Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications
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Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications
The Saccharomyces genus is a complex group of yeast, so important at evolutionary level (basic research) and with important biotechnological applications. In this topic I will try to update with the most recent studies about this exciting group of yeasts which show similar nucleotide divergences as Humans (taking S. cerevisiae as a reference) and Birds (taking S. eubayanus and S. uvarum cluster).
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Genome evolution across 1,011 Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates

Genome evolution across 1,011 Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
Article
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Large-scale population genomic surveys are essential to explore the phenotypic diversity of natural populations. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing and phenotyping of 1,011 Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates, which together provide an accurate evolutionary picture of the genomic variants that shape the species-wide phenotypic landscape of this yeast. Genomic analyses support a single ‘out-of-China’ origin for this species, followed by several independent domestication events. Although domesticated isolates exhibit high variation in ploidy, aneuploidy and genome content, genome evolution in wild isolates is mainly driven by the accumulation of single nucleotide polymorphisms. A common feature is the extensive loss of heterozygosity, which represents an essential source of inter-individual variation in this mainly asexual species. Most of the single nucleotide polymorphisms, including experimentally identified functional polymorphisms, are present at very low frequencies. The largest numbers of variants identified by genome-wide association are copy-number changes, which have a greater phenotypic effect than do single nucleotide polymorphisms. This resource will guide future population genomics and genotype–phenotype studies in this classic model system.
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Contrasting evolutionary genome dynamics between domesticated and wild yeasts : Nature Genetics : Nature Research

Contrasting evolutionary genome dynamics between domesticated and wild yeasts : Nature Genetics : Nature Research | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
Jia-Xing Yue, Gianni Liti and colleagues use long-read sequencing to generate complete genome assemblies of 7 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 5 Saccharomyces paradoxus strains. They use these data to define boundaries between chromosomal core and subtelomeric regions and to compare the evolutionary dynamics between these domesticated and wild yeast species.
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A strong comparative genomics analysis  of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus. A nice repertoire of bioinformatic tools for comparative genomics, take a look!
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Molecular Ecology - Volume 26, Issue 7 - MICROBIAL LOCAL ADAPTATION - Wiley Online Library

Molecular Ecology - Volume 26, Issue 7 - MICROBIAL LOCAL ADAPTATION - Wiley Online Library | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
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Especial issue about microbial local adaptation, with 2 papers dedicated to yeasts: 1) Genomic signatures of adaptation to wine biological ageing conditions in biofilm-forming flor yeasts: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mec.14053/abstract?campaign=woletoc 2) Adaptive divergence in wine yeasts and their wild relatives suggests a prominent role for introgressions and rapid evolution at noncoding sites: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mec.14071/abstract?campaign=woletoc
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Brewing up a storm: The genomes of lager yeasts and how they evolved

Yeasts used in the production of lager beers belong to the species Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecies hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus. The hybridisation event happened approximately 500–600 years ago and therefore S. pastorianus may be considered as a newly evolving species. The happenstance of the hybridisation event created a novel species, with unique genetic characteristics, ideal for the fermentation of sugars to produce flavoursome beer. Lager yeast strains retain the chromosomes of both parental species and also have sets of novel hybrid chromosomes that arose by recombination between the homeologous parental chromosomes. The lager yeasts are subdivided into two groups (I and II) based on the S. cerevisiae: S. eubayanus gene content and the types and numbers of hybrid chromosomes. Recently, whole genome sequences for several Group I and II lager yeasts and for many S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus isolates have become available. Here we review the available genome data and discuss the likely origins of the parental species that gave rise to S. pastorianus. We review the compiled data on the composition of the lager yeast genomes and consider several evolutionary models to account for the emergence of the two distinct types of lager yeasts.
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Mitochondrial introgression suggests extensive ancestral hybridization events among Saccharomyces species

