GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture
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GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture
Site with information in English and French, used for teaching and educational purposes. Information about sustainable development, mainly related to agriculture, as well as assessment of [CO2] and climate change impact on plants;  or methods to decrease the use or the amount of  pesticides will be included on this site. Because biotechnologies are a part of the answer to these agricultural challenges, information about GMOs will be largely reported here.
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GM crops that produce industrial products could be grown in Britain for first time 

GM crops that produce industrial products could be grown in Britain for first time  | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
rops which have been genetically modified so they produce industrial products could be grown in Britain for the first time after scientists applied for permission to the government to start field trials.

Rothamsted Research, which is based in Harpenden, Hertfordshire, wants to plant GM camelina with altered DNA so that it produces ‘wax esters’, a natural lubricant which can be used instead of petrochemicals to keep machinery running smoothly.

Until now the company has only planted GM crops which could be used for human consumption, such as camelina with extra Omega-3 fish oil to boost health, or wheat altered to produce higher yields.
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40 Years Of Data Show Bt Corn Significantly Reduces Pests, Spraying And Crop Damage, Including In Nearby Non-GMO Fields (PNAS)

40 Years Of Data Show Bt Corn Significantly Reduces Pests, Spraying And Crop Damage, Including In Nearby Non-GMO Fields (PNAS) | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Significance

Area-wide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) adoption suppresses pests regionally, with declines expanding beyond the planted Bt crops into other non-Bt crop fields. The offsite benefits to vegetable crops from such pest suppression have not been documented. We show that widespread Bt field corn adoption is strongly associated with marked decreases in the number of recommended insecticidal applications, insecticides applied, and damage to vegetable crops in the United States. These positive impacts to growers, including organic producers, in the agricultural landscape expands on known ecological effects of Bt adoption.


Abstract

Transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes reduce pests and insecticide usage, promote biocontrol services, and economically benefit growers. Area-wide Bt adoption suppresses pests regionally, with declines expanding beyond the planted Bt crops into other non-Bt crop fields. However, the offsite benefits to growers of other crops from such regional suppression remain uncertain. With data spanning 1976–2016, we demonstrate that vegetable growers benefit via decreased crop damage and insecticide applications in relation to pest suppression in the Mid-Atlantic United States. We provide evidence for the regional suppression of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), European corn borer, and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), corn earworm, populations in association with widespread Bt maize adoption (1996–2016) and decreased economic levels for injury in vegetable crops [peppers (Capsicum annuum L.), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and sweet corn (Zea mays L., convar. saccharata)] compared with the pre-Bt period (1976–1995). Moth populations of both species significantly declined in association with widespread Bt maize (field corn) adoption, even as increased temperatures buffered the population reduction. We show marked decreases in the number of recommended insecticidal applications, insecticides applied, and O. nubilalis damage in vegetable crops in association with widespread Bt maize adoption. These offsite benefits to vegetable growers in the agricultural landscape have not been previously documented, and the positive impacts identified here expand on the reported ecological effects of Bt adoption. Our results also underscore the need to account for offsite economic benefits of pest suppression, in addition to the direct economic benefits of Bt crops.

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Breakthrough Research Into How Glyphosate Resistance Evolves Might Lead To New Weed Control Strategies

Breakthrough Research Into How Glyphosate Resistance Evolves Might Lead To New Weed Control Strategies | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Kansas State University researchers have discovered how weeds develop resistance to the popular herbicide glyphosate, a finding that could have broad future implications in agriculture and many other industries.


Their work is detailed in an article that appears in the March 12 edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, known as PNAS and considered to be one of the most-cited journals for scientific research in the world.


“What we found that was new was how these weeds have evolved resistance to glyphosate in such a short time. If you look at the evolution of glyphosate resistance in Palmer amaranth, based on our research, it appears to have occurred very rapidly," [said Mithila Jugulam, a K-State weed scientist and co-author of the PNAS article].


Glyphosate – the key ingredient in the popular Roundup brand – is the herbicide that is widely used for controlling many weeds. But Jugulam notes that glyphosate resistance is becoming more prevalent in many states.


[Bikram Gill, director of Kansas State University’s Wheat Genetics Resource Center] said the indications are that once a weed has acquired eccDNA, the resistance may evolve as quickly as in one generation.


