Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering
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Researchers demonstrate use of stem cells to analyze causes, treatment of diabetes

Researchers demonstrate use of stem cells to analyze causes, treatment of diabetes | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Scientists have generated patient-specific beta cells, or insulin-producing cells, that accurately reflect the features of maturity-onset diabetes of the young.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Abstract: Diabetes is a disorder characterized by loss of β cell mass and/or β cell function, leading to deficiency of insulin relative to metabolic need. To determine whether stem cell–derived β cells recapitulate molecular-physiological phenotypes of a diabetic subject, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from subjects with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 2 (MODY2), which is characterized by heterozygous loss of function of the gene encoding glucokinase (GCK). These stem cells differentiated into β cells with efficiency comparable to that of controls and expressed markers of mature β cells, including urocortin-3 and zinc transporter 8, upon transplantation into mice. While insulin secretion in response to arginine or other secretagogues was identical to that in cells from healthy controls, GCK mutant β cells required higher glucose levels to stimulate insulin secretion. Importantly, this glucose-specific phenotype was fully reverted upon gene sequence correction by homologous recombination. Our results demonstrate that iPSC-derived β cells reflect β cell–autonomous phenotypes of MODY2 subjects, providing a platform for mechanistic analysis of specific genotypes on β cell function.

Link: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/67638

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Scooped by Jacob Blumenthal
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Diabetes treatment discovery by Harvard scientists Douglas Melton and Peng Yi | Harvard Magazine

Diabetes treatment discovery by Harvard scientists Douglas Melton and Peng Yi | Harvard Magazine | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Hormone found by Harvard's Melton and Yi has the potential to change the way Type 2 diabetes is treated
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This is an exciting discovery!  In adults, pancreatic β cells are generated primarily by self-duplication. The researchers report on a mouse model of insulin resistance that induces dramatic pancreatic β cell proliferation and β cell mass expansion. Using this model, the researchers identified a hormone, betatrophin, that is primarily expressed in liver and fat. The discovery of the betatrophin hormone may lead to the development of therapy to diabetes in the future.

Link to the paper: http://www.cell.com/abstract/S0092-8674(13)00449-2

Link to a movie: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lk4DDlct__4&feature=youtu.be

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Francisco J. Menéndez González's curator insight, May 3, 2013 5:02 AM

Betatropina, the hope for type 2 diabetics......