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotic plastids and mitochondrial genomes is common, and plays an important role in organism evolution. In yeasts, recent mitochondrial HGT has been suggested between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. However, few strains have been explored given the lack of accurate mitochondrial genome annotations. Mitochondrial genome sequences are important to understand how frequent these introgressions occur, and their role in cytonuclear incompatibilities and fitness. Indeed, most of the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller genetic incompatibilities described in yeasts are driven by cytonuclear incompatibilities. We herein explored the mitochondrial inheritance of several worldwide distributed wild Saccharomyces species and their hybrids isolated from different sources and geographic origins. We demonstrated the existence of several recombination points in mitochondrial region COX2-ORF1, likely mediated by either the activity of the protein encoded by the ORF1 (F-SceIII) gene, a free-standing homing endonuclease, or mostly facilitated by A+T tandem repeats and regions of integration of GC clusters. These introgressions were shown to occur among strains of the same species and among strains of different species, which suggests a complex model of Saccharomyces evolution that involves several ancestral hybridization events in wild environments.
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Novel brewing yeast hybrids: creation and application

Novel brewing yeast hybrids: creation and application | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
The natural interspecies Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrid yeast is responsible for global lager beer production and is one of the most important industrial microorganisms. Its
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Domestication and Divergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Beer Yeasts

Whereas domestication of livestock, pets, and crops is well documented, it is still unclear to what extent microbes associated with the production of food have also undergone human selection and where the plethora of industrial strains originates from. Here, we present the genomes and phenomes of 157 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. Our analyses reveal that today’s industrial yeasts can be divided into five sublineages that are genetically and phenotypically separated from wild strains and originate from only a few ancestors through complex patterns of domestication and local divergence. Large-scale phenotyping and genome analysis further show strong industry-specific selection for stress tolerance, sugar utilization, and flavor production, while the sexual cycle and other phenotypes related to survival in nature show decay, particularly in beer yeasts. Together, these results shed light on the origins, evolutionary history, and phenotypic diversity of industrial yeasts and provide a resource for further selection of superior strains.
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A nice paper showing potential multiple domestication events for brewing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. In addition, authors report the importance of the inactivation of two genes for the improvement of beer flavor.
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Population genomics of yeasts: towards a comprehensive view across a broad evolutionary scale - Peter - 2016 - Yeast - Wiley Online Library

Population genomics of yeasts: towards a comprehensive view across a broad evolutionary scale - Peter - 2016 - Yeast - Wiley Online Library | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
Abstract With the advent of high-throughput technologies for sequencing, the complete description of the genetic variation that occurs in populations, also known as population genomics, is foreseeable [...]...
Peris's insight:
For a long time, most of the research about population genomics in yeast has been focused in S. cerevisiae. Although this continue being true, this trend is changing for the study of other Saccharomycotina yeasts. Peter and Joseph bring us a review about the insights of population genomics in budding yeasts.
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Efficient engineering of marker-free synthetic allotetraploids of Saccharomyces

Efficient engineering of marker-free synthetic allotetraploids of Saccharomyces | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
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Alcoholic and biofuel industry make their products by using yeasts. During the fermentation process for the production of wine, beer and bioethanol Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main workhorse. However, recent investigations are showing how the combination of genomic traits of different non-cerevisiae species can innovate or improve the fermentation process, generating new aromas (wine and beer) or increasing the tolerance to lignocellulosic toxins (biofuels). In most cases, the combination of those traits is performed by the production of haploid x haploid hybrids, restricting the genomic landscape. In other cases, allotetraploids (diploid x diploid) has been generated but the frequency of these hybrids is low because it depends on a molecular mechanism that occurs rarely in the cell (also known as rare-mating). Here, we constructed a series of plasmids to facilitate the molecular mechanism, showing a higher frequency of allotetraploid generation (technique called HyPr -> Hybrid Production). HyPr open the door to a more efficient exploration of the genotypic landscape of different Saccharomyces genome combinations for the improvement of alcoholic and bioethanol production.