The research team notes that farmers should incorporate best management strategies – such as rotating herbicides and crops – to reduce weed pressure: “This may allow evolving resistance to dissipate as we know that these eccDNAs and ring chromosomes are unstable and can be lost in the absence of herbicide selection pressure,” Jugulam said.




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Translating High-Throughput Phenotyping into Genetic Gain

Translating High-Throughput Phenotyping into Genetic Gain | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Although the development of effective field-based high-throughput phenotyping remains a bottleneck for future breeding advances, particularly those related to yield potential and stress resilience, progress in sensors, aeronautics, and high-performance computing is paving the way.

The growing interest in affordable solutions for remote-sensing approaches as well as data management may facilitate technological adoption by breeders.

However, phenotyping is more than just choosing the correct selection traits, deployment tools, evaluation platforms, or basic data-management methods.

Trial management and spatial variability handling, definition of the key environmental conditions that are prevalent in the targeted regions, and the development of more comprehensive data management, including crop modeling, are components of the phenotyping pipeline that need to be taken into consideration.

Inability to efficiently implement high-throughput field phenotyping is increasingly perceived as a key component that limits genetic gain in breeding programs. Field phenotyping must be integrated into a wider context than just choosing the correct selection traits, deployment tools, evaluation platforms, or basic data-management methods. Phenotyping means more than conducting such activities in a resource-efficient manner; it also requires appropriate trial management and spatial variability handling, definition of key constraining conditions prevalent in the target population of environments, and the development of more comprehensive data management, including crop modeling. This review will provide a wide perspective on how field phenotyping is best implemented. It will also outline how to bridge the gap between breeders and ‘phenotypers’ in an effective manner.
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Scientists engineer crops to conserve water, resist drought | Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology

Scientists engineer crops to conserve water, resist drought | Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Agriculture already monopolizes 90 percent of global freshwater—yet production still needs to dramatically increase to feed and fuel this century’s growing population. For the first time, scientists have improved how a crop uses water by 25 percent without compromising yield by altering the expression of one gene that is found in all plants, as reported in Nature Communications.

Stephen P. Long, a professor of crop sciences and of plant biology (center), with postdoctoral researchers Johannes Kromdijk, (left) and Katarzyna Glowacka, developed crops that use water 25 percent more efficiently by boosting the level of a protein.
Stephen P. Long, a professor of crop sciences and of plant biology (center), with postdoctoral researchers Johannes Kromdijk, (left) and Katarzyna Glowacka, developed crops that use water 25 percent more efficiently by boosting the level of a protein.

The research is part of the international research project Realizing Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency (RIPE) that is supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research, and the U.K. Department for International Development.

“This is a major breakthrough,” said RIPE Director Stephen Long, Ikenberry Endowed Chair of Plant Biology and Crop Sciences. “Crop yields have steadily improved over the past 60 years, but the amount of water required to produce one ton of grain remains unchanged—which led most to assume that this factor could not change. Proving that our theory works in practice should open the door to much more research and development to achieve this all-important goal for the future.”
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Les robots Naïo Technologies, jeunes pousses de la région toulousaine

Les robots Naïo Technologies, jeunes pousses de la région toulousaine | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Offrir une solution de désherbage mécanique du vignoble sans produits chimiques : c'est l'ambition du roboticien Naïo Technologies, créé à Toulouse par deux jeunes ingénieurs. Après six ans

Via Les Médias en Chantier www.lmc.today, Yves Carmeille "Libre passeur", Isabelle Pélissié
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Running on Renewables: How Sure Can we be About the Future?

Running on Renewables: How Sure Can we be About the Future? | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
A variety of models predict the role renewables will play in 2050, but some may be over-optimistic, and should be used with caution, say researchers. The proportion of UK energy supplied by renewable energies is increasing every year; in 2017 wind, solar, biomass and hydroelectricity produced as much energy as was needed to power the whole of Britain in 1958. However, how much the proportion will rise by 2050 is an area of great debate. Now, researchers at Imperial College London have urged caution when basing future energy decisions on over-optimistic models that predict that the entire system could be run on renewables by the middle of this century. Mathematical models are used to provide future estimates by taking into account factors such as the development and adoption of new technologies to predict how much of our energy demand can be met by certain energy mixes in 2050.

