SMOS
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The objective of the SMOS mission is to provide Soil Moisture (SM) and Ocean Salinity (OS) maps. Both SM and OS are key variables in climate monitoring, surface / vegetation / atmosphere transfers, and ocean / atmosphere cycles
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Water mission versatility

Water mission versatility | SMOS | Scoop.it

While ESA’s SMOS satellite continues to provide key information on soil moisture and ocean salinity for a better understanding of the water cycle, Living Planet Symposium participants in Edinburgh today heard how the mission is also set to improve weather forecasts.

 

Carrying a novel radiometer that works at 1400–1427 MHz, SMOS captures images of ‘brightness temperature’ to derive information on soil moisture and ocean salinity.

Integrating these accurate near-realtime observations into the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts’ (ECMWF) system is helping to improve air temperature and humidity forecasts.

This is particularly true for the northern hemisphere during summer months – there is more land than in the southern hemisphere and soil moisture dynamics are higher.

In addition, the inclusion of SMOS observations are helping to improve the prediction of rain.

SMOS was built primarily to deliver important information for scientific research, but this example shows how its data are now also being used operationally, and for something we all rely on – weather forecasts...

 

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CP34-BEC | What can SMOS tell us about the Arctic oceans?

CP34-BEC | What can SMOS tell us about the Arctic oceans? | SMOS | Scoop.it
The Barcelona Expert Center (BEC) produces daily maps of SMOS First Stokes (average between X and Y- pol brightness temperature) measurements at incidence angles lower than 20 degrees in the Arctic region.
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Papers invited for 3rd salinity forum in June 2014

The purpose of the forum, to be held at the Riverside Convention Center on 16-18 June 2014, is to present advancements in research, practice, and policy on salinity management.

The forum will also address issues that are critical to salinity management, maintaining or enhancing food production, and economic and social impacts. It is being sponsored by the Southern California Salinity Coalition (which is administered by National Water Research Institute), California Institute for Water Resources, Santa Ana Watershed Project Authority, and many others.

Abstract topics include:

· Social and economic impacts of salinization.
· Sustainable soil management under irrigation with saline waters.
· Salt tolerance of crop and pasture species.
· Regional watershed and basin management strategies for salinity control.
· Wildlife impacts related to salinization.
· Mapping and monitoring salinity at regional and field scales.
· Development of plants with improved salt tolerance.
· Treated sewage water reuse and disposal.
· Conjunctive use of surface water, groundwater, and recycled drainage water.


The deadline for abstracts is 1 January 2014.

More information about the forum, including complete abstract submission guidelines, may be found at salinityforum2014.ucr.edu.

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NOAA asks industry for long-endurance UUV to profile ocean temperatures and ... - Military & Aerospace Electronics

NOAA asks industry for long-endurance UUV to profile ocean temperatures and ... - Military & Aerospace Electronics | SMOS | Scoop.it

STENNIS SPACE CENTER, Miss., 21 Aug. 2013. Researchers at the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are asking industry to provide a long-endurance unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) to conduct ocean temperature and salinity tests.

The NOAA National Data Buoy Center at Stennis Space Center, Miss., last Friday issued a solicitation (NWWG9502-13-03082) for a profiling glider -- a long-endurance unmanned submersible able to operate over vast ocean areas for months at a time while using a minimum of electric power.

A UUV sea glider uses variable ballast to control its depth in the ocean. It works by rising to the surface, adjusts its ballast to make it sink, and then uses control surfaces to propel itself forward and maneuver, in a similar way that a glider aircraft moves through the air.

The sea glider will gather ocean water data as part of the NOAA National Data Buoy Center's Hurricane and Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) project network to conduct temperature and salinity profiles...

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SMAP Under Construction: Field trip to the Spacecraft Assembly Facility - The Planetary Society (blog)

SMAP Under Construction: Field trip to the Spacecraft Assembly Facility - The Planetary Society (blog) | SMOS | Scoop.it

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On display were one spacecraft and one instrument under development. SMAP, which stands for Soil Moisture Active Passive, is a radar spacecraft that is planned for launch next year to study soil moisture, an important input into weather and climate models. It follows in the footsteps of ESA's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) spacecraft.

