Research on Mindfulness Meditation
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Mindfulness and Trauma: Some Striking Similarities - Ataria - 2018 - Anthropology of Consciousness - Wiley Online Library

Mindfulness and Trauma: Some Striking Similarities - Ataria - 2018 - Anthropology of Consciousness - Wiley Online Library | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
The traumatic experience and the meditative experience differ in many respects. For instance, it is possible to suggest that while a sense of helplessness is the most important feature of the traumatic experience, meditation does not involve a similar sense of helplessness. Furthermore, while trauma is shocking and horrifying, meditation is considered to be constructive and efficient in reducing stress and improving welfare. Yet, with this in mind, by comparing interviews with twelve senior meditators on the one hand and interviews with survivors of traumatic experiences from other qualitative studies of mine on the other, this paper suggests that essentially both phenomena are rooted in the same mechanism: the collapse of the intentional structure. More precisely, in both cases, the intentional structure collapses and, as a result, the gap between Me versus Not–Me diminishes: in that case, one loses the first-personal bodily egocentric perceptive upon the world.
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Intéressant cette notion d'effondrement de la structure intentionnelle.
Je dirais que dans le trauma, c'est une réaction au stress liée à la dissociation
alors que dans la méditation, c'est l'inverse : une réaction à l'absence totale de stress qui rend l'intention inutile et permet donc sa disparition momentanée.
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Mindfulness-based interventions for psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis - ScienceDirect

Mindfulness-based interventions for psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis - ScienceDirect | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
Mindfulness-based interventions for psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis
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Mindfulness and craving: effects and mechanisms - ScienceDirect

Mindfulness and craving: effects and mechanisms - ScienceDirect | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
Mindfulness strategies may reduce cravings by loading working memory.


Mindfulness strategies may also extinguish cravings by promoting response inhibition.


Such effects are not unique to mindfulness strategies.


Mindfulness may have unique benefits where it is practiced over an extended period.


More controlled research on the effects of extended mindfulness practice is needed.
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Is There a Dark Side to Mindfulness? Relation of Mindfulness to Criminogenic CognitionsPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin - June P. Tangney, Ashley E. Dobbins, Jeffrey B. Stuewig, Shannon W...

In recent years, mindfulness-based interventions have been modified for use with inmate populations, but how this might relate to specific criminogenic cognitions has not been examined empirically. Theoretically, characteristics of mindfulness should be incompatible with distorted patterns of criminal thinking, but is this in fact the case? Among both 259 male jail inmates and 516 undergraduates, mindfulness was inversely related to the Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS) through a latent variable of emotion regulation. However, in the jail sample, this mediational model also showed a direct, positive path from mindfulness to CCS, with an analogous, but nonsignificant trend in the college sample. Post hoc analyses indicate that the Nonjudgment of Self scale derived from the Mindfulness Inventory: Nine Dimensions (MI:ND) largely accounts for this apparently iatrogenic effect in both samples. Some degree of self-judgment is perhaps necessary and useful, especially among individuals involved in the criminal justice system.
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Une grande différence avec les retraites Vipassana de Goenka pour les prisons qui ont beaucoup d'éthique au programme via la notion bouddhiste de karma, qui revient dans ce programme sous forme de sensations et de réactions. Les prisonniers font donc un lien direct entre leur expérience corporelle et leurs actions passées.
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Mindfulness: A systematic review of instruments to measure an emergent patientreported outcome (PRO)

Mindfulness: A systematic review of instruments to measure an emergent patientreported outcome (PRO) | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
Our search strategy identified a total of 2,588 articles. Forty-six articles, reporting 79 unique studies, met inclusion criteria. Ten instruments quantifying mindfulness as a unidimensional scale (n=5) or as a set of 2 to 5 subscales (n=5) were reviewed. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) was evaluated by the most studies (n=27), and had positive overall quality ratings for most of the psychometric properties reviewed. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) received the highest possible rating (“consistent findings in multiple studies of good methodological quality”) for two properties, internal consistency and construct validation by hypothesis testing. However, none of the instruments had sufficient evidence of content validity. Comprehensiveness of construct coverage had not been assessed; qualitative methods to confirm understanding and relevance were absent. In addition, estimates of test-retest reliability, responsiveness, or measurement error to guide users in protocol development or interpretation of scores were lacking.
Conclusions

Current mindfulness scales have important conceptual differences, and none can be strongly recommended based solely on superior psychometric properties. Important limitations in the field are the absence of qualitative evaluations and accepted external referents to support construct validity. Investigators need to proceed cautiously before optimizing any mindfulness intervention based on the existing scales.
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Interpersonal Mindfulness: Investigating Mindfulness in Interpersonal Interactions, co-Rumination, and Friendship Quality

