Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma
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Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma
L'entomophagie et l'usage d'insectes dans l'alimentation animale, en pharmacopée et comme source d'énergie
Curated by Jacques Mignon
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Techniques de chasse et d’extraction de nids d’abeilles sans dard dans la Réserve d’Amanã – Amazonie (Brésil)

Notre recueil des pratiques d’extraction incluant la phase de prospection a fourni des informations utiles, voire inédites, malgré parfois les difficultés des personnes interrogées à les exprimer. S’agissant de la recherche de nid, les réponses qui nous ont été apportées ont permis de tirer des enseignements au-delà de nos espérances, et elles nous invitent à poursuivre nos recherches dans cette voie. Cette activité montre en autres que des techniques employées par des ethnies amérindiennes se sont diffusées en dehors de leur communauté, et se perpétuent hors de ce cadre.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Partie de l'introduction :
"Actuellement seules des mélipones seraient domestiquées dans cette réserve. Au-delà de la question des conditions de développement de l’élevage d’abeilles, l’objet du présent article portera sur les pratiques sociales associée s à ces insectes, et plus exactement sur la recherche des nids et l’extraction des miels sauvages. Notre étude pourrait aussi permettre de comparer les techniques employées par les communautés installées autour du lac d’Amanã et celles des ethnies amérindiennes d’Amazonie central."
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Grasshopper anaphylaxis in patients allergic to dust mite, cockroach, and crustaceans: Is tropomyosin the cause ?

Grasshopper anaphylaxis in patients allergic to dust mite, cockroach, and crustaceans: Is tropomyosin the cause ? | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Ingestion of chapulines is widespread and increasing, and allergy to tropomyosin is common. Patients highly allergic to crustaceans, HDM, and cockroach should be made aware that eating chapulines and possibly other insects is a risk.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
"In conclusion, these 2 patients constitute the first well-documented report of anaphylaxis after the initial ingestion of chapulines. Both patients had skin test sensitization to chapulines, and radioallergosorbent assay inhibition revealed a pan-allergen in chapuline, which cross-reacted with crustacean, HDM, and cockroach."
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Allergic risks of consuming edible insects: A systematic review

Allergic risks of consuming edible insects: A systematic review | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Cross-reactivity/co-sensitisation between edible insects and crustaceans seems to be clinically relevant, while it is still unknown if co-sensitisation between house dust mites and edible insects can lead to a food allergy. Additionally, more information is also needed about the molecular mechanisms underlying food allergy to insects, although current data suggest that an important role is played by arthropod pan-allergens such as tropomyosin or arginine kinase.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The expected future demand for food and animal-derived protein will require environment-friendly novel food sources with high nutritional value. Insects may be one of such novel food sources. However, there needs to be an assessment of the risks associated with their consumption, including allergic risks."
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Pterophylla beltrany (Bolivar & Bolivar) : Prospect for Entomophagy

Pterophylla beltrany (Bolivar & Bolivar) : Prospect for Entomophagy | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Although complementary studies are needed, we concluded the insect was similar to other orthopterans as human food or animal feed, not only because of nutrient content but also because of nutraceutical compounds.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Conclusions:
"In this work, the potential of Pterophylla beltrani (Bolivar & Bolivar) was studied as an insect to be used as food. The insect feeds on vegetation of oaks grown at the Sierra Madre Oriental in Northeast Mexico."
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Entomophagy in different food cultures | Entomofagia em diferentes culturas alimentares

The objective of this inquiry valued the knowledge and the intention of practicing the entomofagia near the students of courses made a list to the extent of the food, located in the Metropolitan Region of Recife and Zona da Mata de Pernambuco.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The entomophagy understands the consumption of insects for the human beings. In spite of exotic appearance it is practiced enough in many countries, mainly in Asia, Africa and Latin America, contributing so to the food security and models of subsistence. In Brazil, in special, in the northeast region the insects are food resources of considerable importance, because of being abundant, of easy collection and offer of nutritious ones."
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Nutritional value of a partially defatted and a highly defatted black soldier fly larvae ( Hermetia illucens L.) meal for broiler chickens: apparent nutrient digestibility, apparent metabolizable e...