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Future Of Food : Huge Algae Farms Could Feed Humans, Major New Industry

Future Of Food : Huge Algae Farms Could Feed Humans, Major New Industry | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Scientists hoping to meet the Paris climate accord goal of limiting global temperature rise to less than two degrees Celsius think they might have a new solution: marine microalgae.


Not only can these fast-growing single-celled plants provide biomass for carbon-neutral fuels, they can provide animal feeds and high-quality protein supplements for a human population that looks to be headed for a peak of about 9.5 to 10 billion, says Charles Greene, an environmental scientist from Cornell University, New York, US.


It might even be possible to convert algae into bioplastics for building materials that permanently remove carbon dioxide from the air, he adds.


Greene recently presented his arguments at the American Geophysical Union’s biannual ocean sciences meeting, in Portland, Oregon.


The plan starts with cultivating the algae on land, where there is no risk to marine ecosystems. The same could be done with fresh-water algae, but that would compete with other needs in an increasingly water-strapped world.


Australian coastal deserts, he adds, are among the best locations, along with those in the Middle East, Africa, and South America. In these places, he says, “we envision ribbons of algae farms as far as the eye can see."


Market analysts estimate that within five years, the global market for algae-derived food ingredients could reach $400 billion.


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Jonathan Lapleau's curator insight, February 27, 3:02 PM
Could green microorganisms be the geoengineering fix the world's needs?
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Why Environmentalists Should Support GMO Crops

Why Environmentalists Should Support GMO Crops | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Genetic modification increases corn yields, by a lot. This is not surprising: pests account for a loss of almost one-third of yields, and weeds for a loss of another 10%. Genetic modification addresses these two sources of loss, and thus crops resistant to either pest or weeds yield on average 10% more grain, and crops resistant to both deliver a 25% increase in grain yield. Consider the global importance of such an effect: the world could use one-fifth less farmland to produce its food. This means less deforestation. It also means less greenhouse gas emissions, by as much as one-eighth of the annual emissions from automobiles. There is no other policy that a true environmentalist should support more vigorously than the transition of the rest of the world to GMO-based agriculture.


Overall, there is no substantial effect on insect biodiversity. And other studies have found a dramatic reduction in the use of herbicides and insecticides.


Environmentalists should be at the forefront of advocating in favor of GMO technology. And yet, paradoxically, the more resounding the statements of scientific unanimity about the environmental benefits of GMOs, the stronger the ongoing campaigns in retail markets to promote non-GMO foods.


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Jonathan Lapleau's curator insight, March 2, 5:49 AM
New research shows conclusively the genetically modified crops (GMOs) provide great benefits at no risk. Why are elite food markets still selling "non-GMO" food and breeding irrational fears?
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Africa could become a world agricultural leader in CRISPR and other new breeding techniques (NBTs)

Africa could become a world agricultural leader in CRISPR and other new breeding techniques (NBTs) | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
t is 8:30 East African Standard Time.  I disembark from a van filled with science journalists from Kampala, Uganda and accompanied by stakeholders from Uganda National Farmers Federation at the National Agriculture Crops Resources Research Institute in Namulonge. We are on a fact-finding trip about research and the

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Alternative splicing of OsLG3b controls grain length and yield in japonica rice - Yu - 2018 - Plant Biotechnology Journal -

Alternative splicing of OsLG3b controls grain length and yield in japonica rice - Yu - 2018 - Plant Biotechnology Journal - | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Grain size, one of the important components determining grain yield in rice, is controlled by the multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Intensive artificial selection for grain size during domestication is evidenced in modern cultivars compared to their wild relatives. Here, we report the molecular cloning and characterization of OsLG3b, a QTL for grain length in tropical japonica rice that encodes MADS-box transcription factor 1 (OsMADS1). Six SNPs in the OsLG3b region led to alternative splicing, which were associated with grain length in an association analysis of candidate region. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that OsLG3b expression was higher during the panicle and seed development stages. Analysis of haplotypes and introgression regions revealed that the long-grain allele of OsLG3b might have arisen after domestication of tropical japonica and spread to subspecies indica or temperate japonica by natural crossing and artificial selection. OsLG3b is therefore a target of human selection for adaptation to tropical regions during domestication and/or improvement of rice. Phylogenetic analysis and pedigree records showed that OsLG3b had been employed by breeders, but the gene still has much breeding potential for increasing grain length in indica. These findings will not only aid efforts to elucidate the molecular basis of grain development and domestication, but also facilitate the genetic improvement of rice yield.
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Sweet transgenic immunity