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A population genomics insight into the Mediterranean origins of wine yeast domestication - Almeida - 2015 - Molecular Ecology - Wiley Online Library

A population genomics insight into the Mediterranean origins of wine yeast domestication - Almeida - 2015 - Molecular Ecology - Wiley Online Library | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
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A recent paper explaining the close relationship between Saccharomyces cerevisiae from wine and Mediterranean oaks. This might indicate that the wild stock of domesticated wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains is from Mediterranean oaks. I wonder if we would like to do some home-made wine, probably we want to visit Mediterranean oaks and try to use their yeast for performing the fermentation.

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Beyond the Whole-Genome Duplication: Phylogenetic Evidence for an Ancient Interspecies Hybridization in the Baker's Yeast Lineage

Beyond the Whole-Genome Duplication: Phylogenetic Evidence for an Ancient Interspecies Hybridization in the Baker's Yeast Lineage | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
The ancient whole-genome duplication in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae lineage has been a paradigm for the study of genome duplications in eukaryotes. This article presents evidence for the existence of an interspecies hybridization event shortly before the duplication, with deep implications for the functional and evolutionary consequences of this genome doubling.
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For the last 20 years, data has supported for a Whole Genome Duplication occurring around 100mya. The WGD originated 6 of the clades belonging to the Ascomycetes family where Saccharomyces genus, which contain the baker and brewing yeast, is one of them. For several years the mechanism (autopoliploidization or allopoliploidization) driving to the WGD was not clear. In this work, Marcet-Houben and Gabaldón have been able to solve the mystery by phylogenomics approaches. They were able to support hybridization (allopoliploidization) as the most plausible mechanism generating the WGD and being responsible to generate the huge diversity we can nowadays observe in those post-WGD clades.

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Diversity and adaptive evolution of Saccharomyces wine yeast: a review

Diversity and adaptive evolution of Saccharomyces wine yeast: a review | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
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A review exploring the knowledge of Saccharomyces, mostly S. cerevisiae, in the application to the wine industry. Genomic insights, hybridization and horizontal gene transfer are also detailed due to their importance for the acquisition of winery traits.

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Comparative Genomics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Natural Isolates for Bioenergy Production

Comparative Genomics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Natural Isolates for Bioenergy Production | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
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Mining tolerance and biofuel traits from three Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress tolerant strains.

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Frontiers | Genetic Polymorphism in Wine Yeasts: Mechanisms and Methods for Its Detection | Microbiology

The processes of yeast selection for using as wine fermentation starters have revealed a great phenotypic diversity both at interspecific and intraspecific level, which is explained by a corresponding genetic variation among different yeast isolates. Thus, the mechanisms involved in promoting these genetic changes are the main engine generating yeast biodiversity. Currently, an important task to understand biodiversity, population structure and evolutionary history of wine yeasts is the study of the molecular mechanisms involved in yeast adaptation to wine fermentation, and on remodeling the genomic features of wine yeast, unconsciously selected since the advent of winemaking. Moreover, the availability of rapid and simple molecular techniques that show genetic polymorphisms at species and strain levels have enabled the study of yeast diversity during wine fermentation. This review will summarize the mechanisms involved in generating genetic polymorphisms in yeasts, the molecular methods used to unveil genetic variation, and the utility of these polymorphisms to differentiate strains, populations and species in order to infer the evolutionary history and the adaptive evolution of wine yeasts, and to identify their influence on their biotechnological and sensorial properties.
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How biodiversity is produced in wine yeasts and methods to detect it.
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Mitochondrial recombination and introgression during speciation by hybridization | Molecular Biology and Evolution | Oxford Academic

