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Residential Segregation Contributes to Health Disparities for People of Color | America's Wire

Residential Segregation Contributes to Health Disparities for People of Color | America's Wire | San Joaquin FHEA | Scoop.it
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Neighborhoods with majority Latino and African American  populations have fewer access to supermarkets, higher prevalence of fast food establishments, greater exposure to air pollutants and toxins, and less access to high quality health care. 

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The World Today

The World Today | San Joaquin FHEA | Scoop.it
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An article from the porterville messenger rights "we attrubute a great part of our prosperity to a rigorous exclusion of Asiaties. Our methods are simple; we do not allow them to remain". Porterville remained an all white city and continue to boast of no chinatown or slums

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HistorianFall2008Spring2009.pdf

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Japanese houses condemned by county or vandalized

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O'Reilly%20Thesis%20(2011-2012).pdf

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Farm labor camps- map and data

 

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Poverty, Housing and the Rural Slum

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Often these informal communities were a mix of tents, shacks, and small homes that existed on the fringes of cities or in unincorporated areas outside cities. Local media, labor advocates, and White residents characterized these communities as jim towns, jungles, rural fringes, colonias [colonies], or no man's lands, and as bearing a distinct similarity to a New York tenement.21

 

Most of these communities shared common deficiencies: lack of community centers, no centralized formal government, no recreational activities for children, inadequate housing, no sewage, no running water, and limited job opportunities.22 Yet they offered residents proximity to work and affordable home ownership, particularly for the African American and Mexican agricultural workers who had been denied housing in established cities in the San Joaquin Valley.23 The region acquired a reputation as the “longest rural slum” in the world (neither the largest nor the oldest slum, but the longest one, spanning the entire San Joaquin Valley),

However, by the early 1950s, the rural slums of the San Joaquin Valley had become permanent communities, geographical spaces where poverty, race, and labor intersected.27 Some local White residents acknowledged the similarity, stating that the unincorporated rural slums were “quite similar to the fringe areas and the slums of any city that is caused by industry.”28 Ultimately, agricultural labor needs produced one type of slum and industrial labor needs the other.29

 

In the San Joaquin Valley, local chapters sought the annexation of unincorporated fringe areas, insisting that annexation would give residents the opportunity to apply for home improvement loans and urban renewal programs.43

 

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PUNJABI MIGRATION TO UNITED STATES

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s. There were over 6,000 Punjabis in California by the end of 1910. Punjabis, which were by and large Sikhs established the Khalsa Diwan Society in 1909 and by 1912 the first United States Gurdwara was built in Stockton. Indians were not allowed to purchase any land except one for building a place of worship, nor could an Indian run a business independently, yet these Punjabi immigrants continued to struggle against all odds. The growing network of railroad lines brought increased agricultural activity to large areas of Northern California. Punjabis started moving into farming jobs in the Fresno area. By 1910, the agricultural business expanded swiftly, and Punjabis started getting higher wages because of their traditional agricultural expertise. (Punjabis originated from Indus valley. History experts consider Indus valley civilization as a first civilization to invent agriculture). In Canada, the Punjabis remained in the lumber industry.

Professor Bruce La Brack, in his article entitled “Study of Sikhism and Punjabi migration” writes about Stockton Gurdwara as follows: “During these trying years, Gurdwara in Stockton was the religious and social center for East Indian people. Here Sikhs, Hindus, Mexicans, Catholics and even Muslims met, worshipped and socialized together. The Pacific Coast Khalsa Diwan Society built it in 1912. This is a historic place. It was here that Ghadar Party was founded with the view to do-away with the British rule in India”. Punjabi settlements began in farming lands in the Sacramento valley, San Joaquin Valley and in the Imperial Valley in California. Most Sikhs worked for the next few years and established permanent homes

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Five Views: An Ethnic Historic Site Survey for California (Japanese Americans)

Five Views: An Ethnic Historic Site Survey for California (Japanese Americans) | San Joaquin FHEA | Scoop.it
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Small businesses were numerous at this time. Many of the "city trades" were directly tied to rural occupations, particularly agricultural labor. Businesses such as boarding houses, hotels, restaurants, barber shops, and gambling houses were dependent on the constant traffic of single male laborers who traveled a circuit in California from one crop to the next, from the Imperial Valley to the Sacramento Valley. The Miyajima Hotel, a boarding house in Lodi, San Joaquin County, was one such business catering to agricultural laborers.

