GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture
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GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture
Site with information in English and French, used for teaching and educational purposes. Information about sustainable development, mainly related to agriculture, as well as assessment of [CO2] and climate change impact on plants;  or methods to decrease the use or the amount of  pesticides will be included on this site. Because biotechnologies are a part of the answer to these agricultural challenges, information about GMOs will be largely reported here.
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Rescooped by Christophe Jacquet from Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture
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Infographie - L'agriculture Bio

Infographie - L'agriculture Bio | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Via Agriculture Nouvelle
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Concentration et changement technique dans l'industrie mondiale des semences par S. BONNY - Agro Perspectives - Agronomie - Diffusion des techniques innovantes en agriculture

Concentration et changement technique dans l'industrie mondiale des semences par S. BONNY - Agro Perspectives - Agronomie - Diffusion des techniques innovantes en agriculture | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
La concentration du secteur semencier durant les dernières décennies et en 2015-2017 préoccupe de nombreux acteurs. Ils s'inquiètent de ses conséquences sur le prix et la diversité des semences, ainsi que du pouvoir alimentaire acquis par les plus grandes firmes du domaine. Cependant le secteur des semences est plutôt mal connu. Aussi est-il utile de chercher à mieux le connaitre et à explorer les impacts possibles de la concentration accrue sur la chaîne agroalimentaire. Un article en accès libre vient de paraitre à ce sujet dans la revue scientifique à comité de lecture SUSTAINABILITY. Il dresse un panorama du secteur mondial des semences et de sa grande diversité en apportant de nombreux éléments chiffrés et des données en la matière. Il présente également l'évolution technologique du secteur et les enjeux liés. Puis il examine les points de vue des différents types d'acteurs sur le mouvement de concentration en cours. Les analyses opposées sur ses effets paraissent liées aux controverses sur l'orientation que l'agriculture doit prendre pour faire face aux multiples enjeux du 21ème siècle, les uns prônant une agriculture high-tech, d'autres des orientations plus paysannes et agroécologiques.
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Balancing Immunity and Yield in Crop Plants - ScienceDirect

Balancing Immunity and Yield in Crop Plants - ScienceDirect | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Crop diseases cause enormous yield losses and threaten global food[ED1] security. The use of highly resistant cultivars can effectively control plant diseases, but in crops, genetic immunity to disease often comes with an unintended reduction in growth and yield. Here, we review recent advances in understanding how nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptors and cell wall-associated kinase (WAK) proteins function in balancing immunity and yield. We also discuss the role of plant hormones and transcription factors in regulating the trade-offs between plant growth and immunity. Finally, we describe how a novel mechanism of translational control of defense proteins can enhance immunity without the reduction in fitness.
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New Phytologist: Sugar flux and signaling in plant‐microbe interactions (2017)

New Phytologist: Sugar flux and signaling in plant‐microbe interactions (2017) | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Plant breeders have developed crop plants that are resistant to pests, but the continual evolution of pathogens creates the need to iteratively develop new control strategies. Molecular tools have allowed us to gain deep insights into disease responses, allowing for more efficient, rational engineering of crops that are more robust or resistant to a greater number of pathogen variants. Here we describe the roles in disease progress of SWEET and STP transporters, which are membrane proteins that mediate transport of sugars across the plasma membrane. We discuss how these transporters may enhance or restrict disease through controlling the level of nutrients provided to pathogens and if the transporters play a role in sugar signaling for disease resistance. This review indicates open questions that require further research and proposes the use of genome editing technologies for engineering disease resistance.


Via Ricardo Oliva, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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A modern Green Revolution gene for reduced height in wheat

