SLA and Technology - my insights into topics from LING421
10 views | +0 today
Follow
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Jack Armstrong
Scoop.it!

LING 421 course overview

A final insight into the topics introduced in the course throughout the semester.

Jack Armstrong's insight:

LING 421 as a course showed me an area of teaching which I knew existed but the extent of research and thought that has gone into the subject astounded me. Second language learning has received massive attention in terms of research and the subsequent pedagogies constructed to guide its instruction. The specific focus throughout the course was on computer assisted language earning (CALL), exploring the extent to which computers have been used in the past, how they are being used now and the ways in which they could be utilised in future SLA.

 

My involvement in the course opened my eyes to the different theories of language teaching /learning such as input, feedback and output and how these relate respectively to students’ SLA. The ultimate goal for me throughout this paper was to become more familiar and grounded in the theories and practices of second language teaching so that I myself can teach English as a second language with at least a reasonably educated idea as to what I am doing. In this way the course was and hopefully will serve as a great resource for me in the future. It highlighted important theories of SLT and the specific skills that need to be developed in order to best aid language students.

 

In the process of language learning the learner is first exposed to forms of input, words and phrases from the target language. It is from this input that the learner is able to form hypotheses for language production. Testing these out in different language settings, in class, online or any form of interaction serve as feedback and let the learner know if their hypotheses are correct. Instantaneous feedback is the best for learners of a language and is what informs the learner as to what the gaps are in their knowledge and highlights the areas which they need to target in their SLA.

 

I also found it fascinating that there exists a sort of equilibrium between the additional language(s) that a student is learning and their L1. What I mean by this is that the knowledge that one gains of the target L2, at least in the initial stages, stems from comparisons one makes between the two languages’. But there is also knowledge which the learner will acquire about their L1 which is achieved through their exposure and understanding of the L2. It is as if there is a dual transfer of information of knowledge acquired of the L2 and knowledge acquired of the L1 which is occurring all the time. This constant transfer of information is in the form of comparisons, of the patterns and practices inherent in the respective languages which the learner is engaged with.

 

From the point of view of a language teacher the course gave me the knowledge of various theories of language learning and pedagogies which incorporate these theories. It also surprised me when I saw that (according to the ACTFL comparisons standard) the ultimate goal of language learning is not just knowledge of the language itself, its structures etc, but to guide the students towards awareness of and the realisation of the nature of language; as a culturally constructed system of patterns and practices.

 

As well as the language teaching point of view, I also found this paper helpful and interesting from the perspective of a language learner. I have personal experience in learning languages and have an interest in learning more languages in the future. From the theories I was exposed to throughout the course have not only increased my knowledge of how to teach languages but also how they are learned. This I am sure will only serve to help me in my future exposure to languages as I attempt to learn them.

 

The specific area of the course that aided me from the perspective of a language student was the fact that I was made aware of the vast availability of a massive array of online resources for language learning. The course forced me to explore the different avenues which exist for students wishing to expand their knowledge of an L2, a part of the course I really enjoyed and found incredibly useful. I found that there are great resources online and that a lot of these are often free for students to use and easily accessed.

 

I found the final weeks of the course the most interesting from the point of view of a language learner, most specifically in terms of the online gaming environments which have been identified as advantageous for language learning. This specific area was interesting for me due to my experiences learning Spanish last year. My tutor specifically told me that I should play more computer games to improve my Spanish as this is how he taught himself English. At the time I scoffed at the idea of this, and thought he must have been some sort of freak clocking up ridiculous hours sitting at his computer. I thought that computer games were for entertainment and couldn’t believe that they could be used as a way of teaching anything let alone a language. I now see that computer games (along with many other forms of digital media) are incredibly wide ranging in their application for language learning and that obviously they vary in appropriateness.

 

Ling 421 showed me that language teaching is a very very large topic and that CALL is fast becoming a more integral part of language instruction. The course introduced me to theories of language learning and teaching which I will find useful as both a teacher and a learner of language. I am now far more aware of the future possibilities of CALL and have some idea as to how different technologies are to be best implemented in the language learning classroom. 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jack Armstrong
Scoop.it!