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Summary of the SMOS Aquarius Workshop » SMOS blog - CESBIO

Summary of the SMOS Aquarius Workshop » SMOS blog - CESBIO | SMOS | Scoop.it

SMOS-AQUARIUS SCIENCE WORKSHOP

BREST April 15-17 2013

 

Summary

The SMOS-AQUARIUS science workshop took place on 15-17 April at IFREMER (France). The workshop was jointly organised between ESA, NASA and IFREMER, with support from CNES and the EC’s COST action SMOS-MODE. Even though it was the first event of this kind, it presents a natural extension of a long-standing cooperation between the SMOS and AQUARIUS satellite teams, which started already in the respective development phases. On a working level, members of both teams are regularly attending relevant science and advisory boards on either side. More than 120 scientists from research institutes worldwide attended the workshop, with more than 80 contributions being submitted....

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Snow thickness retrieval over thick Arctic sea ice using SMOS satellite data

Snow thickness retrieval over thick Arctic sea ice using SMOS satellite data | SMOS | Scoop.it

N. Maaß1, L. Kaleschke1, X. Tian-Kunze1, and M. Drusch2
1Institute of Oceanography, University of Hamburg, Bundesstraße 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
2European Space Agency, ESA-ESTEC, 2200 AG Noordwijk, the Netherlands

Abstract. The microwave interferometric radiometer of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission measures at a frequency of 1.4 GHz in the L-band. In contrast to other microwave satellites, low frequency measurements in L-band have a large penetration depth in sea ice and thus contain information on the ice thickness. Previous ice thickness retrievals have neglected a snow layer on top of the ice. Here, we implement a snow layer in our emission model and investigate how snow influences L-band brightness temperatures and whether it is possible to retrieve snow thickness over thick Arctic sea ice from SMOS data. We find that the brightness temperatures above snow-covered sea ice are higher than above bare sea ice and that horizontal polarisation is more affected by the snow layer than vertical polarisation...

 

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HESSD - Estimating root zone soil moisture using near-surface observations from SMO

HESSD - Estimating root zone soil moisture using near-surface observations from SMO | SMOS | Scoop.it

T. W. Ford, E. Harris, and S. M. Quiring
Department of Geography, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas, USA

 

Abstract. Satellite-derived soil moisture provides more spatially and temporally extensive data than in situ observations. However, satellites can only measure water in the top few centimeters of the soil. Therefore estimates of root zone soil moisture must be inferred from near-surface soil moisture retrievals. The accuracy of this inference is contingent on the relationship between soil moisture in the near-surface and at greater depths. This study uses cross correlation analysis to quantify the association between near-surface and root zone soil moisture using in situ data from the United States Great Plains. Our analysis demonstrates that there is generally a strong relationship between near-surface (5 to 10 cm) and root zone (25 to 60 cm) soil moisture. An exponential decay filter is applied to estimate root zone soil moisture from near-surface observations. Reasonably skillful predictions of root zone soil moisture can be made using near-surface observations. The same method is then applied to evaluate whether soil moisture derived from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite can be used to accurately estimate root zone soil moisture. We conclude that the exponential filter method is a useful approach for accurately predicting root zone soil moisture from SMOS surface retrievals.

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USDA scientists verify soil moisture data collected by satellites - agprofessional.com

USDA scientists verify soil moisture data collected by satellites - agprofessional.com | SMOS | Scoop.it

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) may have their feet on the ground, but they're also the go-to experts when it comes to interpreting data from space.

In 2002, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists established soil moisture monitoring networks in four long-term experimental watersheds to verify the accuracy of soil moisture data collected by satellites orbiting Earth. Since then, the ARS researchers have been continuously monitoring soil moisture levels in these watersheds every hour. As a result, they had a vast amount of data they could use to validate soil moisture data collected by a new Earth-orbiting satellite launched by the European Space Agency as part of its Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission...