Sweet transgenic immunity | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Banana is not just every kid’s favourite fruit; it is also a major staple crop that feeds (directly or indirectly) half a billion people in (sub)tropical areas. Unfortunately, banana is once again threatened by Fusarium wilt, a devastating fungal disease. A mostly Australian team has now used biotechnology to create a transgenic resistant banana. Credit: David Hancock/Alamy Stock Photo Last century, the Gros Michel cultivar was decimated by the same disease, and replaced by the resistant Cavendish — the fruit most of us are familiar with. But Cavendish is no match for a new Fusarium race now spreading in Asia and Africa, causing fears over what may happen when the disease reaches Latin America, the most important region of production. No chemical treatment is efficient, and spores can stay dormant in the soil for decades. As in the case of the Hawaiian papaya, saved from the ringspot virus by a transgenic approach, the authors thought to use biotechnology to increase banana resistance to the disease. The researchers overexpressed two genes, including one nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) gene called RGA2 from a resistant wild banana. Unlike previous research performed in a glasshouse, the transformed lines were tested in a heavily contaminated field. The results after three years were impressive: while most of the control plants were dead or infected, the plants highly expressing RGA2 were completely immune to the disease, without any detrimental effect on yield. Even more interesting from a regulatory and public acceptance point of view, the cultivated banana already contains a weakly expressed RGA2 homologue; therefore slightly modifying the endogenous gene may lead to the same level of resistance. This success story in the making is another reminder of the power of crop biotechnology as a tool to improve food security.
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Wait nearly over for Golden Rice release in Bangladesh

Dhaka, Feb 5 (UNB) - Bangladeshi rice scientists have advanced a beta carotene-rich rice to a varietal release stage, heralding a new era in fight against vitamin-A deficiency (VAD).

They said the wait is nearly over for release of Golden Rice, a long touted remedy to VAD.

According to the World Health Organization's global VAD database, one in every five pre-school children in Bangladesh is vitamin A-deficient. Among the pregnant women, 23.7 percent suffer from VAD.

Upon receipts of positive outcome from two successive years of ‘confined’ field trials, the breeders at the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) have just gone for a final cycle of multi-location field trials and sought regulatory approval from the government for an ‘unconfined’ field test prior seeking variety release approval.

BRRI Senior Plant Breeder Dr M A Kader told UNB that in last Boro season they’ve got 10 to 12 μg/g (micrograms/gram) beta carotene in a BRRI dhan29 line genetically converted into Golden Rice, which should be enough to address half of rice-eating consumers’ daily deficiency of vitamin-A.

“This season (Boro) we’ve gone for ‘confined’ field trials in five different agro-ecological locations again. Besides, we’ve also sought permission for an open field trial prior starting the process of varietal release,” explained Kader, now overseeing the Golden Rice programme at BRRI.

Dr Donald J MacKenzie, Regulatory Affairs and Stewardship Leader of the Golden Rice Project of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), now on a visit to Bangladesh, told UNB that Bangladeshi rice scientists have advanced the beta carotene-rich rice to a stage very close to release of Golden Rice.

“The Philippines, Indonesia are also developing the Golden Rice but I think Bangladesh is marching ahead,” said Dr Donald.

Beta carotene, also known as pro-vitamin A, is a substance that the human body can convert to vitamin A.

With this development, a long wait is nearly over for rice breeders who have been trying since 1999 for a varietal development and release of Golden Rice, long being touted by the scientist fraternity as a key remedy to acute VAD problem.
BRRI scientists analysed the post-harvest data collected from the first field test conducted on – ‘GR2E BRRI dhan29’ - during the 2015-16 Boro season and again the data generated from multi-location trials conducted in 2016-17 Boro season drawing a conclusion that the results are positive.