A modern Green Revolution gene for reduced height in wheat | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Increases in the yield of wheat during the Green Revolution of the late 20th century were achieved through the introduction of Reduced height (Rht) dwarfing genes. The Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 loci ensured short stature by limiting the response to the growth-promoting hormone gibberellin, and are now widespread through international breeding programs. Despite this advantage, interference with the plant's response to gibberellin also triggers adverse effects for a range of important agronomic traits, and consequently modern Green Revolution genes are urgently required. In this study, we revisited the genetic control of wheat height using an association mapping approach and a large panel of 1110 worldwide winter wheat cultivars. This led to the identification of a major Rht locus on chromosome 6A, Rht24, which substantially reduces plant height alone as well as in combination with Rht-1b alleles. Remarkably, behind Rht-D1, Rht24 was the second most important locus for reduced height, explaining 15.0% of the genotypic variance and exerting an allele substitution effect of –8.8 cm. Unlike the two Rht-1b alleles, plants carrying Rht24 remain sensitive to gibberellic acid treatment. Rht24 appears in breeding programs from all countries of origin investigated, with increased frequency over the last decades, indicating that wheat breeders have actively selected for this locus. Taken together, this study reveals Rht24 as an important Rht gene of commercial relevance in worldwide wheat breeding.
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Tough GC beats transgene silencing

Tough GC beats transgene silencing | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Solid genetic and genomic data now reveal that high guanine–cytosine content can prevent transgenes from RNA silencing, and enhance expression and transgenerational stability.

Modern agriculture and synthetic biology increasingly rely on transgenic approaches. Numerous strategies have been applied to increase transgene yield, including implementation of strong regulatory elements, synthesis of plant-favoured codons, and sorting of products to designated organelles, among others. Such strategies often prove fruitful, but in many cases they encounter RNA silencing — a major obstacle that causes poor production and transgenerational instability of transgenes. In this issue of Nature Plants, Sidorenko et al. present intriguing results and provide a promising prescription to cure this obstinate headache1.
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Rice so nice it was domesticated thrice

Rice so nice it was domesticated thrice | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Rice is unique among wild plants for having been domesticated independently on three continents: Asia, Africa, and now South America, researchers have discovered. The New World variety, tamed about 4000 years ago, apparently was abandoned after Europeans arrived. But its genetic legacy could potentially help improve Oryza sativa, the Asian rice species that is now a dietary staple for half the world’s population.

Despite widespread consumption of wild rice by indigenous peoples, scant evidence supported the grain’s domestication in the New World. But botanists have become increasingly adept at analyzing phytoliths, microscopic bits of silica drawn from the soil that accumulate in the tissues of plants as they grow. Phytoliths persist after the vegetation decays and scientists can decipher, from their shapes, the genus and sometimes the species of plant in which they formed and whether they came from the stalk, leaves, or seeds.

A group led by archaeobotanist José Iriarte of the University of Exeter in the United Kingdom examined 320 rice phytoliths recovered from a trench at Monte Castelo, an archaeological site in the southwestern Amazon basin in Brazil that was occupied for millennia: from more than 9000 years ago into the 14th century. The phytoliths increased in size and number from the oldest layers of the dig to the youngest, indicating that “wild rice was modified by human intervention to produce larger grains,” the authors conclude in a paper published online this week in Nature Ecology & Evolution. It’s “another proof of the ingenuity of Native American plant breeders,” Iriarte says.
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CIAG - Légumineuses - Volume 60 / Octobre 2017

CIAG - Légumineuses - Volume 60 / Octobre 2017 | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Différentes sessions ont permis de faire le point sur les grands verrous et leviers actuels au développement des légumineuses pour l’alimentation humaine et animale, allant du niveau très organisationnel des politiques et filières, passant par les leviers en culture qui permettraient une augmentation des volumes de production (nouveaux systèmes de culture, variétés, efficience des symbioses), jusqu’aux aspects de qualité des produits bruts ou des procédés de transformation qui peuvent améliorer la valeur nutritionnelle ou santé et apporter de la valeur ajoutée (nouveaux systèmes de production et variétés, nouveaux produits dans l’alimentation humaine ou dans les systèmes d’élevage).