Nutritional value of a partially defatted and a highly defatted black soldier fly larvae ( Hermetia illucens L.) meal for broiler chickens: apparent nutrient digestibility, apparent metabolizable e... | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
The study aimed to determine the apparent total tract digestibility coefficients (ATTDC) of nutrients, the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and AMEn) and the amino acid (AA) apparent ileal digestibility coefficients (AIDC) of a partially defatted (BSFp) and a highly defatted (BSFh) black soldier fly larvae meal. The experimental diets were: a basal diet and two diets prepared by substituting 250 g/kg (w/w) of the basal diet with BSFp or BSFh, respectively.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract :
"Defatted BSF meals can be considered as an excellent source of AME and digestible AA for broilers with a better efficient nutrient digestion. These considerations suggested the effective utilization of defatted BSF larvae meal in poultry feed formulation."
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The high level of protein content reported in insects for food and feed is overestimated - ScienceDirect

The high level of protein content reported in insects for food and feed is overestimated - ScienceDirect | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it

Highlights

• Insects have a great potential as future source for proteins.
• Total N is generally determined by Kjeldahl method.
• The N content in the cuticle errs the results.
• We propose to evaluate N derived from non-fibrous sources.
• It should result in an N-conversion factor similar among insects.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Giving that the insect cuticle contents large amounts of fibrous chitin, a polysaccharide rich in N, and proteins tightly embedded in its matrix, and is not digested by humans or domesticated animals, using the Kjeldahl method overestimates the digestible protein content of insects. We propose to evaluate digetible nitrogen by quantifying N in the cuticle and sustraiting it from the total nitrogen content, and to calculate a new N-conversion factor which should be similar for all the insects species and their development stages."
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Nutritional value of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) and its suitability as animal feed – a review | Journal of Insects as Food and Feed

Nutritional value of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) and its suitability as animal feed – a review | Journal of Insects as Food and Feed | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
The black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens L.; Diptera: Stratiomyidae) has been studied for its capability to convert organic waste to high quality protein, control certain harmful bacteria and insect pests, provide potential chemical precursors to produce biodiesel and for its use as feed for a variety of animals. Nutritional value of BSF larvae is discussed, as well as the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on both larval body composition and performance.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"This review provides background information on the nutritional value of BSF larvae, its suitability as animal feed, biotic and abiotic conditions that affect its performance, and identifies which knowledge is required to ensure more dependable yields of BSF-mass rearing and development of economically feasible methods to take advantage of this species as animal feed."
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Insects: an underrepresented resource for the discovery of biologically active natural products

Insects: an underrepresented resource for the discovery of biologically active natural products | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Nature has been the source of life-changing and -saving medications for centuries. Aspirin, penicillin and morphine are prime examples of Nature׳s gifts to medicine. These discoveries catalyzed the field of natural product drug discovery which has mostly focused on plants. However, insects have more than twice the number of species and entomotherapy has been in practice for as long as and often in conjunction with medicinal plants and is an important alternative to modern medicine in many parts of the world.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
" Insect natural products reviewed were isolated from ants, bees, wasps, beetles, cockroaches, termites, flies, true bugs, moths and more. Biological activities of these natural products from insects include antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects."
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An overview of the South Korean edible insect food industry: challenges and future pricing/promotion strategies

This study describes how the consideration of personal traits, information framing, and increasing familiarity can enhance consumer consumption of insect-based foods.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the edible insect industry in South Korea and present suggestions for future pricing and promotion strategies. In the first section of this paper, this study outlines the current status and challenges of the edible insect industry in the food market, the material market, the animal feed market, and the medicinal market. The second section of this paper suggests different pricing and promotion strategies for each market segment."
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Insect proteins as a potential source of antimicrobial peptides in livestock production. A review

Together with the extraction of first insect antimicrobial protein (AMP) from the pupae of the giant silk moths Hyalophora cecropia the antibacterial activity of insects was observed for the first time in 1980. Practically, AMPs are small, cationic proteins that exhibit activity against bacteria, fungi as well as certain parasites and viruses. It is known that in addition to their antimicrobial effect, they boost host specific innate immune responses and exert selective immunomodulatory effects involved in angiogenesis and wound healing.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Depending on their mode of action, insect AMPs may be applied as single peptides, as a complex of different AMPs and as an active fraction of insect proteins in the nutrition of different livestock. The great potential for the use of AMPs in animal production is primarily associated with the growing problem of antibiotics resistance, which has triggered the search for alternatives to antibiotics in livestock production. The review presents the current knowledge of insect AMPs, their chemical structure and mode of action with focus on their potential use in agriculture and livestock production."
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Sustainable farming of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor for the production of food and feed

The farming of edible insects is an alternative strategy for the production of protein-rich food and feed with a low ecological footprint.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The mealworm Tenebrio molitor is economically among the most important species used for the large-scale conversion of plant biomass into protein. Here, we review the mass rearing of this species and its conversion into food and feed, focusing on challenges such as the contamination of food/feed products with bacteria from the insect gut and the risk of rapidly spreading pathogens and parasites. We propose solutions to prevent the outbreak of infections among farmed insects without reliance on antibiotics. Transgenerational immune priming and probiotic bacteria may provide alternative strategies for sustainable insect farming."
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Tri-City Consumers Attitudes towards Eating Edible Insect as an Alternative Source of Food