BRRI’s Golden Rice Project Director Dr Partha S Biswas, now on a visit to IRRI, told UNB that 10 μg/g beta carotene in GR2E BRRI dhan29 is good enough to meet 50 percent of vitamin-A needs of people consuming rice in their daily diet.

The vitamin A-rich rice is named Golden Rice for its golden colour. It was first developed by splicing three foreign genes -- two from daffodil and one from a bacterium -- into japonica rice, a variety adapted to temperate climates. It is capable of producing beta carotene. But for a better beta carotene expression in rice, the daffodil genes were replaced by maize genes later in 2005.

None of the major diseases like blast, sheath blight, bacterial blight and tungro was observed in the transgenic GR2E BRRI dhan29 and the yield was on average 10 percent higher than that of the BRRI dhan29 (check variety) with good expression of beta carotene.
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CRISPR/Cas13 as a Tool for RNA Interference

CRISPR/Cas13 as a Tool for RNA Interference | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
Almost all biological processes involve RNA, making it crucial to develop tools for manipulation of the transcriptome. The bacterial CRISPR/Cas13 system was recently rewired to facilitate RNA manipulation in eukaryotes, including plants. We discuss here the opportunities and limitations of using CRISPR/Cas13 in plants for various types of RNA manipulation.

In addition to being a major factor in protein production (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA), RNA can regulate gene expression (non-coding RNAs) [1. The broad importance of RNA has prompted the development of innovative approaches for targeted RNA manipulation, such as RNA interference, to regulate RNA transcript abundance, control viral infections, alter epigenetic states, and increase transcriptome plasticity to enhance plant survival in unfavorable environments [1. However, additional RNA-targeting tools are needed to examine RNA-related mechanisms and their applications.
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New Breeding Technologies Successful To Grow Salt Resistant Crops

New Breeding Technologies Successful To Grow Salt Resistant Crops | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

:Prof Mark Tester, a world renowned authority on Food security on Thursday said new technologies of breeding crops would be helpful to convert any crop become salt resistant to control scarcity of food globally.


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Crop Modification Techniques

Crop Modification Techniques | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
To help educate people about the many methods that are used to generate new traits in plants, Biology Fortified has created an infographic on six different crop modification techniques, with examples of crops generated with each method. Six Crop Modification … Read More

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Le maïs transgénique est-il bon pour l'environnement ?

Le maïs transgénique est-il bon pour l'environnement ? | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
L'utilisation des pesticides a diminué sur des cultures situées à proximité de champs de maïs transgéniques, selon une étude américaine.

 

Par Vincent Bordenave, 12.03.2018

 

"Le maïs génétiquement modifié résiste mieux aux insectes. Jusque-là, rien de très surprenant. Mais il protège aussi les cultures environnantes. Dans une étude publiée dans les PNAS (comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences des États-Unis), des chercheurs américains ont comparé les quantités de pesticides utilisés dans les cultures proches de champs de maïs avant et après l'introduction de maïs transgéniques entre 1976 et 2016."

(...)

 

Regional pest suppression associated with widespread Bt maize adoption benefits vegetable growers | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 12.03.2018 http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2018/03/06/1720692115

 

[Image] Vegetable infestation and damage from the European Corn Borer. Credit: Tom Kuhar

 

[via] Forty years of data quantifies benefits of Bt corn adoption across multiple crops for the first time: Myriad benefits include 90 percent suppression of pests, severely limited spraying and damage to crops -- ScienceDaily, 12.03.2018 https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180312150523.htm

 


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Sylvain Rotillon's curator insight, March 15, 4:55 AM

Cet article démontre à quel point nous avons besoin d'approches systémiques quand il s'agit d'évaluation environnementale. Le titre est provocateur, même avec point d'interrogation, mais la lecture est importante pour bien comprendre qu'on peut rarement gagner sur tous les tableaux et que nous avons besoin de trouver de bons compromis ce qui implique une réflexion sans tabou avant de prendre une décision.