Via RESEAU AGRONOMIE
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RESEAU AGRONOMIE's curator insight, November 10, 11:08 AM
Articles légumineuses récents en pdf à télécharger
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« L’idée de nourrir les métropoles grâce aux ceintures vertes est une illusion ! »

« L’idée de nourrir les métropoles grâce aux ceintures vertes est une illusion ! » | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Sabine Barles est professeure en urbanisme et aménagement à l’Université Paris 1 Panthéon/Sorbonne. Chercheuse dans l’unité mixe Géographie Cités (avec le CNRS), elle y coordonne le Centre de recherche sur les réseaux, l’industrie et l’aménagement, qui travaille essentiellement sur « la fabrique de la ville ». Entre 2009 et 2012, elle a coordonné le projet Confluent sur la ville durable, qui s’est intéressé au « métabolisme urbain » (l’ensemble des flux de matières et d’énergie engendrés par le fonctionnement des villes), à sa gouvernance et aux empreintes environnementales. Dans ce cadre, elle a étudié les besoins et les flux des produits alimentaires pour nourrir les urbains, notamment pour les métropoles de Paris et de Toulouse. Son constat et son analyse battent en brèche plusieurs idées reçues et clarifient les enjeux écologiques et alimentaires pour les zones urbaines.

Via Bernadette Cassel, Saclay Plant Sciences
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LaDameduCDI's curator insight, November 13, 8:30 AM
Un élément de plus pour nourrir la controverse !
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 Biocontrôle Des chercheurs de l’Université de Milan ont identifié des souches de levures qui pourraient s’avérer plus efficaces que certains fongicides. 

 Biocontrôle Des chercheurs de l’Université de Milan ont identifié des souches de levures qui pourraient s’avérer plus efficaces que certains fongicides.  | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Publiés le 4 novembre dernier sur la revue scientifique en ligne Frontiers in Microbiology, les travaux des chercheurs de l’Université de Milan ouvrent une nouvelle voie au biocontrôle.


Des levures présentes sur les vignes sauvages s’avèrent opérantes dans la lutte fongicide. Les chercheurs les ont prélevées en Géorgie, Italie, Roumanie et Espagne (ils ont aussi recueilli des souches de variétés cultivées). Au total, ils ont collecté 231 souches de levures issues de 26 espèces. Parmi ces souches, 20 ont donnés des résultats intéressants dans le contrôle des champignons de la vigne. Et, surprise, 18 provenaient de prélèvements sur vignes sauvages. Les chercheurs ont constaté que leur mode d’actions est varié. Certaines produisent une enzyme capable de digérer la membrane cellulaire des levures pathogènes. D’autres agissent en sécrétant de l’acide acétique ou du sulfure d’hydrogène qui tuent les levures pathogènes. L’efficacité de six souches dont l’effet fongique était le plus important a été comparée in vivo a un fongicide de synthèse (composé de 37.5 % de cyprodinil et 25 % de fludioxonil). L’une d’elle, P. Kluyveri a montré un effet plus intéressant que le fongicide contre le botrytis.

à suivre....


Via AgroSup Dijon VitiO, Agriculture Nouvelle, Rey Thomas
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Volatile terpenoids: multiple functions, biosynthesis, modulation and manipulation by genetic engineering

Volatile terpenoids: multiple functions, biosynthesis, modulation and manipulation by genetic engineering | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Terpenoids play several physiological and ecological functions in plant life through direct and indirect plant defenses and also in human society because of their enormous applications in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. Through the aid of genetic engineering its role can by magnified to broad spectrum by improving genetic ability of crop plants, enhancing the aroma quality of fruits and flowers and the production of pharmaceutical terpenoids contents in medicinal plants.
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Silencing of RBOHF2 Causes Leaf Age–Dependent Accelerated Senescence, Salicylic Acid Accumulation, and Powdery Mildew Resistance in Barley | Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions

Silencing of RBOHF2 Causes Leaf Age–Dependent Accelerated Senescence, Salicylic Acid Accumulation, and Powdery Mildew Resistance in Barley | Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Plant RBOH (RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGS)-type NADPH oxidases produce superoxide radical anions and have a function in developmental processes and in response to environmental challenges. Barley RBOHF2 has diverse reported functions in interaction with the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Here, we analyzed, in detail, plant leaf level- and age-specific susceptibility of stably RBOHF2-silenced barley plants. This revealed enhanced susceptibility to fungal penetration of young RBOHF2-silenced leaf tissue but strongly reduced susceptibility of older leaves when compared with controls. Loss of susceptibility in old RBOHF2-silenced leaves was associated with spontaneous leaf-tip necrosis and constitutively elevated levels of free and conjugated salicylic acid. Additionally, these leaves more strongly expressed pathogenesis-related genes, both constitutively and during interaction with B. graminis f. sp. hordei. Together, this supports the idea that barley RBOHF2 contributes to basal resistance to powdery mildew infection in young leaf tissue but is required to control leaf cell death, salicylic acid accumulation, and defense gene expression in older leaves, explaining leaf age–specific resistance of RBOHF2-silenced barley plants.
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Green technology: Disease-resistant GMO tomato that could eliminate need for copper pesticides, double yields--blocked by public fears | Genetic Literacy Project