Mitochondrial recombination and introgression during speciation by hybridization | Molecular Biology and Evolution | Oxford Academic | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
Genome recombination is a major source of genotypic diversity and contributes to adaptation and speciation following inter-species hybridization. The contribution of recombination in these processes has been thought to be largely limited to the nuclear genome because organelles are mostly uniparentally inherited in animals and plants, which prevents recombination. Unicellular eukaryotes such as budding yeasts do, however, transmit mitochondria bi-parentally, suggesting that during hybridization, both parents could provide alleles that contribute to mitochondrial functions such as respiration and metabolism in hybrid populations or hybrid species. We examined the dynamics of mitochondrial genome transmission and evolution during speciation by hybridization in the natural budding yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus. Using population-scale mitochondrial genome sequencing in two endemic North American incipient species SpB and SpC and their hybrid species SpC*, we found that both parental species contributed to the hybrid mitochondrial genome through recombination. We support our findings by showing that mitochondrial recombination among parental types is frequent in experimental crosses that recreate the early step of this speciation event. In these artificial hybrids, we observed that mitochondrial genome recombination enhances phenotypic variation among diploid hybrids, suggesting that it could play a role in the phenotypic differentiation of hybrid species. Like the nuclear genome, the mitochondrial genome can therefore also play a role in hybrid speciation.
Peris's insight:
Saccharomyces paradoxus has become an interesting species to study speciation events by hybridization, such is the case of SpC*, or by mitochondrial introgression. The ancestral lineage generating both populations in America (B and C) has suffered an introgression from S. cerevisiae in the mitochondrial genome that might be the driver of a speciation event.
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Hybridization and adaptive evolution of diverse Saccharomyces species for cellulosic biofuel production

Hybridization and adaptive evolution of diverse Saccharomyces species for cellulosic biofuel production | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
Lignocellulosic biomass is a common resource across the globe, and its fermentation offers a promising option for generating renewable liquid transportation fuels. The deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass releases sugars that can be fermented by microbes, but these processes also produce fermentation inhibitors, such as aromatic acids and aldehydes. Several research projects have investigated lignocellulosic biomass fermentation by the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most projects have taken synthetic biological approaches or have explored naturally occurring diversity in S. cerevisiae to enhance stress tolerance, xylose consumption, or ethanol production. Despite these efforts, improved strains with new properties are needed. In other industrial processes, such as wine and beer fermentation, interspecies hybrids have combined important traits from multiple species, suggesting that interspecies hybridization may also offer potential for biofuel research. To investigate the efficacy of this approach for traits relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production, we generated synthetic hybrids by crossing engineered xylose-fermenting strains of S. cerevisiae with wild strains from various Saccharomyces species. These interspecies hybrids retained important parental traits, such as xylose consumption and stress tolerance, while displaying intermediate kinetic parameters and, in some cases, heterosis (hybrid vigor). Next, we exposed them to adaptive evolution in ammonia fiber expansion-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate and recovered strains with improved fermentative traits. Genome sequencing showed that the genomes of these evolved synthetic hybrids underwent rearrangements, duplications, and deletions. To determine whether the genus Saccharomyces contains additional untapped potential, we screened a genetically diverse collection of more than 500 wild, non-engineered Saccharomyces isolates and uncovered a wide range of capabilities for traits relevant to cellulosic biofuel production. Notably, Saccharomyces mikatae strains have high innate tolerance to hydrolysate toxins, while some Saccharomyces species have a robust native capacity to consume xylose. This research demonstrates that hybridization is a viable method to combine industrially relevant traits from diverse yeast species and that members of the genus Saccharomyces beyond S. cerevisiae may offer advantageous genes and traits of interest to the lignocellulosic biofuel industry.
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Frontiers | Effect of Temperature on the Prevalence of Saccharomyces Non cerevisiae Species against a S. cerevisiae Wine Strain in Wine Fermentation: Competition, Physiological Fitness, and Influen...