On voit à quel point dans le fonctionnement d'un milieu tout est lié. Il ne faut jamais perdre de vue que l'activité agricole n'est pas naturelle, même si elle met en jeu des espèces vivantes, et que même avec des pratiques jugées vertueuses, on crée des milieux qui n'ont rien à voir avec la diversité des milieux naturels. On cherche toujours à supprimer une partie de la biodiversité au profit de celle que l'on juge utile. Protection et élimination sont nécessaires, la question étant de limiter au maximum les dégâts collatéraux, pour l'environnement et pour nous. C'est à ce niveau que le moins mauvais compromis doit être trouvé en hiérarchisant nos priorité, toutes ne peuvent être mises au même niveau.L'article énumère toute une série de questions pour lesquelles on voit bien qu'il n'est pas possible d'apporter une réponse simple globale.A méditer.

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Photosystem II Subunit S Overexpression Increases The Efficiency Of Water Use In A Field-Grown Crop

Photosystem II Subunit S Overexpression Increases The Efficiency Of Water Use In A Field-Grown Crop | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Insufficient water availability for crop production is a mounting barrier to achieving the 70% increase in food production that will be needed by 2050. One solution is to develop crops that require less water per unit mass of production. Water vapor transpires from leaves through stomata, which also facilitate the influx of CO2 during photosynthetic assimilation. Here, we hypothesize that Photosystem II Subunit S (PsbS) expression affects a chloroplast-derived signal for stomatal opening in response to light, which can be used to improve water-use efficiency. Transgenic tobacco plants with a range of PsbS expression, from undetectable to 3.7 times wild-type are generated. Plants with increased PsbS expression show less stomatal opening in response to light, resulting in a 25% reduction in water loss per CO2 assimilated under field conditions. Since the role of PsbS is universal across higher plants, this manipulation should be effective across all crops.

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(Occitanie) Les micro-ARN, alternative sérieuse aux engrais chimiques et aux pesticides

(Occitanie) Les micro-ARN, alternative sérieuse aux engrais chimiques et aux pesticides | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

La start-up toulousaine Micropep Technologies annonce avoir levé 4 millions d’euros auprès d’investisseurs pour développer une méthode innovante de soins des plantes cultivées. Une révolution agronomique est peut-être en marche.

Ce qu'on pensait inutile pourrait malgré tout servir et même avoir un rôle extrêmement positif. C'est la découverte effectuée par le Laboratoire de recherche en sciences végétales (LRSV, unité mixte CNRS/Université de Toulouse) sur le rôle des microARNs publiée dans Nature en 2015.


Présents dans les cellules de la plupart des êtres vivants, les microARNs produisent, au moins chez les plantes, des peptides naturels qui permettent de réguler temporairement l'expression de gènes d'intérêt pouvant agir par exemple sur la germination, la floraison, la fructification, mais aussi sur les défenses contre les attaques de pathogènes. 


L'idée devient évidente : développer une nouvelle génération d'intrants biologiques à partir de ces miPEPs pour diminuer l'utilisation des produits chimiques traditionnellement utilisés en agriculture. C'est devenu l'objectif de Micropep Technologie, la société créée en avril 2016 par Thomas Laurent et les deux principaux chercheurs à l'origine de la découverte, Jean-Philippe Combier et Dominique Lauressergues, avec l'aide de la SATT Toulouse Tech Transfer.


La production des peptides peut s’effectuer soit par voie synthétique par imitation de la molécule, soit par voie biologique en induisant sa fabrication par des bactéries. Les sociétés de capital-risque ne s’y sont pas trompées : 4 millions d’euros ne seront pas de trop, mais le jeu en vaut la chandelle.


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Do consumers care how a genetically engineered food was created or who created it?

Do consumers care how a genetically engineered food was created or who created it? | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
This paper explores heterogeneity in consumer preferences for foods and policies that relate to different innovative plant breeding technologies. As a starting point in our analysis, we report results from almost four years of monthly surveys with U.S. consumers, which show slight food safety concern for genetically engineered food with no discernable trend of increased or decreased concern over time. We find small differences in consumer preferences for policies related to different plant breeding methods, with the strongest support for the notion that bioengineered crops should be regulated based on health and environmental outcomes rather than the process used to create new crops. Other survey results reveal support or opposition for genetically engineered food depends on consumers’ perceptions of who created the technology. We also find that food safety concerns related to genetically engineered food are related to perceptions about the distribution of benefits from the technology across the food supply chain.
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Bill Gates : GMO Foods 'Perfectly Healthy', Could Reduce Starvation And Malnutrition

Bill Gates : GMO Foods 'Perfectly Healthy', Could Reduce Starvation And Malnutrition | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Bill Gates has a message for those advocating against genetically modified organisms: I'm disappointed.


