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World History: The Modern Era -José de San Martín

World History: The Modern Era -José de San Martín | SSArgentinaRevolution | Scoop.it

Key Words: Creole, rebels, Buenos Aires, independence, royalists, 

 

He was a Creole- Man with Spanish blood who was born in the Americas

 

1811: commanded the Sagunto Dragoons

 

1812:

---quit Spanish Military and went back to Argentina and made allies with the rebels in Buenos Aires (who demanded independence from Spain)

---helped found the Lautaro Lodge (secret organization committed to independence)

---organized an Argentinian army against the pro-Spanish royalist forces 

 

1813:

---won an important battle with his army against the pro-Spanish royalist forces (in San Lorenzo) 

---outcome: secured supply lindes with Montevideo (what does that     mean...???)

 

1814:

---appointed general to attack Upper Peru (Present day Bolivia)

---realised that it was impossible to attack Upper Peru...but observed that he couldnt gain independence for Argentina without a victory in Upper Peru

---Peru= royalist stronghold

---resigned claiming that he was ill, but he requested an appointment as governor of Cuyo Province..where he thought he could recuperate

---he wasn't actually doing this to recuperate, this was his plan to move near the Andes (where his appointment was located), so that he could gather his forces in western Argentina in order to make a plan to cross the Andes and into Chile and attack Peru

---he had little support from Buenos Aires, and San Martin was able to gather his troops (0ver a 3 year period) to join with Chilean liberator, Bernardo O'Higgins

 

1817:

---San Martin finally led his men over the Andes, battling Spanish forces

---February: captured Santiago and was offered CHilean governorship, yet he rejected the offer so that O'Higgins could rule

---allowed him to stabalize the Chile military and prepare for San Martin's attack on Peru

 

1818:

---San Martin defeated the final Royalist troops in Chile

 

1820:

---aimed for Peru

---left an unstable naval fleet and landed at Pisco, however they didnt directly attack Peru yet, they waited for Peru to make the first approach

---The Royalist troops in Lima failed to get supplies and their strengh

 

1821:

---Royalist troops went to the mountains and waited for San Martin

---Meanwhile, San Martin entered Lima

---July 28th: revolutionaries declared Peru independent and declared San Martin as the nation's protector

---San Martin became dictator because the Spanish troops remained in Peru and the Peruvians feared San Martin becoming dictator, weakening the Catholic Church and destroying the large landholdings

---San Martin defeated the Royalists and formed an alliance with Simon Bolivar

 

1822:

---San Martin and Bolivar met in Guayaquil, Ecuador

---we don't know much about their meeting, but for some reason San Martin fled back to Peru. 

---San Martin suddenly thought that his presence would disrupt the war...

---September: resigned as protector and traveled back to CHile, and was very sick

 

1824:

---Wife died and he sailed to England with his daughter and settled in Belgium

 

1829: 

---made a decision to return to Buenos Aires, however when he was on the ship, he heard that political conflict entered Argentina, so he immediatley fled back to Europe and never entered Argentina

---lived in Paris and then Boulogne

 

1850: 

---August 17: died 

 

1880:

---remains were moved to Buenos Aires

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World History: The Modern Era - Username

World History: The Modern Era - Username | SSArgentinaRevolution | Scoop.it

Key Words: militia, viceroy, junta, caudillo, Juan Manuel de Rosas, Bartolomé Mitre, secession, United Kindgom, railroads, inflation

 

---end of British interferenced

---got rid of Spanish viceroy, replaced with a revolutionary junta

---war on the royalists

---patriots claimed independence for United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata because they won a victory; Uruguay and Paraguay didn't agree

---(caused a) civil war between unificationists and federalists (lasted 20 years) 

---Manuel de Rosas made dictatorship and put end to civil war

---Manuel de Rosas exiled intelectuals

---Manuel de Rosas was expeled

---an exiled man, Bartolome Mitre introduced the secession of Buenos Aires to Argentina

---Mitre made many reforms in Argentina (effect & outcome for Argentina)

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Jose de San Martin (Argentine revolutionary)

Jose de San Martin (Argentine revolutionary) | SSArgentinaRevolution | Scoop.it

Background Info:

---father was professional soldier 

---mother was also  Spanish

---Jose de San Martin was a loyal officer of the Spanish Monarch

---was held in captivity by the British in 1798

---established captain in 1804

 

 

1808: (Napolean vs. Spain)

---served the Sevilla junta that was  guiding the war due to Spanish King, Ferdinand VII being imprisoned

 

1812:

---Created a military (of former soldiers), who were against Spanish rule in Rio de la Plata (present day Argentina)

 

1813:

---sent to Tucamán to replace Manuel Belgrano

---claimed/ established himself to be the trainer/ leader of all of the soldiers (replacing Manuel Belgrano)

---realised that Río de la Plata wouldn't be stable if the royalists took control over Lima...he understood that it was impossible to reach the center of the viceroyalty with his military by traveling to Upper Peru (present day Bolivia)

---as a result, Jose trained his army around Tucamán so that they were able to (take charge??) with the support/ help of gaucho guerrilleros (South American people with guerilla warfare)

---esablished governor intendant of the province of Cuyo

---capital=Mendoza, which opened up to the routes across the Andes

        -started creating an army with the soldiers of Chile in order to attack Peru

 

1822:

---July 26: Jose de San Martin met with Simon Bolívar

---San Martin fled back to Lima (dissapointed)

---Back in Lima he was very sick; alone and had no affection

---September 20: resigned his protectorship

 

1850:

---Jose de San Martin died in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France

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World History: The Modern Era - Manuel Belgrano

World History: The Modern Era - Manuel Belgrano | SSArgentinaRevolution | Scoop.it

Manuel Belgrano :

 

---He participated in the Revolutionary Junta which gained Argentina its Independence

---became commander of the army

---he got rid of the viceroy, and created a revolutionary junta

---People of La Plata disagreed with with the junta, so Belgrano led the army to Paraguay to convince the people of the region to agree with the junta (gain their acquiescence)

---Belgrano failed this mission and the junta collapsed

---junta was replaced with a triumvirate (ruling body of 3 people)

---Belgrano led an expedition against royalist forces (pro spanish forces) 

---won major victory the following year at Tucumán

---lost victory next year?

---José de San Martín replaced Belgrano in the army commander position

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