Week 11 Insight: Digital Literacies and Bridging Activities

My insights into the topics introduced in week 11 of class

Jack Armstrong's insight:

 “Digital literacy” is a term coined in order to categorise people’s competency in understanding and utilising the various forms of new media. One example of the new media/digital literacy classifications comes from Jonathon Reinhardt and Steven Thorne, they posit four categories for digital literacy; computer literacy, information literacy, media literacy, and multimodal literacy. As new media forms become more popular in everyday use so does the desire to utilise it in language teaching. This would not only give classes increased relevance to the everyday lives of students, but would also allow them access to authentic and contemporary materials from the target language vernacular which would have otherwise been impossible.

“Bridging activities” is a pedagogical framework put forward by Reinhardt and Thorne as a way of incorporating the new media and digital literacies into language teaching pedagogy. The main area of focus for the programme is at the advanced level of SLA. This area has been largely ignored through the evolution of web 2.0 learning materials and the subsequent investigations into its implementation in language learning. As a result the main resource for the advanced level has typically been literature from the target language. This approach though is limited by the stylistic and syntactic conventions which have developed in that specific genre. By incorporating new media and web 2.0 communication methods, the students at the advanced level can engage in the authentic materials online and develop awareness of digital literacies across cultures’.

“Bridging activities” is essentially an awareness based pedagogy which is constructed in three phases throughout which the teacher remains a guide. The first phase is “collection and observation”; in this part the students select texts and observe their own habits while using the various forms of new media. The next phase is “exploration and analysis” ; in this phase the teacher guides the students as they explore the texts in the target language in order to gain understanding of the discourse and conventions of that genre. They then critically analyse it in comparison with the equivalent from their culture, concentrating on the linguistic and social conventions. The final phase of “creation and participation” requires the students to join internet communities which they have been concentrating on and participate in the creation of texts or communication specific to that genre. Following from the comparisons standard this enables students to develop awareness of the language and cultural conventions of their target L2 by engaging in contemporary and authentic texts from that language.

With the explosion of social networking sites such as “Facebook” and “Twitter” certain cultural conventions for communicating online have developed. Things such as acronyms (yolo,lol,fml etc) and emoticons serve as good examples as to how online communication via chat has become a language of convenience which will of course be different across cultures.

 Another form of new media for students to explore is that of wikis or blogs. Both are forms of online authoring; wikis being collaborative and blogs individual in their creation.  In analysing these texts one would need to concentrate more on stylistic qualities as opposed to linguistic/syntactical conventions. This is because the major point of difference in this genre exists between the new media and the traditional forms such as newspapers; in their composition and how one actually engages with each text respectively.

Remixing is another area outlined by Throne and Reinhardt, it involves taking cultural texts and through a process of combination and manipulation, creating a new product. Students are able to borrow from existing cultural texts and create one of their own which would exceed anything they could have produced in traditional processes of creative or essay writing.

 Multiplayer online gaming environments would also enable students to immerse themselves in the culture of the target language. They would need to form an identity and interact with the other players in the community in performing the game tasks. This would all need to be done in the target language; providing a new environment for them to engage in authentic and relevant language use from the target L2.  

 

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jack Armstrong
Scoop.it!

Week 8 Insight: Writing

My insights into topics intirduced in week 8 of class

Jack Armstrong's insight:

Writing is the last of the core skills which are essential for SLA. Of the skills areas of reading writing and speaking it is one of the most intimidating for learners to participate in. This is because it involves some base understanding almost all of the aspects of the target language, such as; semantics, vocabulary, and grammar. It is because of its complexities that it can be the hardest of the skills to develop.

It is common knowledge for anyone who has tried learning a language in a formal setting that it is incredibly difficult to learn language successfully unless one leaves all their inhibitions and fear of failure at the classroom door. It has been well documented, and I myself have encountered it In my own language learning experiences as well as being guilty of it on numerous occasions, that it is this fear of failure an potential embarrassment that holds particularly shy students back from attempting to produce written texts and speech in the target language. Though it s obvious that this is a childish and irrational fear which people bring to the language classroom, it is still an obvious area of concern for language teachers.

In the current age of web 2.0 technologies the genres of writing are forever evolving and being moulded to suit the technological environment in which they occur. Online texts come in varying literary forms with their own conventions and distinct stylistic elements. Blogs and wkis’ are just two examples of the varying textual forms available online and have been identified as ideal candidates for implementation in SLA.