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Madera, California

Madera, California | San Joaquin FHEA | Scoop.it
Madera almost didn't exist. In 1876 there was nothing where this thriving city now stands, but the California Lumber Company was looking for a western terminus for its massive logging flume under construction.
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Madera chinatown razed 1923 Yosemite south, central north, g to the east, and i to the west

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Filipinos in Stockton

Filipinos in Stockton | San Joaquin FHEA | Scoop.it
The first Filipino settlers arrived in Stockton, California, around 1898, and through most of the 20th century, this city was home to the largest community of Filipinos outside the Philippines.
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After the US colonized philipinos in the dawn of the 20th century, thousand began immigrating to the US and hawaii. When the 1924 immigration act excluded japanese and chinese laborers, filipino labor was in high demand in the sna joaquin delt region becuase filipinos, as US nations were excempt from the restrictive exclusion laws that barred japanese and chinese labor. Throughout mouch of the 20th century, Stockton was home to hte largest filipino community outside of the philippines. Worked in delta region because of better wages than hawaii and year round agriculturla work in peaches grapes aspargus, tomato, sugar beets, etc. 

By 1920s, filipinos had become the largest ehtnic group iengaged in the San Joaquin County farm labor and they drove the economic engine of the region. 

 

In 1934, Congress passed teh tyding-mcduffie act which granted phiilippine independence  but restricted filipino immigration to 50 per year and reclassified filipinos as aliens.  1935, filipino repatriation act which offered one way ticket home to philippinos with the condition that they never return to the US> 

 

Stockton was rigidy segregated. SIgns "psoitively no filipinos allowed". Also, chinatown and Nihonmachi. 

WWII Little manil aexpanded, taking over empty storefroent. Served in the army whic allowed philipinos to become US Citizens and take advantage of the GI bill. The war bridge act also enabled these veterans to bring back war brides from the filipines. 1946 Luce-Cellar Act gave all filipinos the right to naturalize. Philipinos finally able to buy home and farmland and petition for spouses and children from the philippines. Post war baby boom. 

 

 

 

 

 

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Modesto

Modesto | San Joaquin FHEA | Scoop.it
Settled in 1870 by the Central Pacific Railroad, Modesto is located in California's agriculturally rich Central Valley. The new town was to be named after the prominent California banker W. C.
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Modesto- F ang G 7th and 8th Streets. Red light district ally between G and H near Front.

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Dust Bowl Migration - Rural Migration News | Migration Dialogue

Dust Bowl Migration - Rural Migration News | Migration Dialogue | San Joaquin FHEA | Scoop.it
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 In 1940, over 40 percent of those who moved to the San Joaquin Valley from the Dust Bowl were farm workers, according to the Census. However, many joined the military or found jobs in factories, so that only 25 percent of Midwestern migrants remained farm workers in 1950. 

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To be published during the first week of November, 2009

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Chinatown in Tulare

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Farm Labor in the 1930s - Rural Migration News | Migration Dialogue

Farm Labor in the 1930s - Rural Migration News | Migration Dialogue | San Joaquin FHEA | Scoop.it
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The 16 permanent and nine mobile labor camps funded by the Farm Security Administration proved vital to the writing of farm labor literature in the 1930s. White English-speaking migrants (Blacks and Mexicans were often excluded from the camps) were readily accessible to outsiders, and camp managers such as Tom Collins in Arvin (later called Weedpatch and now the Sunset Labor Camp) often made their notes available to writers such as John Steinbeck, who used them in character development. (p146-48)
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Making Ethnic Choices

Making Ethnic Choices | San Joaquin FHEA | Scoop.it
"[A] thoroughly original study that greatly expands our knowledge of how ethnic identities are formed. Leonard writes clearly and her inclusion of the voices of the Punjabi-Mexicans lends humor and depth to the history.
Meredith Maya Abood's insight:

In Fresno in 1918,  the japanese lived behind chinatown and kept roominghouses in which hindus and other migratory farm laborers stayed. The sacramento representative on the state commission of immigration and housing observed in about 1919 that hindus usually patronized japanese roominghouses and resteraunts. 

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Sikh Farmers in California

Sikh Farmers in California | San Joaquin FHEA | Scoop.it
Meredith Maya Abood's insight:

The California Board of Control submitted a report to Governor Stephens in 1920 titled California and the Orientals: Japanese, Chinese and Hindus. It indicated that since 1910, the number of Asian Indians in the United States had increased by 33.5%. The California Board of Control perceived these immigrants as an economic threat, or competition for native farmers. They were referred to as "a group of laborers becoming landowners and threatening the monopoly of the majority group."

The California Alien Land Law of 1913, revised in 1920, prevented immigrants from owning and leasing their own land, making it a difficult struggle for those who made their living as farmers. A second indication of the discrimination which existed toward Asian Indians appeared in the Stephens report.

 

1790 naturalization act restricted citizenship to whites. 1913 alien land act: only citizens able to lease or buy land/properties. 1917 Immigration act barred immigration from Indian, Siam, Indo-China, Afganistan, arabia and parts of siberia. 

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Japanese immigration

Japanese immigration | San Joaquin FHEA | Scoop.it
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Japanese farm cooperations in the san joaquin valley

- a list

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