Green technology: Disease-resistant GMO tomato that could eliminate need for copper pesticides, double yields--blocked by public fears | Genetic Literacy Project | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Some Florida tomato farmers spray copper-based pesticides up to 44 times per year in an effort to fend off bacterial spot, a devastating disease growers have been battling for over 60 years. A genetically engineered tomato resistant to the disease could cut that number to zero, while also doubling yields.

There’s only one problem: researchers have been unable to find a partner to help them commercialize the technology.

“Currently, given the climate around GMOs, no growers are willing to bite the bullet and take that first step,” said Sam Hutton, a tomato breeding and genetics professor at the University of Florida who has been involved in the project since 2010.

Scientists have tried for decades, with little success, to use conventional approaches to tackle the disease, which the Florida tomato industry spends almost $100 million each year trying to control. Researchers have simply been unable to find any tomato genes that express lasting resistance to bacterial spot. However, tomato’s cousin, sweet pepper, has several.
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 Sustaining global agriculture through rapid detection and deployment of genetic resistance to deadly crop diseases

 Sustaining global agriculture through rapid detection and deployment of genetic resistance to deadly crop diseases | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Genetically encoded resistance is a major component of crop disease management. Historically, gene loci conferring resistance to pathogens have been identified through classical genetic methods. In recent years, accelerated gene cloning strategies have become available through advances in sequencing, gene capture and strategies for reducing genome complexity. Here, I describe these approaches with key emphasis on the isolation of resistance genes to the cereal crop diseases that are an ongoing threat to global food security. Rapid gene isolation enables their efficient deployment through marker-assisted selection and transgenic technology. Together with innovations in genome editing and progress in pathogen virulence studies, this creates further opportunities to engineer long-lasting resistance. These approaches will speed progress towards a future of farming using fewer pesticides.

Via Nicolas Denancé, Jennifer Mach
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INRA - Usages et alternatives au glyphosate

INRA - Usages et alternatives au glyphosate | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Étude conduite par la direction scientifique Agriculture de l'INRA. Suite à la lettre de saisine des Ministres de l’Agriculture et de l’Alimentation, de la Transition écologique et solidaire, de la Santé, et de l’Enseignement Supérieur, de la Recherche et de l'Innovation du 2 novembre dernier l’INRA a remis le 30 novembre 2017 aux Ministres concernés son rapport sur les usages et les alternatives au glyphosate dans l’agriculture française.


Via AgroParisTech DOC IST, Pierre-André Marechal, CDI ENILV La Roche-sur-Foron, Centre de documentation UniLaSalle Rouen
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Transgenic expression of antimicrobial peptide D2A21 confers resistance to diseases incited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci and Xanthomonas citri, but not Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

Transgenic expression of antimicrobial peptide D2A21 confers resistance to diseases incited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci and Xanthomonas citri, but not Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) associated with ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) and citrus canker disease incited by Xanthomonas citri are the most devastating citrus diseases worldwide. To control citrus HLB and canker disease, we previously screened over forty antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in vitro for their potential application in genetic engineering. D2A21 was one of the most active AMPs against X. citri, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Sinorhizobium meliloti with low hemolysis activity. Therefore, we conducted this work to assess transgenic expression of D2A21 peptide to achieve citrus resistant to canker and HLB. We generated a construct expressing D2A21 and initially transformed tobacco as a model plant. Transgenic tobacco expressing D2A21 was obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and D2A21 expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. We evaluated disease development incited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci in transgenic tobacco. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing D2A21 showed remarkable disease resistance compared to control plants. Therefore, we performed citrus transformations with the same construct and obtained transgenic Carrizo citrange. Gene integration and gene expression in transgenic plants were determined by PCR and RT-qPCR. Transgenic Carrizo expressing D2A21 showed significant canker resistance while the control plants showed clear canker symptoms following both leaf infiltration and spray inoculation with X. citri 3213. Transgenic Carrizo plants were challenged for HLB evaluation by grafting with Las infected rough lemon buds. Las titer was determined by qPCR in the leaves and roots of transgenic and control plants. However, our results showed that transgenic plants expressing D2A21 did not significantly reduce Las titer compared to control plants. We demonstrated that transgenic expression of D2A21 conferred resistance to diseases incited by P. syringae pv. tabaci and X. citri but not Las. Our results underscore the difficulty in controlling HLB compared to other bacterial diseases.
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Transgenic Cavendish bananas with resistance to Fusarium wilt tropical race 4