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Monitoring wetlands for sustainable water management

Monitoring wetlands for sustainable water management | SMOS | Scoop.it

Wetlands play a major role in the availability and quality of water, containing most of the water used to meet human needs. ESA’s GlobWetland II project is helping Mediterranean countries to monitor these precious resources.

Located within the Nile River Delta, Egypt’s Lake Burullus has undergone major changes in the past 40 years.

Urban settlements have flourished around the lake, and from 1973 to 1990 the area saw a sharp increase in aquaculture.

As a result of increased waste water in the lake (largely due to aquaculture), there has been an overall decrease of salt marsh vegetation in the lake itself, in some parts replaced by reed beds...

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State-of-the-art Earth explorer tracks storms before they hit, keeps up with ... - Phys.Org

State-of-the-art Earth explorer tracks storms before they hit, keeps up with ... - Phys.Org | SMOS | Scoop.it

The largest Atlantic hurricane on record was captured by ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite...

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Ocean Salinity Trends Show Human Fingerprint

Ocean Salinity Trends Show Human Fingerprint | SMOS | Scoop.it

Changes in ocean salinity over the second half of the 20th Century are consistent with the influence of human activities and inconsistent with natural climate variations, according to a new study led by researchers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego. Observed changes agree with computer models suggestions about salinity trends in a steadily warming world, said Scripps climate researcher David Pierce, the study’s lead author. Ocean salinity changes are driven by the world’s patterns of evaporation and rainfall, which themselves are changing. Observations over recent decades have found a general intensification of salinity differences in which salty ocean regions experience even more evaporation of surface waters and relatively fresh regions are becoming even more diluted with precipitation. These patterns are part of global changes in precipitation and evaporation that influence rainfall or the lack of it over land...

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SMOS blog » Blog Archive » New BLOG Lay out - Cesbio

SMOS blog » Blog Archive » New BLOG Lay out - Cesbio | SMOS | Scoop.it
Dear All. As you may have noticed the blog's lay out has been somewhat revamped thanks to Alaaddine Samaha. We have endeavoured to make it more efficient and you have now direct access to the RFI monitor plus latest ...
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SMOS blog » Blog Archive » New RFI Maps from Aquarius - Cesbio

SMOS blog » Blog Archive » New RFI Maps from Aquarius - Cesbio | SMOS | Scoop.it
The Aquarius mission is also trying to identify and Flag RFIs. Paolo de Matthaeis is producing monthly RFI maps for BOTH the active and passive L band systems on board Aquarius they can be seen here for the radiometer ...
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Soil moisture results measured from space validated « Neogen Blog

Soil moisture results measured from space validated « Neogen Blog | SMOS | Scoop.it

 

Objects in space can tell us a lot about Earth – gravitational pull, meteorite fragments in craters and now soil moisture.

 

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have validated soil moisture results collected by satellites  launched by the European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. The first satellite, launched in 2009, can estimate Earth soil moisture within 4 percent, according to ARS. The SMOS satellites use a new sensor that utilizes the first passive L-band system.

 

However, like any new method, the results had to be verified. ARS had previously established soil moisture monitoring points in four large U.S. watersheds in 2002, and already had a wealth of data to compare SMOS results against. The data already was being used to look at soil moisture data from other satellites.

 

After comparing the SMOS results against ARS data and information from another satellite, researchers found SMOS soil moisture estimates were about 95 percent accurate. The ARS team also noted factors that could reduce accuracy, including when the satellite takes measurements.

 

The research was published last year but was featured in this month’s issue of Agricultural Research magazine.

The research was published last year but was featured in this month’s issue of Agricultural Research magazine.

- See more at: http://www.neogen.com/blog/soil-moisture-results-measured-from-space-validated/#sthash.hTRv57Pm.dpuf

Objects in space can tell us a lot about Earth – gravitational pull, meteorite fragments in craters and now soil moisture.

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have validated soil moisture results collected by satellites  launched by the European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. The first satellite, launched in 2009, can estimate Earth soil moisture within 4 percent, according to ARS. The SMOS satellites use a new sensor that utilizes the first passive L-band system.

