologies, biosafety, biosecurity & bioethics, July 9-11, 2013 at Imperial College in London UK.
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:
The BioBricks Foundation is now making all videos recorded and edited at SB6 available for FREE online

 http://bit.ly/10ohQxq   ;
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Synthetic biology manipulations in 3D printed wet-ware

Synthetic biology manipulations in 3D printed wet-ware | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:

by
Leroy Cronin

"In our laboratory we have been developing new approaches to discover the 'transition-to-evolvability' in chemistry. This is because we can discover or engineer an abiotic system that can evolve (we could define this as an inorganic chemical cell -ICHELL) we might be able to suggest that synthetic biology can exist in many chemical forms, of which the terrestrial biology found on planet earth is one subset."

 


http://bit.ly/1446XzQ

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Molecular crowding shapes gene expression in synthetic cellular nanosystems

Molecular crowding shapes gene expression in synthetic cellular nanosystems | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:

by
Cheemeng Tan,Saumya Saurabh,Marcel P. Bruchez,Russell Schwartz& Philip LeDuc

"The integration of synthetic and cell-free biology has made tremendous strides towards creating artificial cellular nanosystems using concepts from solution-based chemistry, where only the concentrations of reacting species modulate gene expression rates. However, it is known that macromolecular crowding, a key feature in natural cells, can dramatically influence biochemical kinetics via volume exclusion effects, which reduce diffusion rates and enhance binding rates of macromolecules. Here, we demonstrate that macromolecular crowding can increase the robustness of gene expression by integrating synthetic cellular components of biological circuits and artificial cellular nanosystems. Furthermore, we reveal how ubiquitous cellular modules, including genetic components, a negative feedback loop and the size of the crowding molecules can fine-tune gene circuit response to molecular crowding. By bridging a key gap between artificial and living cells, our work has implications for efficient and robust control of both synthetic and natural cellular circuits."
http://bit.ly/16MevdY

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Synthetic Morphology Using Alternative Inputs

Synthetic Morphology Using Alternative Inputs | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:

by

Hiromasa Tanaka, Tau-Mu Yi 

"Designing the shape and size of a cell is an interesting challenge for synthetic biology. Prolonged exposure to the mating pheromone α-factor induces an unusual morphology in yeast cells: multiple mating projections. The goal of this work was to reproduce the multiple projections phenotype in the absence of α-factor using a gain-of-function approach termed “Alternative Inputs (AIs)”. An alternative input is defined as any genetic manipulation that can activate the signaling pathway instead of the natural input. Interestingly, none of the alternative inputs were sufficient to produce multiple projections although some produced a single projection. Then, we extended our search by creating all combinations of alternative inputs and deletions that were summarized in an AIs-Deletions matrix. We found a genetic manipulation (AI-Ste5p ste2Δ) that enhanced the formation of multiple projections. Following up this lead, we demonstrated that AI-Ste4p and AI-Ste5p were sufficient to produce multiple projections when combined. Further, we showed that overexpression of a membrane-targeted form of Ste5p alone could also induce multiple projections. Thus, we successfully re-engineered the multiple projections mating morphology using alternative inputs without α-factor."
http://bit.ly/17drZAe

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Refactoring the Silent Spectinabilin Gene Cluster Using a Plug-and-Play Scaffold

Refactoring the Silent Spectinabilin Gene Cluster Using a Plug-and-Play Scaffold | SynBioFromLeukipposInstitute | Scoop.it
Gerd Moe-Behrens's insight:

by
Zengyi Shao, Guodong Rao Chun Li, Zhanar Abil, Yunzi Luo, and Huimin Zhao

"Natural products (secondary metabolites) are a rich source of compounds with important biological activities. Eliciting pathway expression is always challenging but extremely important in natural product discovery because an individual pathway is tightly controlled through a unique regulation mechanism and hence often remains silent under the routine culturing conditions. To overcome the drawbacks of the traditional approaches that lack general applicability, we developed a simple synthetic biology approach that decouples pathway expression from complex native regulations. Briefly, the entire silent biosynthetic pathway is refactored using a plug-and-play scaffold and a set of heterologous promoters that are functional in a heterologous host under the target culturing condition. Using this strategy, we successfully awakened the silent spectinabilin pathway from Streptomyces orinoci. This strategy bypasses the traditional laborious processes to elicit pathway expression and represents a new platform for discovering novel natural products."

 http://bit.ly/17ch08l

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