Interpersonal Mindfulness: Investigating Mindfulness in Interpersonal Interactions, co-Rumination, and Friendship Quality | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
Interpersonal mindfulness is conceptualized as mindfulness during interpersonal interactions and includes awareness of self and others, accompanied with the qualities of nonjudgmental and nonreactive presence. Study 1 showed that interpersonal mindfulness was correlated with friendship quality, while accounting for trait mindfulness. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by identifying and testing three possible mediators (i.e., perspective taking, basic psychological need satisfaction, and empathy) of the association between interpersonal mindfulness and friendship quality.
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Meditation experience is associated with differences in default mode network activity and connectivity

Many philosophical and contemplative traditions teach that “living in the moment” increases happiness. However, the default mode of humans appears to be that of mind-wandering, which correlates with unhappiness, and with activation in a network of brain areas associated with self-referential processing. We investigated brain activity in experienced meditators and matched meditation-naive controls as they performed several different meditations (Concentration, Loving-Kindness, Choiceless Awareness). We found that the main nodes of the default-mode network (medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices) were relatively deactivated in experienced meditators across all meditation types. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis revealed stronger coupling in experienced meditators between the posterior cingulate, dorsal anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (regions previously implicated in self-monitoring and cognitive control), both at baseline and during meditation. Our findings demonstrate differences in the default-mode network that are consistent with decreased mind-wandering. As such, these provide a unique understanding of possible neural mechanisms of meditation.
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Article déjà ancien et connu mais je ne crois pas l'avoir déjà référencé ici. Voir également http://psychologytomorrowmagazine.com/jeff-warren-neuroscience-suffering-end/ The Neuroscience of Suffering – And Its End
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Long-term meditation: the relationship between cognitive processes, thinking styles and mindfulness. - PubMed - NCBI

Long-term meditation: the relationship between cognitive processes, thinking styles and mindfulness. - PubMed - NCBI | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between meditation and cognitive functions. More in depth the purpose is to demonstrate that long-term meditation practice improves attention skills and cognitive flexibility. Eighteen long-term meditation practitioners were compared to a matched control group, who never practiced meditation. Each subject was tested, using computerized software (Presentation Software 9.90), which measured: attention, visual search abilities, working memory and Stroop's interference tasks. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between long-term meditation practice, mindfulness skills and thinking styles, namely styles of processing information. The results showed significant differences between the two groups, demonstrating that long-term meditation is linked to improvements of attentional functions, working memory and cognitive flexibility.
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Vigilance, alertness, or sustained attention: physiological basis and measurement

Vigilance, alertness, or sustained attention: physiological basis and measurement | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it

Vigilance is a term with varied definitions but the most common usage is sustained attention or tonic alertness.


This usage of vigilance implies both the degree of arousal on the sleep–wake axis and the level of cognitive performance. There are many interacting neural and neurotransmitter systems that affect vigilance. Most studies of vigilance have relied on states where the sleep–wake state is altered, e.g. drowsiness, sleep-deprivation, and CNS-active drugs, but there are factors ranging from psychophysics to motivation that may impact vigilance. While EEG is the most commonly studied physiologic measure of vigilance, various measures of eye movement and of autonomic nervous system activity have also been used. This review paper discusses the underlying neural basis of vigilance and its assessment using physiologic tools. Since, assessment of vigilance requires assessment of cognitive function this aspect is also discussed.

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Meta-Cognition in Mindfulness: A Conceptual Analysis | Hussain | Psychological Thought

Meta-Cognition in Mindfulness: A Conceptual Analysis | Hussain | Psychological Thought | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
It is very clear that meta-cognition and mindfulness share many commonalities and are closely related. However, both mindfulness and meta-cognition based therapies have developed and applied independent of each other. It is very clear that both traditions will benefit each other and facilitate theoretical and applied research. For example, a specific aspect of meta-cognition such as ‘meta-awareness’ can explain the basic mechanism of the effectiveness of mindfulness in promoting human well-being. In this direction, Hurk, Giommi, and Barendregt (2012) reported that although many psychological mechanisms (such as attention regulation, emotion regulation, body awareness, and change in the perspective on the self) have been proposed to explain the effectiveness of mindfulness based therapies, one fundamental mechanism that has not been studied explicitly is ‘meta-awareness’. They explained meta-awareness in terms of awareness of mental stimuli and processes and the ability to maintain a non-reactive attitude towards them. Becoming reactive to the mental contents ends the process of meta-awareness. They proposed that meta-awareness is the fundamental mechanism sub serving all the other mechanisms explaining effectiveness of mindfulness. For example, meta-awareness plays central role in both attention regulation and emotion regulation. Attention regulation and emotion regulation requires objective and detached observation of the contents of the mind and emotion without getting caught up with those contents of awareness. Similarly, certain specific aspect of mindfulness such as ‘detached mindfulness’ can explain the working mechanisms of meta-cognitive therapy. For example, Wells and Matthews (1994) introduced the concept of detached mindfulness in their meta-cognitive analysis of emotional disorders. Detached mindfulness involves detached or objective awareness of continuous automatic flow of internal events such as thoughts in the absence of conceptual analysis and goal directed responses (Wells, 2005). It is associated with ‘cognitive de-centering’ which means thoughts are seen as objects in the mind and are separate from reality. According to Wells (2005), detached mindfulness has characteristics such as-meta-awareness (consciousness of thoughts), cognitive de-centering, attentional detachment (flexible attention that is not anchored to any particular event), low conceptual processing and low goal directed coping. Detached mindfulness is used as a tool in meta-cognitive therapy. Therefore, both the tradition of meta-cognitive therapy and mindfulness based therapy may strengthen and benefit each other. Certainly, specific aspects of each tradition can be integrated with each other in a complementary as well as supplementary manner.