However, like any new method, the results had to be verified. ARS had previously established soil moisture monitoring points in four large U.S. watersheds in 2002, and already had a wealth of data to compare SMOS results against. The data already was being used to look at soil moisture data from other satellites.

After comparing the SMOS results against ARS data and information from another satellite, researchers found SMOS soil moisture estimates were about 95 percent accurate. The ARS team also noted factors that could reduce accuracy, including when the satellite takes measurements.

The research was published last year but was featured in this month’s issue of Agricultural Research magazine.

- See more at: http://www.neogen.com/blog/soil-moisture-results-measured-from-space-validated/#sthash.hTRv57Pm.dpuf
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NASA to focus on Earth in 2014

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Follow the water

The third and final Earth-focused mission of 2014 is a satellite called Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP).

It's a complicated device that looks like a gold refrigerator with a giant spinning umbrella above it.  SMAP will measure soil moisture by bouncing radio waves off of the planet. 

Currently, some of these data are gathered by a European instrument called Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS). NASA's SMAP will be five times more accurate, said project systems engineer Shawn Goodman.

SMAP will give detailed information about droughts, enable better predictions of crop yields, and paint a picture of how global warming is changing the planet.

"I really feel like I am doing something important," Goodman said of the mission. It's "one of the coolest things I could possibly do."

SMAP will launch in October and is projected to cost $914 millions dollars.

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ARS Scientists Verify Soil Moisture Data Collected by Satellites - Agricultural Research

ARS Scientists Verify Soil Moisture Data Collected by Satellites - Agricultural Research | SMOS | Scoop.it

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) may have their feet on the ground, but they're also the go-to experts when it comes to interpreting data from space.

In 2002, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists established soil moisture monitoring networks in four long-term experimental watersheds to verify the accuracy of soil moisture data collected by satellites orbiting Earth. Since then, the ARS researchers have been continuously monitoring soil moisture levels in these watersheds every hour. As a result, they had a vast amount of data they could use to validate soil moisture data collected by a new Earth-orbiting satellite launched by the European Space Agency as part of its Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission.

ARS is USDA's chief intramural scientific research agency, and this work supports the USDA priority of responding to global climate change.

The new SMOS satellite used an innovative sensor technology to estimate soil moisture levels to within 4 percent, which is like measuring a teaspoon of water mixed into a handful of dry soil. But the accuracy of the data needed to be verified with actual soil moisture measurements.

An ARS research team led by hydrologist Tom Jackson compared a year's worth of soil moisture data collected by SMOS with data from the four ARS watersheds, and with data from another satellite system. Jackson works at the ARS Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory in Beltsville, Md.

The scientists determined that the SMOS soil moisture estimates approached a 95 percent rate of accuracy. They also identified conditions that reduced the accuracy of their estimates, such as fluctuations in daily weather conditions, and devised a method for flagging and adjusting these data to improve the accuracy of the resulting soil moisture estimates.

Results from this project were published in 2012 in IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing.

Read more about this research in the August 2013 issue of Agricultural Research magazine.

 

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SMOS soil moisture retrieval using neural networks. » SMOS blog

SMOS soil moisture retrieval using neural networks. » SMOS blog | SMOS | Scoop.it

CESBIO is behind the operational L2 algorithm used to retrieve soil moisture from SMOS brightness temperatures. This algorithm uses a physical model to link soil moisture and brightness temperature. Other approaches are also possible as, for instance, using independent estimations of the soil moisture and determining statistically the relation linking the soil moisture to the brightness temperatures measured by SMOS. Subsequently, this relation can be used to derive soil moisture from SMOS measurements. Very efficient techniques to perform a statistical inversion of remote sensing data are based in Neural Networks.

The European Spatial Agency (ESA) has funded a project to study the feasibility of soil moisture retrieval from SMOS measurements using neural networks (the SMOS+NN project). The SMOS+NN team is composed of scientists from CESBIO, Observatoire de Paris, and the ARRAY company.

The first results of this project are very encouraging. A feed-forward neural network has been trained using global soil moisture estimations from ECMWF simulations and SMOS measurements for incidence angles in the range from 25º to 60º. About one hundred of days from April 2011 to Mars 2012 were used for the training. Afterwards, the statistical relation determined by the neural network was used to derive soil moisture for 2010 observations...