Blogs and wikis are two different authoring styles which are becoming ever more popular online. Blogs are individual in their authoring, in that one person writes the text found online, and they vary widely as they can cover any subject from politics to fashion. Wikis are more of collaboration between many authors to create one text online. Each author adds segments of information or knowledge to an existing text online, these form the basis of vast encyclopaedias and knowledge data bases such as Wikipedia.

Both of these could be incorporated in the language learning classroom by getting students to participate in either wiki or blog production.  By individually producing a blog or collaborating in groups to crate texts in the target language, students get to engage in the language in a new and more engaging way. If the students are able to produce a blog in their own time and without teacher intervention, they may be more willing to participate in the creation of texts as the inhibitions that come with the fear of failure maybe reduced as the pressure of being correct is lifted.

Also in using blogs and wikis in such a way the students are working on not just their writing skills but also their reading skills. This comes from the fact that there are certain conventions and practices which reflect the different genres and contexts of the textual form they occur. In familiarising themselves with these conventions and rules the students are once again engaging with the target language and improving their reading comprehension skills.  Thus blogs and wikis are a medium which improves the writing and reading skills of students in the target language, and as a result provides a great opportunity for L2 instruction.

 

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jack Armstrong
Scoop.it!

Week 6 insight: Listening comprehension

my insights into the topics from week 6 of class. 

Jack Armstrong's insight:

Listening is one of the core areas of focus for language learning at any level. It is obviously an important area of focus due to the fact that the vast majority of human-human interaction involves speaking and the ability to understand the aural input one receives. In our everyday interactions with others we are exposed to aural input which often is and traditionally was unmediated by technology. But even through the early 20th century, and now in increasingly divergent forms, the aural environment in which we are immersed is technology mediated.

From its’ essential use in spoken communication, listening is a skill integral to language learning but its importance extends beyond that of pure listening comprehension. Developing listening skills also provides students with the opportunity for exposure to other important factors in language acquisition such as culture.  These additional affordances are what make the current language learning environment exciting for listening as a skill. Students now have the opportunity to use a substantial array of authentic material which could gives them insights to the culture of the target language as well as the language in it pure and natural form. As can be seen the technological environment today affords students access to material which varies in its authenticity and context.

Unfortunately in my own experiences I have had limited exposure to listening activities which incorporate web 2.0 or contemporary technology in listening comprehension. My fist experiences were in high school German in year 11. The limit of the aural input we received was a video series (on VCR) in which towns and cities in Germany were shown. The videos were seriously dated and were blatantly constructed as a German language tool. The lack of authenticity was both technical, in terms of its construction as a language learning tool, and in feel. The obvious lack of funding that went into the videos and their dated nature gave them limited relevance to the class. Once we got past the initial humour of it all they were just the same token, tired and uninteresting videos commonly used across the school curriculum.

My second and more up to date experience with listening comprehension occurred last year when I took up Spanish. The aural input we received came from a CD, suppliedwith the text book. The exercises we did on a weekly basis were to simply transcribe what we heard. These activities sucked and I along with a few of the others in y class hated every minute spent doing them. The audio was obviously scripted, the sound quality was average at best and the speakers talked so rapidly it was impossible to discern words from each other. On top of this the content varied from interactions with a barber to having a coffee with a friend, so once again I was left bored and uninterested  by the mind numbing imaginations of language learning institutions.  

I am now aware of the massive amount of quality, authentic material available which can now be manipulated by language learners and instructors to correspond with the appropriate language level. Television shows and podcasts in the target culture/language can be easily accessed by learners with access to the internet. There are online tools which can enable these learners with the ability to manipulate the texts so that speech rates are slower and scripts and transcripts are also available from varying resources online. The opportunities for implementing technology mediated listening comprehension in the classroom are ever increasing and are becoming easier to access as their numbers increase.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jack Armstrong
Scoop.it!

Week 3 Insight (11/3/13), CALL and SLA; French online learning course

Insight into topics from LING421 week 3; CALL and SLA

Jack Armstrong's insight:

I was pretty sceptical as to how effective CALL could be before I used the French Online Learning (FOL) course provided by the Carnegie Mellon University. I’m not sure why, maybe it was because i wasn’t 100% aware of the possibility of learning a language completely online. Until recently, in my experience of SLA, I had always relied upon a teacher/tutor to provide tangible materials such as books vocab lists etc. I think it was also the fact that I was daunted firstly by the thought of learning a whole new language and secondly without the security provided by a tutor which has been the case for the majority of my language learning. I thought that learning a language (at least in the initial stages) would require a large volume of material, text book for grammar and vocab and the teacher for guidance and additional help.