Frontiers | Effect of Temperature on the Prevalence of Saccharomyces Non cerevisiae Species against a S. cerevisiae Wine Strain in Wine Fermentation: Competition, Physiological Fitness, and Influen... | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main microorganism responsible for the fermentation of wine. Nevertheless, in the last years wineries are facing new challenges due to current market demands and climate change effects on the wine quality. New yeast starters formed by non-conventional Saccharomyces species (such as S. uvarum or S. kudriavzevii) or their hybrids (S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii) can contribute to solve some of these challenges. They exhibit good fermentative capabilities at low temperatures, producing wines with lower alcohol and higher glycerol amounts. However S. cerevisiae can competitively displace other yeast species from wine fermentations, therefore the use of these new starters requires an analysis of their behaviour during competition with S. cerevisiae during wine fermentation. In the present study we analyzed the survival capacity of non-cerevisiae strains in competition with S. cerevisiae during fermentation of synthetic wine must at different temperatures. First, we developed a new method, based on QPCR, to quantify the proportion of different Saccharomyces yeasts in mixed cultures. This method was used to assess the effect of competition on the growth fitness. In addition, fermentation kinetics parameters and final wine compositions were also analyzed. We observed that some cryotolerant Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. uvarum, seriously compromised S. cerevisiae fitness during competences at lower temperatures, which explains why S. uvarum can replace S. cerevisiae during wine fermentations in European regions with oceanic and continental climates. From an enological point of view, mixed co-cultures between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus or S. eubayanus, deteriorated fermentation parameters and the final product composition compared to single S. cerevisiae inoculation. However, in co-inoculated synthetic must in which S. kudriavzevii or S. uvarum coexisted with S. cerevisiae, there were fermentation performance improvements and the final wines contained less ethanol and higher amounts of glycerol. Finally, it is interesting to note that in co-inoculated fermentations, wine strains of S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum performed better than non-wine strains of the same species.
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Directed Evolution Reveals Unexpected Epistatic Interactions That Alter Metabolic Regulation and Enable Anaerobic Xylose Use by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Directed Evolution Reveals Unexpected Epistatic Interactions That Alter Metabolic Regulation and Enable Anaerobic Xylose Use by Saccharomyces cerevisiae | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
Author Summary The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is being genetically engineered to produce renewable biofuels from sustainable plant material. Efficient biofuel production from plant material requires conversion of the complex suite of sugars found in plant material, including the five-carbon sugar xylose. Because it does not efficiently metabolize xylose, S. cerevisiae has been engineered with a minimal set of genes that should overcome this problem; however, additional genetic changes are required for optimal fermentative conversion of xylose into biofuel. Despite extensive knowledge of the regulatory networks controlling glucose metabolism, less is known about the regulation of xylose metabolism and how to rewire these networks for effective biofuel production. Here we report genetic mutations that enabled the conversion of xylose into bioethanol by a previously ineffective yeast strain. By comparing altered protein and metabolite abundance within yeast cells containing these mutations, we determined that the mutations synergistically alter metabolic pathways to improve the rate of xylose conversion. One change in a gene with well-characterized aerobic mitochondrial functions was found to play an unexpected role in anaerobic conversion of xylose into ethanol. The results of this work will allow others to rapidly generate yeast strains for the conversion of xylose into biofuels and other products.
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Distinct Domestication Trajectories in Top-Fermenting Beer Yeasts and Wine Yeasts

Distinct Domestication Trajectories in Top-Fermenting Beer Yeasts and Wine Yeasts | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
Beer is one of the oldest alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars derived from starches present in cereal grains. Contrary to lager beers, made by bottom-fermenting strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus, a hybrid yeast, ale beers are closer to the ancient beer type and are fermented by S. cerevisiae, a top-fermenting yeast. Here, we use population genomics to investigate (1) the closest relatives of top-fermenting beer yeasts; (2) whether top-fermenting yeasts represent an independent domestication event separate from those already described; (3) whether single or multiple beer yeast domestication events can be inferred; and (4) whether top-fermenting yeasts represent non-recombinant or recombinant lineages. Our results revealed that top-fermenting beer yeasts are polyphyletic, with a main clade composed of at least three subgroups, dominantly represented by the German, British, and wheat beer strains. Other beer strains were phylogenetically close to sake, wine, or bread yeasts. We detected genetic signatures of beer yeast domestication by investigating genes previously linked to brewing and using genome-wide scans. We propose that the emergence of the main clade of beer yeasts is related with a domestication event distinct from the previously known cases of wine and sake yeast domestication. The nucleotide diversity of the main beer clade more than doubled that of wine yeasts, which might be a consequence of fundamental differences in the modes of beer and wine yeast domestication. The higher diversity of beer strains could be due to the more intense and different selection regimes associated to brewing.
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Complex Ancestries of Lager-Brewing Hybrids Were Shaped by Standing Variation in the Wild Yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus

Author Summary Yeasts are key industrial microbes, most notably Saccharomyces cerevisiae , which is used to make a variety of products, including bread, wine, and ale-style beers. However, lager-style beers are brewed with interspecies hybrids of S . cerevisiae x Saccharomyces eubayanus . After its discovery in South America in 2011, rare strains of S . eubayanus have also been isolated outside of South America. Here we compare the genome sequences of several new and recent isolates of S . eubayanus from South America, North America, Australasia, and Asia to unravel the relationships of these wild isolates and their domesticated European hybrids. Two South American populations have the highest genetic diversity. One of these populations is closely related to a relatively low-diversity lineage that is spread across the Northern Hemisphere and includes the S . eubayanus parents of lager yeasts. Interestingly, we find that none of the wild isolates of S . eubayanus is the sole closest relative of lager-brewing hybrids. Instead, we show that standing variation among wild S . eubayanus strains contributed to the genetic makeup of lager yeasts. Our findings highlight the complex ancestries of lager yeasts and the importance of broader sampling of wild yeasts to illuminate our understanding of the sources of genetic variation among industrial hybrids.
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Cervezas de laboratorio

Cervezas de laboratorio | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
Un nuevo método que utiliza ingeniería genética para cruzar levaduras promete crear un sinfín de bebidas a la carta.
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Enological characterization of Spanish Saccharomyces kudriavzevii strains, one of the closest relatives to parental strains of winemaking and brewing Saccharomyces cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids

Enological characterization of Spanish Saccharomyces kudriavzevii strains, one of the closest relatives to parental strains of winemaking and brewing Saccharomyces cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
Peris's insight:

How few genetic differences among European/Iberian Saccharomyces kudriavzevii strains, species from Saccharomyces genus where the winemaking Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs, can be translated in different fermentative profiles.

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The Genome Sequence of Saccharomyces eubayanus and the Domestication of Lager-Brewing Yeasts

The Genome Sequence of Saccharomyces eubayanus and the Domestication of Lager-Brewing Yeasts | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
Peris's insight:

We had extensive debate around the number of hybridization events behind the origin of the most economically important yeast (lager yeast). The unique hybridization model and the multiple hybridization model have been fighting for the last ten years based in different molecular data. In this recent paper, the improvement of genome sequence of the second parent of lager brewing yeast, S. eubayanus, has allowed us to infer which is the most potential scenario originating the lager brewing hybrids. The different number of neutral mutation when both parents are compared, S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus, indicates that the parental contributors for Saaz and Frohberg lineages were diverge previous to the hybridization, supporting for a multiple origin scenario.

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Basic principles of yeast genomics, a personal recollection

Basic principles of yeast genomics, a personal recollection | Saccharomyces evolution and Biotechnological applications | Scoop.it
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A walkthrough in yeast genomics, past, recent findings and future. A very interesting review, written by Bernard Dujon.

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Genetic improvement of non-GMO wine yeasts: Strategies, advantages and safety

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Public is not prepared for accepting industrial Genetic Modified Organisms making the governments to impose strict laws for the usage of GMOs. For that reason, other techniques are used for the improvement of relevant yeast with winemaking interest. This review explain the restriction to GMOs in Europe and other countries and explore alternatives to GMOs. Although, the review is focus to the wine industry we can apply those concepts to other biotechnological applications, such as brewing and biofuel.

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