Transgenic Cavendish bananas with resistance to Fusarium wilt tropical race 4 | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Banana (Musa spp.) is a staple food for more than 400 million people. Over 40% of world production and virtually all the export trade is based on Cavendish banana. However, Cavendish banana is under threat from a virulent fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (TR4) for which no acceptable resistant replacement has been identified. Here we report the identification of transgenic Cavendish with resistance to TR4. In our 3-year field trial, two lines of transgenic Cavendish, one transformed with RGA2, a gene isolated from a TR4-resistant diploid banana, and the other with a nematode-derived gene, Ced9, remain disease free. Transgene expression in the RGA2 lines is strongly correlated with resistance. Endogenous RGA2 homologs are also present in Cavendish but are expressed tenfold lower than that in our most resistant transgenic line. The expression of these homologs can potentially be elevated through gene editing, to provide non-transgenic resistance.


Via Steve Marek
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GM banana shows promise against deadly fungus strain

GM banana shows promise against deadly fungus strain | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

GM banana shows promise against deadly fungus strain
By Erik StokstadNov. 17, 2017 , 3:04 PM

A field trial in Australia has shown that genetically modified banana trees can resist the deadly fungus that causes Panama disease, which has devastated banana crops in Asia, Africa, and Australia and is a major threat for banana growers in the Americas. The transgenic plants might reach some farmers in as few as 5 years, but it’s unclear whether consumers will bite. The work may encourage plant breeders using traditional techniques to create resistant varieties.

Bananas, one of the world’s most popular fruits, are a staple for more than 400 million people and a huge export business. In the 1950s, a soil-dwelling fungus destroyed Latin American crops of the most popular variety at the time, Gros Michel; it was replaced by a resistant variety, Cavendish, which now makes up more than 40% of harvests worldwide. In the 1990s, the Cavendish’s own nemesis surfaced in Southeast Asia: a related fungus called Fusarium wilt tropical race 4 (TR4).

Fungicides can’t control TR4; disinfecting boots and farm tools helps, but not enough. TR4 was detected in the Middle East in 2012 and appeared in Mozambique a year later. It has reached all banana-growing regions of China and was confirmed in Laos and Vietnam this year. Only the Americas have been spared so far. “This is an extremely important crop with major problems,” says study co-author Gert Kema, a plant pathologist and banana breeder at Wageningen University & Research in the Netherlands.


Via Saclay Plant Sciences, plantsci-UT3
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“Golden” potato delivers bounty of vitamins A and E - Ohio (2017) 

“Golden” potato delivers bounty of vitamins A and E - Ohio (2017)  | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

An experimental “golden” potato could hold the power to prevent disease and death in developing countries where residents rely heavily upon the starchy food for sustenance... 


A serving of the yellow-orange... potato has the potential to provide as much as 42 percent of a child’s recommended daily intake of vitamin A and 34 percent of a child’s recommended intake of vitamin E... Women of reproductive age could get 15 percent of their recommended vitamin A and 17 percent of recommended vitamin E from that same 5.3 ounce (150 gram) serving... 


Potato is the fourth most widely consumed plant food by humans after rice, wheat and corn... It is a staple food in some Asian, African and South American countries where there is a high incidence of vitamin A and vitamin E deficiencies.