So I found it interesting once I got into it, that it was surprisingly easy, thanks in no small part to the structure of the FOL course. It started off with “communication 1” with heaps of other classes following on from this. I only got as far as the second level; “mots expressions”. At first I had no idea of the purpose of the first lesson, it seemed to only be using the token French everyone knows; “bonjour”, “merci”. It was pretty easy and i think it was meant for just getting to grips with the basic greeting/farewell phrases of French. 

Things started getting serious though once I progressed to the second level. “mots et expressions”. This one is definitely a step up and focuses on broadening the vocab of students, concentrating on listening and writing skills. I was fine initially when it was just a short vocab list for the learner to transcribe simple words/phrases e.g.; “bonjour”, “au revoir”. But then when you had to transcribe audio I got a bit of a wake-up call  (3 out of 10). This was because I was oblivious to the grammar of accent marks and some of the more intricate pronunciations such as the English “c” sounds become “s” etc.

It seems t make sense that the FOL course reflects some of the theories of language learning. As I was merely starting at the start it is reasonable to suggest that at this stage the courses main area of focus is on input; the initial stage of language learning, the exposure of the learner to authentic language material. The part of the programme I did was based upon comprehensible input as there was a definite increase in difficulty from one level to the next (L+1).

Through my struggling in mots et expresions it is also easy to see that the programme embodies the related ideas of intake and noticing. After the initial input/intake I was able to notice the gaps in my knowledge when I was doing the transcribing exercises. I was unable to make sense of the grammar rules regarding accent marks and the pronunciation of “C”. And so if I was to continue with my French learning I would know that these are one of the many areas which I need to focus on.

I found that my initial scepticism was ungrounded upon using the FOL course for a few hours. It was a great course which embodies theories of language learning such as input and feedback and I’m sure the further one progresses the more complex and beneficial the lessons become.

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jack Armstrong
Scoop.it!

Week 12 Insight: Online communities, social networking and online multiplayer gaming environments.

My insights into topics intrduced in week 12 of class.

Jack Armstrong's insight:

Communities are social constructs which fulfil the inherent human desire to belong; they are formed when people who are bonded by similar interests or goals come together. In this sense communities can be formed online through the mediums of social networking and multiplayer online games. These communities are intangible and exist solely online in cyber space. The affordances of modern day communication technologies allows for the interactions necessary to keep these communities functioning online. These communities and the communication forms which occur between them are constantly evolving as they reflect the ever changing world online.

The amazing thing about these online communities is that there are no physical boundaries to limit their growth and their reach across the globe. The internet allows the members of these communities to communicate intercultural and almost instantaneously. Because of this the affordances  these online communities offer are of interest to language teaching pedagogy. Two examples of how these online communities could be utilised in the language classroom vary in their pedagogical goals and the ways in which student communication aid in their acquisition of their target language.

One way that online communities have formed online is through the creation of the multiplayer online gaming environments.  In these environments the students are able to create an identity through which they function as a member of the community. Multiplayer online games such as “world of warcraft” could be utilised to develop student experiential awareness of language. By immersing themselves in an online gaming environment in the target language the students are exposed to the target language in its natural form. This exposure to the target language comes from the interactions the students necessarily have with other community members in order to complete the tasks in the game.  

Social networking also provides similar levels of experiential learning. The members of online communities such as facebook are able to interact online with other members of the online community through chatting and instant messaging.  I have experienced this communication first hand, communicating with people I met while I was in Germany a few years ago. In interacting with the members of another linguistic and geographic community I was able to expand my experiential knowledge of the German language by communicating with native speakers, much the same as the communication between members of the online gaming environment.

But in my experiences of language learning I became a member of an online community which aided me in learning Spanish but was not focused on experiential awareness of language and involved intracultural communication as opposed to intercultural comunication. While I was learning Spanish last year we set up a facebook group as a class independent teacher. The aim of the group was to provide a forum for the members to ask questions to fellow class mates about specific areas of concern within the Spanish language. In this sense the online community was utilised in the L1 and only utilised intracultural communication but still was used in such a way as to improve student understanding of the target language.  