In a Reddit "Ask Me Anything" on Tuesday, Gates said that he not only views GMO foods as "perfectly healthy," but also that he sees them as a promising tool in a wider array of resources in the fight to reduce world hunger.


"GMO foods are perfectly healthy and the technique has the possibility to reduce starvation and malnutrition when it is reviewed in the right way," Gates wrote. "I don't stay away from non-GMO foods but it is disappointing that people view it as better."


Gates' view may strike some as controversial. Many people believe genetically modified foods are dangerous. In recent years, companies have submitted more than 35,000 products to the Non-GMO Project, an organization that certifies products that don't contain genetically modified ingredients. And sales of GMO-free products are skyrocketing: Today, they represent roughly $16 billion in yearly sales.


But Gates's stance also puts him in line with a majority of scientists who study the topic.


Organizations like the National Academy of Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the European Commission have publicly proclaimed GMO foods to be safe to eat. A large 2013 study on GMOs found no "significant hazards directly connected with the use of genetically engineered crops."


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Jonathan Lapleau's curator insight, March 2, 5:52 AM
Bill Gates calls GMOs 'perfectly healthy' — and scientists say he's right
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Food derived using new breeding techniques - review

Food derived using new breeding techniques - review | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
New breeding techniques (NBTs) refer to a variety of new approaches in plant and animal breeding that were not in use when Standard 1.5.2 ‒ Food produced using gene technology ‒ was first developed nearly 20 years ago.

We are consulting with the community to consider whether and how food derived from NBTs should be captured for pre-market approval under Standard 1.5.2 and whether the definitions for ‘food produced using gene technology’ and ‘gene technology’ in Standard 1.1.2─2 should be changed to improve clarity about which foods require pre-market approval.
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Crop exports desiccate deserts

Crop exports desiccate deserts | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it

Assessments of water use attempt to incorporate all types of usage to establish a full account of the direct and indirect consumption of economic production and human demands; a ‘virtual’ water footprint. Viewed in this way, exports of goods, including crops and produce, carry with them embedded water, putting arid areas under even more stress.


Jinwon Bae, at the University of Arizona, and Sandy Dall’erba, at the University of Illinois, analysed water inputs in crop production in Arizona to calculate virtual water flows as those crops are exported out of the state. They found that every dollar’s worth of crops grown in Arizona requires 2.32 times more total water than the national average in the United States. The fraction of Arizona’s water use devoted to agriculture (73%) is more than twice that of the country as a whole, yet these crops represent only half a percentage point of Arizona’s economic production. Nevertheless with nearly 80% of the crops grown in Arizona being exported, this minor component of the state’s economy is exporting 58% of its scarce water resources to the rest of the country or abroad.

As Arizona, like many other arid regions around the world, is reliant on complex reclamation projects, reducing virtual water footprints is not just about using resources more efficiently, for example through better irrigation methods, but also more effectively through pricing schemes and choice of crops.

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Triterpene Messages from the EU-FP7 Project TriForC

Triterpene Messages from the EU-FP7 Project TriForC | GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture | Scoop.it
TriForC is an innovative EU-funded collaborative project that has established an integrative
pipeline for the exploitation of plant triterpenes for commercialization in agriculture
and pharmacology. We discuss the main outcomes of TriForC and reflect on its potential
long-term impact and on the importance of EU projects for science, industry, and society.
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Technologies to boost breeding

Breeding crops with a high yield and superior adaptability is vital to maintaining global food security. New technologies on multiple scales are re-engineering traditional plant breeding to meet these challenges.

Although practised for thousands of years, crop breeding remains a demanding and time-consuming task. A major problem is the long generation time of crops, as breeding needs frequent crossing and selfing. This issue of Nature Plants reports a powerful method to accelerate breeding1. The technical rationale is to shorten the generation cycle by extending the photoperiod using supplemental LED lighting. This represents an intriguing step forwards, but is only one of many technological breakthroughs that promise to boost modern breeding.
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