There are other advantages of understanding meta-cognitive processes in mindfulness. Meta-cognitive processes can explain as well as unify diverse conceptualization and operationalization of mindfulness. For example, the main difference between the clinical (or meditative) conceptualization of mindfulness and other approaches focusing on individual differences without meditative practices can be explained with meta-cognition. According to Jankowski and Holas (2014), the main difference between different conceptualization of mindfulness lies in the number of meta-level involved in the mindfulness; as there can be many meta-levels one higher than other in a hierarchy. They further proposed that clinical or meditative mindfulness involves highest level of meta-cognition whereas other conceptualization involves lower levels of meta-cognition. Lower level of mindfulness can occur without conscious intention and meditative practice (as one can be mindful of internal and external events without having awareness of such mindset). However, higher level of meditative mindfulness is generally not possible without conscious intention and practice.
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The varieties of contemplative experience: A mixed-methods study of meditation-related challenges in Western Buddhists

The varieties of contemplative experience: A mixed-methods study of meditation-related challenges in Western Buddhists | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it


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Defining Contemplative Science: The Metacognitive Self-Regulatory Capacity of the Mind, Context of Meditation Practice and Modes of Existential Awareness (Image)

Defining Contemplative Science: The Metacognitive Self-Regulatory Capacity of the Mind, Context of Meditation Practice and Modes of Existential Awareness (Image) | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
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Measuring Decentering and Related Constructs: Capacity and Limitations of Extant Assessment Scales

Measuring Decentering and Related Constructs: Capacity and Limitations of Extant Assessment Scales | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
Decentering and related constructs reflect the capacity to shift experiential perspective—from within one’s subjective experience onto that experience. According to the metacognitive processes model of decentering, these constructs are subserved by three metacognitive processes—meta-awareness, disidentification from internal experience, and reduced reactivity to thought content. We evaluated the latent dimensional structure across multiple published self-report measures of decentering and related constructs by means of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. We then, in two studies, examined the associations between the observed latent dimensions and key criterion variables so as to better understand the metacognitive processes reflected by the observed latent dimensions. We found that the only empirically and theoretically interpretable factor solution reflected two orthogonal factors. Based on item composition (eight Drexel Defusion Scale items) and theory, we labeled factor I “Intentional Decentered Perspective”—reflecting intentional states of disidentified and non-reactive meta-awareness of mental phenomena. Associations with criterion variables such as identification with internal experience during a meta-awareness with disidentification meditation supported this interpretation. Likewise, based on item composition (Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire items) and theory, we labeled factor II “Automatic Reactivity to Thought Content.” Associations with criterion variables such as rumination, thought suppression, and judging of experience supported this interpretation. Findings highlight limitations of a number of extant self-report measures of decentering and related constructs, point to an intriguing distinction between intentional and automatic metacognitive processes in decentering, and inform the need for and development of multi-method measures of decentering.
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Effects of mindfulness exercises as stand-alone intervention on symptoms of anxiety and depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis - ScienceDirect

Effects of mindfulness exercises as stand-alone intervention on symptoms of anxiety and depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis - ScienceDirect | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it

Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are currently well established in psychotherapy with meta-analyses demonstrating their efficacy. In these multifaceted interventions, the concrete performance of mindfulness exercises is typically integrated in a larger therapeutic framework. Thus, it is unclear whether stand-alone mindfulness exercises (SAMs) without such a framework are beneficial, as well. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the effects of SAMs on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Systematic searching of electronic databases resulted in 18 eligible studies (n = 1150) for meta-analyses. After exclusion of one outlier SAMs had small to medium effects on anxiety (SMD = 0.39; CI: 0.22, 0.56; PI: 0.07, 0.70; p < .001, I2 = 18.90%) and on depression (SMD = 0.41; CI: 0.19, 0.64; PI: −0.05, 0.88; p < .001; I2 = 33.43%), when compared with controls. Summary effect estimates decreased, but remained significant when corrected for potential publication bias. This is the first meta-analysis to show that


> the mere, regular performance of mindfulness exercises is beneficial, even without being integrated in larger therapeutic frameworks.

