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Scooped by Charles Spillane
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CAROLINE MSCA COFUND Postdoctoral Fellowships* | IRISH RESEARCH COUNCIL

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Integrated analysis of phenome, genome, and transcriptome of hybrid rice uncovered multiple heterosis-related loci for yield increase

National Academy of Sciences
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Experimental Evolution Reveals Interplay between Sch9 and Polyploid Stability in Yeast

Experimental Evolution Reveals Interplay between Sch9 and Polyploid Stability in Yeast | What's new? | Scoop.it
Author Summary Polyploidy is frequently observed in eukaryotes, including in human liver cells and cancer. Evolutionary studies also suggest that polyploidy has contributed to species diversification and novel adaptation in fungi, plants and animals. However, artificially-constructed polyploids often display chromosome instability and quickly convert to aneuploids. This phenomenon conflicts with observations that many species derived from ancient genome duplications have maintained the extra number of chromosomes following polyploidization. What happened during the early stages of these polyploidy events that stabilized the duplicated genomes? We used laboratory evolution experiments to investigate this process. After being propagated in a rich medium at 23°C for 1000 generations, newly-constructed tetraploid yeast cells had evolved stable genomes. In addition, evolved cells acquired resistance to stresses specific to tetraploids and exhibited a more diploid-like transcriptome profile. Further analyses indicated that Sch9—the functional ortholog of mammalian S6 kinase involved in protein homeostasis, G1 progression, stress response and nutrient signaling—contributed to the evolved phenotypes. Evolved cells increased the protein abundance and stability of Sch9. Reconstitution experiments showed that overexpression of SCH9 enabled ancestral cells to display the evolved phenotypes and eliminating SCH9 diminished the evolved phenotypes. Finally, we show that evolved cells were able to maintain their genomes even under a condition that causes newly-formed tetraploids to evolve aneuploidy. Our results reveal that at the early stages after genome duplication, stable polyploidy can be achieved by fine-tuning a conserved key regulator coordinating multiple cellular processes.
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Integrated analysis of phenome, genome, and transcriptome of hybrid rice uncovered multiple heterosis-related loci for yield increase

National Academy of Sciences
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Exploitation of heterosis loci for yield and yield components in rice using chromosome segment substitution lines

Exploitation of heterosis loci for yield and yield components in rice using chromosome segment substitution lines | What's new? | Scoop.it
We constructed 128 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs), derived from a cross between indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) 9311 and japonica rice Nipponbare, to investigate the genetic mechanism of heterosis.
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Gamete fertility and ovule number variation in selfed reciprocal F1 hybrid triploid plants are heritable and display epigenetic parent-of-origin effects - Duszynska - 2013 - New Phytologist - Wiley...

Gamete fertility and ovule number variation in selfed reciprocal F1 hybrid triploid plants are heritable and display epigenetic parent-of-origin effects - Duszynska - 2013 - New Phytologist - Wiley... | What's new? | Scoop.it
Polyploidy and hybridization play major roles in plant evolution and reproduction. To investigate the reproductive effects of polyploidy and hybridization in Arabidopsis thaliana, we analyzed fertility of reciprocal pairs of F1 hybrid triploids, generated by reciprocally crossing 89 diploid accessions to a tetraploid Ler-0 line.All F1 hybrid triploid genotypes exhibited dramatically reduced ovule fertility, while variation in ovule number per silique was observed across different F1 triploid genotypes. These two reproductive traits were negatively correlated suggesting a trade-off between increased ovule number and ovule fertility. Furthermore, the ovule fertility of the F1 hybrid triploids displayed both hybrid dysgenesis and hybrid advantage (heterosis) effects.Strikingly, both reproductive traits (ovule fertility, ovule number) displayed epigenetic parent-of-origin effects between genetically identical reciprocal F1 hybrid triploid pairs. In some F1 triploid genotypes, the maternal genome excess F1 hybrid triploid was more fertile, whilst for other accessions the paternal genome excess F1 hybrid triploid was more fertile.Male gametogenesis was not significantly disrupted in F1 triploids. Fertility variation in the F1 triploid A. thaliana is mainly the result of disrupted ovule development. Overall, we demonstrate that in F1 triploid plants both ovule fertility and ovule number are subject to parent-of-origin effects that are genome dosage-dependent.
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