“More than 800,000 people depend on the potato as their main source of energy and many of these individuals are not consuming adequate amounts of these vital nutrients... These golden tubers have far more vitamin A and vitamin E than white potatoes, and that could make a significant difference in certain populations where deficiencies – and related diseases – are common”... 


Vitamin A is essential for vision, immunity, organ development, growth and reproductive health. And Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness in children. Vitamin E protects against oxidative stress and inflammation, conditions associated with damage to nerves, muscles, vision and the immune system... 

Researchers created a simulated digestive system including a virtual mouth, stomach and small intestine to determine how much provitamin A and vitamin E could potentially be absorbed by someone who eats a golden potato. Provitamin A carotenoids are converted by enzymes into vitamin A that the body can use. Carotenoids are fat-soluble pigments that provide yellow, red and orange colors to fruits and vegetables. They are essential nutrients for animals and humans.

“We ground up boiled golden potato and mimicked the conditions of these digestive organs to determine how much of these fat-soluble nutrients became biologically available”... The main goal of the work was to examine provitamin A availability... 


The golden potato, which is not commercially available, was metabolically engineered in Italy... The additional carotenoids in the tuber make it a more nutritionally dense food with the potential of improving the health of those who rely heavily upon potatoes for nourishment.

While plant scientists have had some success cross-breeding other plants for nutritional gain, the improved nutritional quality of the golden potato is only possible using metabolic engineering – the manipulation of plant genes in the lab... 

While some object to this kind of work, the research team stresses that this potato could eventually help prevent childhood blindness and illnesses and even death of infants, children and mothers in developing nations.

“We have to keep an open mind, remembering that nutritional requirements differ in different countries and that our final goal is to provide safe, nutritious food to billions of people worldwide”... 


Failla said “hidden hunger” – deficiencies in micronutrients – has been a problem for decades in many developing countries because staple food crops were bred for high yield and pest resistance rather than nutritional quality. “This golden potato would be a way to provide a much more nutritious food that people are eating many times a week, or even several times a day”... 


https://news.osu.edu/news/2017/11/08/research-golden-potato/


Underlying paper: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187102



Via Alexander J. Stein
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Rien ne va plus : la truffe noire du Périgord pousse désormais au Royaume-Uni

Rien ne va plus : la truffe noire du Périgord pousse désormais au Royaume-Uni | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
La toute première truffe noire du Périgord a été récoltée au Pays de Galles par un groupe d’experts. Shocking : après le champagne et le fromage, le Royaume-Uni s’attaque à un autre trésor français ! Alors va-t-il concurrencer la France en la matière ? Pour l’heure, il ne s’agit que d’expérimentations.

Jamais une truffe noire du Périgord n’avait été cultivée Outre-Manche. C’est pourtant en mars dernier, à Monmouthshire dans le Sud du Pays de Galles que la première truffe a été récoltée à la suite d’un programme mené par des chercheurs de l’Université de Cambridge, par la société MSL et des fermiers locaux. Elle pèse exactement 16 grammes !

Le changement climatique et les qualités du sol en cause

Les chercheurs évoquent le changement climatique comme raison : « Il s’agit de l’emplacement le plus au nord où elle ait jamais été trouvée ». Pour Paul Thomas, de l’université de Stirling et qui travaille pour MSL, cette réussite « montre que la résistance climatique des truffes est plus importante que ce que l’on pensait jusqu’ici, mais il est probable que ce soit uniquement possible à cause du changement climatique et parce que certaines zones du Royaume-Uni sont adaptées à cette culture ». Le sol est aussi l’une des raison de la trouvaille : la truffe a besoin d’un sol calcaire pour se développer et c’est le cas dans cette région du Pays de Galles. Les résultats de cette recherche, qui ont été publiés dans la revue scientifique Climate Research, sont plutôt encourageants selon les scientifiques.
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Les bourdons peuvent s’épanouir en ville : la preuve par Détroit

Les bourdons peuvent s’épanouir en ville : la preuve par Détroit | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Dans l’océan de pessimisme actuel, une étude vient apporter une goutte d’espoir : les bourdons, ces insectes indispensables, pourraient s’épanouir dans les grandes villes… pourvu qu’on y mette du vert ! Je vous détaille une passionnante publication américaine, disponible ici, qui mérite le détour.