Entomophagy as diet has been known since the dawn of humanity, while the European market is a novelty. The aim of the study was to analyse consumer attitudes of the Tri-City inhabitants towards the new source of nutrients which are edible insects. The survey was carried out in 2015 on a sample of 788 people from the Tri-City. The method used in the survey was a proprietary questionnaire. There were evaluated the attitudes towards entomophagy and the factors determining the intention to eat insects. As independent variables there were selected gender and age.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"In the study group, one third of respondents reported willingness to try the products of edible insects, which shows great openness to new foods. Consumers have shown a positive attitude towards entomophagy. The age group willing to change was a group of 21-40 years of age. The article is of the research nature. The results can be used to develop marketing strategies for new products generated with the share of raw material of the insect’s origin, enriching them in protein and other nutrients."
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Evaluation of the suitability of a partially defatted black soldier fly ( Hermetia illucens L.) larvae meal as ingredient for rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) diets

Evaluation of the suitability of a partially defatted black soldier fly ( Hermetia illucens L.) larvae meal as ingredient for rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) diets | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Two trials were performed to evaluate a partially defatted Hermetia illucens (HI) larvae meal as potential feed ingredient in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) diets.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Results :
"The obtained results showed that a partially defatted HI larvae meal can be used as feed ingredient in trout diets up to 40% of inclusion level without impacting survival, growth performance, condition factor, somatic indexes, dorsal fillet physical quality parameters, and intestinal morphology of the fish."
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Structure design of insect-based meat analogs with high-moisture extrusion

Highlights

• High-moisture extruded meat substitutes can contain up to 40% of insect biomass.
• Water content was important for biting properties.
• Adding of soy fiber improved the texture of the samples.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
" Twin screw high-moisture extrusion applied to the mixture of protein concentrates (insect with concentration of 15–50% dry matter and soy) and water resulted in fibrous meat analogs with hardness texture and protein composition similar to meat. The best result (most similar to standard soy-based sample) was highlighted for the mixture of protein concentrates (40% Alphitobius diaperinus and 60% soy dry matter)."
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Practices of Entomophagy and Entomotherapy in Cebu Island, Philippines

The different features of entomophagy and entomotherapy practiced by the key informants and local villagers in Cebu Island, Philippines were documented. A survey was conducted in remote areas of Barangay Alambijud, Argao and BarangayLusaran, Cebu City, Cebu from June-October, 2012 to discover the medicinal and edible uses of different insect species in these sites.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Traditional knowledge regarding entomotherapy and entomophagy in Cebu is very essential since folk medicine is still one of the most important resources for food and discovery of unknown natural drug resources. It is indicated that these medicinal and edible insects are comparable with other conventional food commodities by incorporating scientific validation to the traditional knowledge."
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Biochemical and sensory characteristics of the cricket and mealworm fractions from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and air classification

Biochemical and sensory characteristics of the cricket and mealworm fractions from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and air classification | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Insects represent a sustainable but under-exploited food resource partly due to the chitin-containing exoskeleton and also the high lipid content that hamper the production of food ingredients. Here we present dry fractionation technology for upgrading house crickets (Acheta domesticus) and yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide followed by separation to fine and coarse fractions by air classification.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Thus, it seems that the fractionation process has a clear impact on the texture (coarseness), but the flavour characteristics could be varied according to the insect variety. Overall, the dry fractionation technology holds promising prospects for the production of insect-based food ingredients that are modified in their chitin content and flavour intensity, does not contain identifiable anatomical parts, and thus, could better meet consumer acceptance."
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Edible insects: marketing the impossible?

Is stressing environmental
sustainability enough to raise consumers’ interest to consume insects? Probably not, as tastiness is valued high and crucial.
However, even a positive sensory experience when consuming insects should be accompanied by external factors such as
availability, convenient pricing and a conducive social environment.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Is it an impossible task to convince consumers to eat insects? This does not only apply to western consumers who are less familiar with this food habit than consumers in tropical countries. In the tropics too, many people do not consume insects, even though they are easier to collect as food than in temperate zones."
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USING BLACK SOLDIER FLY LARVAE TO TREAT FAECAL SLUDGE FROM URINE DIVERSION TOILETS

Challenges in improving sanitation include access to water. Since water and sanitation access problems are mostly faced by people in rural areas, waterborne sanitation is not an option. Thus strategies that improve sanitation while conserving water must be identified
and implemented.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"In this study, two candidate organic substrates were assessed: dog biscuits , representing dog food waste ; and fruit salad, representing food wastes from a fresh produce market. These substrates were mixed with UD sludge at three ratios and larval growth at each was assessed. In addition to biomass production, protein and lipid content of larvae were measured. No significant differences in biomass, protein and lipid was observed among treatments in each experiment. This indicates that BSFL are resilient to a wide range of faecal sludge compositions ."
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Growth performance, feed Utilization and body composition of nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) fed with different levels of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758) ...