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jack Armstrong
Scoop.it!

Week 9 Insight: Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)

My insights into topics introduced in week 9 of class:

Jack Armstrong's insight:

From the ACTFL communication standard one can infer that the priority for second language classes is to provide students with the opportunity and ability to participate in meaningful social interaction and communication in the target language. “Hymes” has defined effective or meaningful social communication as interactions where those involved are aware of the setting and context of the communication taking place. This is important due to the nature of language as a system where by context has a massive bearing on what meaning is inferred. Computer mediated communication, which is communication of any from whereby the interaction is mediated by a computer, has developed into a feature perfectly suited to providing learners with the opportunity for meaningful and effective communication in the target language.

Social networking sites such as twitter and facebook, as well as blogs provide a form of CMC to those who participate in their creation. Facebook provides the user with the opportunity to chat/instant message (IM) fellow users. Twitter involves a novel form of communication in that users post various forms of media for their followers to see and interact with. While blogs provide an opportunity for asynchronous communication similar to that of twitter, where followers comment and transfer information non- instantaneously. All these forms of CMC resemble authentic social interaction, in that ideas are shared along with knowledge and information.

The above examples are only a few from a wide ranging array of genres of CMC. There are other forms such as Skype which enable users to communicate face to face via a video link while they could be on completely different continents.

This brings me to the next aspect of the variants of CMC. CMC can also be either intercultural or intracultural. These varying forms of authenticity provide the student with options as to how they wish to communicate in their target language. Intracultural communication is communication with members of the same culture or society. Intercultural communication is where two individuals are communicating from different cultures. In terms of language learning a student would be using intercultural communication if they were communicating with a native speaker in the target language. Both of these forms of CMC can be used for different pedagogical purpose and to suit the different learner levels.

In terms of my own interactions using CMC in language learning I have little to no experience apart from the odd friend I have made overseas. I feel that utilising CMC in language learning though is a great opportunity for students and the development of their language skills. By exposing the students to communicating in the target language they gain experiential awareness and increase their autonomy in language learning as they get feedback from their communication partner.  The opportunities in intercultural communication enable the student to communicate with native speakers of the target language and as well as experiencing the target language in its natural and authentic environment they also have the opportunity for cultural engagement ,and the opportunity to share cultural information with their partner.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jack Armstrong
Scoop.it!

Week 7 Insight: Reading Comprehension

My insights into the topics from week 7 of class

Jack Armstrong's insight:

Reading comprehension is another of the key areas of focus for learner development in second language acquisition. Reading, along with listening, is one of the integral skills used in our everyday communications and interactions within our culture and society. Not only does learner exposure to reading texts in the target language vernacular offer cultural perspectives and ideals from the target language it is also an important basis and resource for vocabulary acquisition.

In my own experiences of language learning, reading has been the main means by which I have acquired vocabulary. This was mainly due to convenience; when I saw a word I don’t understand could simply look up the definition. Apart from vocabulary lists provided in class this is how the majority of my vocabulary was acquired, and while learning outside of the classroom it has been the only way.

But in the current technological environment this is a somewhat time consuming and disruptive process. Every time I stumble across an incomprehensible word I need to completely stop the reading I am doing and disengage completely from the reading task I was completing. I then need to go to another web page to find an online dictionary or look it up in the more traditional and tangible alternative. After repeating this process over and over again all I end up achieving is skim reading and identifying previously unknown words. I no longer follow the intended story or meaning behind the text I am reading, missing out on other aspects of language other than vocabulary which are also important for SLA.

“Glosses” are a tool which is occurring with increasing frequency online. Basically, key words within the text are hyperlinked in such a way that when they are clicked a hidden window/gloss is revealed. The gloss is essentially a definition of the word which is made visible for the learner to take note of.

The idea has been developed further so that there are now multimedia glosses, these incorporate different forms of media from audio, video and pictorial examples and explanations of words. These all help to engage the learners and to provide comprehensive information on the targeted word.

I have not encountered glosses in my own language learning experiences but they definitely sound like a great tool for developing the reading comprehension skills of language earners and to expand their vocabulary. The most attractive thing about the glosses is that they provide ample opportunities for development and furthering deepening the incorporation utilisation of web 2.0 into reading comprehension activities. 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jack Armstrong
Scoop.it!