 

Blog Vigie Nature, 09.11.2017

 

Big city Bombus: using natural history and land-use history to find significant environmental drivers in bumble-bee declines in urban development | Open Science, 17.05.2017 http://rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/4/5/170156



Via Bernadette Cassel
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Furthering knowledge of seaweed growth and development to facilitate sustainable aquaculture

Furthering knowledge of seaweed growth and development to facilitate sustainable aquaculture | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Macroalgae (seaweeds) are the subject of increasing interest for their potential as a source of valuable, sustainable biomass in the food, feed, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Compared with microalgae, the pace of knowledge acquisition in seaweeds is slower despite the availability of whole-genome sequences and model organisms for the major seaweed groups. This is partly a consequence of specific hurdles related to the large size of these organisms and their slow growth. As a result, this basic scientific field is falling behind, despite the societal and economic importance of these organisms. Here, we argue that sustainable management of seaweed aquaculture requires fundamental understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms controlling macroalgal life cycles – from the production of germ cells to the growth and fertility of the adult organisms – using diverse approaches requiring a broad range of technological tools. This Viewpoint highlights several examples of basic research on macroalgal developmental biology that could enable the step-changes which are required to adequately meet the demands of the aquaculture sector.
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Biostimulants : Halte au flou ! | ForumPhyto

Biostimulants : Halte au flou ! | ForumPhyto | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Les Biostimulants sont une nouvelle catégorie d’intrants agricoles nés il y a une quinzaine d’année dans la continuité des travaux multiples et des découvertes réalisées sur les Stimulateurs des Défenses Naturelles des Plantes (SDP) qui sont aujourd’hui classés dans la catégorie des produits de protection des cultures. A cette période, les responsables de recherche des laboratoires publics et des entreprises innovantes dans le domaine ont pris conscience que les plantes, à travers leurs différents métabolismes (croissance, défenses, développement, reproduction…) étaient capables de se défendre ou bien d’activer certaines voies métaboliques favorisant la croissance ou la nutrition des plantes.
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Frontiers | Combining Fungicides and Prospective NPR1-Based “Just-in-Time” Immunomodulating Chemistries for Crop Protection | Plant Science

Frontiers | Combining Fungicides and Prospective NPR1-Based “Just-in-Time” Immunomodulating Chemistries for Crop Protection | Plant Science | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Each year, crop yield is lost to weeds competing for resources, insect herbivory and diseases caused by pathogens. To thwart these insults and preserve yield security and a high quality of traits, conventional agriculture makes use of improved cultivars combined with fertilizer and agrochemical applications. However, given that regulatory bodies and consumers are demanding environmentally safer agrochemicals, while at the same time resistance to agrochemicals is mounting, it is crucial to adopt a “holistic” approach to agriculture by not excluding any number of management tools at our disposal. One such tool includes chemicals that stimulate plant immunity. The development of this particular type of alternative crop protection strategy has been of great interest to us. We have approached this paradigm by studying plant immunity, specifically systemic acquired resistance (SAR). The deployment of SAR immunity requires the production by the crop plant of an endogenous small molecule metabolite called salicylic acid (SA). Furthermore, immunity can only be deployed if SA can bind to its receptor and activate the genes responsible for the SAR program. The key receptor for SAR is a transcription coactivator called NPR1. Since discovering this NPR1-SA receptor–ligand pair, we have embarked on a journey to develop novel chemistries capable of deploying SAR in the field. The journey begins with the development of a scalable assay to identify these novel chemistries. One such assay, presented here, is based on differential scanning fluorimetry technology and demonstrates that NPR1 is destabilized by binding to SA.
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Photomicrographie : les 5 plus belles images de sciences

Photomicrographie : les 5 plus belles images de sciences | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Depuis 1975, le fabricant japonais d'appareils photo Nikon propose aux amoureux de science et de jolies choses de montrer la beauté des sujets qu'ils étudient en participant au concours Small World. Cette année encore, plus de 2.000 photos provenant de près de 90 pays étaient en compétition. Et la photo lauréate de l'édition 2017 révèle une nature sublime et un peu effrayante.
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