Based on these results, it may be concluded that BSFM can be used to replace FM with up to 50% replacement without causing adverse
effects on growth and feed utilization parameters.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"In this study, fish meal (FM) was replaced by the black soldier fly maggot meal (BSFM) with replacement level s at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. The feeding trial was cond ucted for 56 days and the effect of each replacement level on the growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and survival of the experimental fish was assessed."
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Safety aspects of the production of foods and food ingredients from insects

At present, insects are rarely used by the European food industry, but they are a subject of growing interest as an alternative source of raw materials. The risks associated with the use of insects in the production of foods and food ingredients have not been sufficiently investigated. There is a lack of scientifically based knowledge of insect processing to ensure food safety, especially when these processes are carried out on an industrial scale.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"This review focuses on the safety aspects that need to be considered regarding the fractionation of insects for the production of foods and food ingredients."
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Nutritional analysis of alternative feed ingredients and their effects on the larval growth of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

Nutritional analysis of alternative feed ingredients and their effects on the larval growth of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Larval and pupal weight, larval development and survival, and pupation rate were higher in larvae fed on 50% BSG or 50% DDG mixed with 50% WB groups than in larvae fed on 100% WB. Therefore, using 50% BSG or 50% DDG mixed with 50% WB as an alternative feed in the mass production of T. molitor provides higher quality larvae at a lower cost than does using the conventional 100% WB feed.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Alternative feeds comprising only brewer's spent grain (BSG) or distillers dried grain (DDG), both agricultural byproducts, and 50% BSG or 50% DDG mixed with 50% wheat bran (WB) were compared to the standard 100% WB feed provided to Tenebrio molitor larvae to evaluate their effects on the nutritional quality and economic viability of mass-producing this insect. Crude protein content was highest in larvae fed on 100% WB and 100% DDG, and the latter had 2.32 and 1.88 times more essential and non-essential amino acids than the 100% WB group, respectively. "
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Impact of black soldier fly larval meal on growth performance, apparent digestibility, haematological and blood chemistry indices of guinea fowl starter keets under tropical conditions

Impact of black soldier fly larval meal on growth performance, apparent digestibility, haematological and blood chemistry indices of guinea fowl starter keets under tropical conditions | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
The fishmeal (FM) component of the experimental diets was replaced with black soldier fly larval meal (BSFLM) in the following percentage ratios of 0–100%. Results showed that body weight gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased in all the BSFLM treatment groups compared to the control group.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The results suggest that the replacement of fishmeal with BSFLM in so far as the economics of production is concerned could result in reduced feed cost for starter guinea keet judging from diets that contained 60–100% BSFLM."
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Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) and Its Importance in Sericulture, Food Consumption, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

Antheraea pernyi  (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) and Its Importance in Sericulture, Food Consumption, and Traditional Chinese Medicine | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Sericulture was developed in China in ancient times. Antheraea pernyi Guérin-Méneville was domesticated at least 2,000 yr ago, and Chinese farmers developed artificial rearing of A. pernyi before the 17th century. Today, >60,000 tons of cocoons are produced in China each year, which accounts for 90% of the world production.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The foremost usage of A. pernyi is as silk producers; however, about 55–70% is used for other purposes. In this paper, we give examples of how the different developmental stages are used as a food source for human consumption and in traditional Chinese medicine, both directly in different preparations and also as a nutrient source for rearing medicinal fungi."
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PROTEIN ANALYSIS OF SAGO GRUB BASED ON INSTAR LARVAL STAGES


Human protein needs could be obtained from animal or vegetable. Sago grub (sago worm), a larva stage of Sago Palm Weevil (Rhyncophorus ferrigineus), has been usually consumed by local communities in Luwu Raya as protein source. The weevil larva hatch from eggs, the turn into first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth instar larval stage, before continued to pupa stage and at last as adult palm weevil.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The objective of this research were to determine the average length and weight of sago grub in various instar larval stage, and to determine total protein content in various instar larval stage by using kjeldahl method. The results showed that the highest levels of total protein obtained at the third instar larval stage (12.04%) and the lowest in the first instar larval stage (8.02%). Total protein will be decline after the third instar larval stage for the proteins used for pupation in the process of metamorphosis."
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