Week 4 Insight (18/3/13), Skills and Areas; spanishdict.com as a language learning tool

Insight into topics from LING421 week 4, Skills and areas. concentrating on spanish dict.com as a language learning tool

Jack Armstrong's insight:

“spanishdict.com” is both a free website and iphone app for Spanish language learning. The app is free to download and all of the apps features are free, which is not the case with many of the apps I have tried. The website is also free and really easy to sign up to, with a similar variety of features.

The app is a dictionary and phrase book with features such as; a “word game”, “daily word” and a “favourites” option for the words you find important. The website is very similar to the app but is more accessible and extensive in its usefulness in SLA. The website provides translations as well as conjugations so it is able to cater for the more complex grammatical problems students have. It also has flashcards (similar to the word-game) and the word of the day found on the app.

“spanishdict.com” in both the app and website form is really handy for personal use in SLA. I have used the website while I was formally learning Spanish at uni to help me with the variety of conjugations of verbs in Spanish, and as a dictionary for when I had my laptop handy. In this way I found the website really useful as an aid to my learning in class.

The app I used mainly as a supplement to my learning in class. I have found that the app is far better as an informal learning tool. As is the case with most people these days, I seem to have my phone on me all the time. Because of this the app is really handy; I get an alert every afternoon with the “daily word”  (“puerta” was today’s) and whenever I am bored or have nothing to do I play the word game; while I’m at the airport or waiting for class to start etc. In my experience it is really good for gradually and casually increasing your vocab.

Both the app and the website could easily be utilised in the classroom setting. While the app is only accessible to those with a smart phone (maybe only iphone I’m not too sure whether there is an app for android or whatever), the website is available to anyone with a computer or access to the internet. For the app; students could be encouraged to download it if they are able to and utilise it in class as a reference for new words etc.

 The website could be used to increase student’s vocab and grammar skills. The students could sign up to the website to get access to the games and flash cards which could form the basis of each lesson as they are segmented into topics such as “greetings” and “date and time”. They could do the separate lessons and use the flash cards as homework and could use the site in class as an aid to grammatical problems which they encounter. 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jack Armstrong
Scoop.it!

Week 2 Insight (4/3/13), CALL and Technology:

insight into the topic from LING421 week 2; CALLand technology

Jack Armstrong's insight:

It’s interesting to reflect on the amount that technology is now used in the classroom and whether it has become normalised in education, and more specifically in second language learning. We are being referred to as the “net generation” and constantly reminded of the access we have to a vast array of technology. In education the use of technology has grown rapidly to the point where it is now the norm. When I was at primary school everyone was fizzing when we got one computer for the entire class. By the time I got to intermediate and secondary school there were computers everywhere and the use of data projectors and “PowerPoint” became a staple in every classroom.

Now I’m at university it’s hard to imagine studying without my lap top handy. Almost all the lectures I have attended use ‘PowerPoint’ and the vast majority post information related to the course and lectures on ‘blackboard’. There is also the policy of almost every department that requires essays to be typed on a computer. To me the thought of a hand or typewritten essay of 3000 words seems none to pleasant, while just finding a book in the library without a search engine would waste a few years of my life.

In terms of language learning though it is debateable as to whether or not the use of computers has become normalised. I believe that in language learning it varies depending on the setting in which it takes place. From my own experience learning Spanish this has been the case. In the formal classroom setting CALL was hardly used at all. Once a week we were given 30 seconds worth of audio recordings to transcribe from Spanish to English and that was all in terms of the assessed stuff. But we were given a list of recommended websites for us to visit in our free time to increase our vocab and grammar skills etc. The websites were only a recommendation though and I personally made little use of them at the time. Probably a mistake in hindsight but I think a lot of my class were in the same boat as I mostly used the exercise book which I paid $100 for.

I no longer study Spanish in a formal setting at uni and I am trying to maintain at least some of what I learnt last year. In doing this almost all of the study I have been doing is done through the internet. I still have my text books at home but whenever I’m sitting down working I will almost always have my laptop with me. It is easy for me to simply look up a website to brush up on some Spanish. In this way using computers and the internet has become the norm when my language learning is self-motivated. I’m pretty sure that this is because I was exposed to just how much stuff there s online for language learning. I now know that it is possible to learn a language independent of an institution and that it is crazily accessible to do this using a computer.

more...
No comment yet.