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CP34-BEC | Launch of SMOS CP34 at BEC

CP34-BEC | Launch of SMOS CP34 at BEC | SMOS | Scoop.it
After more than three years of continuous operation at ESAC, the Spanish SMOS level 3 and 4 Production and distribution Centre (CP34) has been moved, due to programmatic and funding constrains, to the SMOS Barcelona ...
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SMOS maps record soil water before flood / SMOS / Earth Explorers ...

SMOS maps record soil water before flood / SMOS / Earth Explorers ... | SMOS | Scoop.it

As parts of central Europe are battling with the most extensive floods in centuries, forecasters are hoping that ESA’s SMOS satellite will help to improve the accuracy of flood prediction in the future.

 

As its name suggests, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission monitors the amount of water held in the surface layers of the soil and the concentration of salt in the top layer of seawater.

This information is helping scientists understand more about how water is cycled between the oceans, atmosphere and land – Earth’s water cycle. It is also helping to improve weather forecasts.

The massive flooding that central Europe is currently suffering was brought about by a wet spring and sudden heavy rains.

 

SMOS carries a novel microwave sensor to capture images of ‘brightness temperature’ to derive information on soil moisture.

Prior to the torrential rains, SMOS showed that soils in Germany were showing record levels of moisture – in fact, the highest ever observed.

The animation above shows the wet soils in blues and the dryer soils in yellows.

ESA’s SMOS mission scientist, Matthias Drusch, explains, “Data from SMOS can be used to monitor the saturation of the soil.

 

“At the end of May we see that the soil was almost fully saturated, with record values for moisture. More rain meant that it immediately ran off as the surplus water could not soak into the soil, and this resulted in these terrible floods.

“Numerical Weather Predication centres are currently assessing the possibility of using SMOS data to improve weather and flood forecasts, so hopefully we will be better placed to predict these events more accurately in the future. ”...

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voir l'information d'origine sur le blog du CESBIO également  http://www.cesbio.ups-tlse.fr/SMOS_blog/?p=3904 :))

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3D Models - Satellite Smos | 3DOcean

3D Models - Satellite Smos | 3DOcean | SMOS | Scoop.it

Realistic and high quality model . The zip file contains vray materials scenes. 

Features: - High quality polygonal model – correctly scaled accurate representation of the original objects.

- The object are logically named for ease of scene management. - No part-name confusion when importing several models into a scene. - No cleaning up necessary, just drop model into your scene and start rendering. - No special plugin needed to open scene. -no multi_sub object -all texture have resolution 2048*2048...

Carole Larigauderie's insight:

un modele 3D de SMOS à acheter?

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How Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellites tracked Sandy - UN-SPIDER

How Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellites tracked Sandy - UN-SPIDER | SMOS | Scoop.it

ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission showed its versatility by capturing unique measurements of Hurricane Sandy, that hit the Caribbean and northeastern US in...

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SMOS - Super storm tracked by ESA water mission

SMOS - Super storm tracked by ESA water mission | SMOS | Scoop.it

When millions of people are bracing themselves for the onslaught of extreme weather, as much information as possible is needed to predict the strength of the impending storm. ESA’s SMOS mission again showed its versatility by capturing unique measurements of Hurricane Sandy.

As its name suggests, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite was designed to measure how much moisture is held in soil and how much salt is held in the surface waters of the oceans.This information is helping to improve our understanding of the water cycle – an essential component of the Earth system.

However, this state-of-the-art Earth Explorer mission has demonstrated that its instrumentation and measuring techniques can be used to offer much more.

Since SMOS has the ability to see through clouds and it is little affected by rain, it can also provide reliable estimates of the surface wind speeds under intense storms.

Parts of the Caribbean and northeastern US are still suffering the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy, which is the largest Atlantic hurricane on record. Unusually, Sandy was a hybrid storm, tapping energy from the evaporation of seawater like a hurricane and from different air temperatures like a winter storm...

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