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The limited prosocial effects of meditation: A systematic review and meta-analysis

The limited prosocial effects of meditation: A systematic review and meta-analysis | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
The mean effect size for the overall analysis, in which the effect sizes were aggregated across all studies, was r = 0.26 (CI 0.18–0.34; see Table 3), showing that there is a moderate increase in prosociality following a meditation intervention.
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The impact of mindfulness-based interventions on brain activity: A systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies - ScienceDirect

The impact of mindfulness-based interventions on brain activity: A systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies - ScienceDirect | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly used in the treatment and prevention of mental health conditions. Despite this, the mechanisms of change for such interventions are only beginning to be understood, with a number of recent studies assessing changes in brain activity. The aim of this systematic review was to assess changes in brain functioning associated with manualised 8-session mindfulness interventions. Searches of PubMed and Scopus databases resulted in 39 papers, 7 of which were eligible for inclusion. The most consistent longitudinal effect observed was increased insular cortex activity following mindfulness-based interventions. In contrast to previous reviews, we did not find robust evidence for increased activity in specific prefrontal cortex sub-regions. These findings suggest that mindfulness interventions are associated with changes in functioning of the insula, plausibly impacting awareness of internal reactions ‘in-the-moment’. The studies reviewed here demonstrated a variety of effects across populations and tasks, pointing to the need for greater consistency in future study design.
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PsycNET Record Display - PsycNET

PsycNET Record Display - PsycNET | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
We propose that Experiential Self-Referential Processing (ESRP)—the cognitive association of present moment subjective experience (e.g., sensations, emotions, thoughts) with the self—underlies various forms of maladaptation. We theorize that mindfulness contributes to mental health by engendering Experiential Selfless Processing (ESLP)—processing present moment subjective experience without self-referentiality. To help advance understanding of these processes we aimed to develop an implicit, behavioral measure of ESRP and ESLP of fear, to experimentally validate this measure, and to test the relations between ESRP and ESLP of fear, mindfulness, and key psychobehavioral processes underlying (mal)adaptation. One hundred 38 adults were randomized to 1 of 3 conditions: control, meta-awareness with identification, or meta-awareness with disidentification. We then measured ESRP and ESLP of fear by experimentally eliciting a subjective experience of fear, while concurrently measuring participants’ cognitive association between her/himself and fear by means of a Single Category Implicit Association Test; we refer to this measurement as the Single Experience & Self Implicit Association Test (SES-IAT). We found preliminary experimental and correlational evidence suggesting the fear SES-IAT measures ESLP of fear and 2 forms of ESRP— identification with fear and negative self-referential evaluation of fear. Furthermore, we found evidence that ESRP and ESLP are associated with meta-awareness (a core process of mindfulness), as well as key psychobehavioral processes underlying (mal)adaptation. These findings indicate that the cognitive association of self with experience (i.e., ESRP) may be an important substrate of the sense of self, and an important determinant of mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction vs. Pharmacotherapy for Primary Chronic Insomnia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction vs. Pharmacotherapy for Primary Chronic Insomnia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it

Our results suggest that MBSR, when combined with a brief sleep hygiene presentation, is able to achieve reductions in insomnia symptoms and improvements in sleep quality comparable to regular use of an FDA-approved sedative hypnotic. To our knowledge, this is the first study to employ a rigorous randomized study design to compare the efficacy of MBSR to pharmacotherapy in patients with primary chronic insomnia.


Moreover, half of the patients randomized to MBSR met stringent criteria for recovery from insomnia at the end of the study, and average treatment satisfaction scores were high. Whereas patients in the PCT arm obtained similar benefits to sleep outcomes, their treatment satisfactions scores were not high, and several patients reported adverse events.


Our results suggest that MBSR, when combined with a brief sleep hygiene presentation, is able to achieve reductions in insomnia symptoms and improvements in sleep quality comparable to regular use of an FDA-approved sedative hypnotic. To our knowledge, this is the first study to employ a rigorous randomized study design to compare the efficacy of MBSR to pharmacotherapy in patients with primary chronic insomnia. Moreover, half of the patients randomized to MBSR met stringent criteria for recovery from insomnia at the end of the study, and average treatment satisfaction scores were high. Whereas patients in the PCT arm obtained similar benefits to sleep outcomes, their treatment satisfactions scores were not high, and several patients reported adverse events.

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Could mindfulness decrease anger, hostility, and aggression by decreasing rumination?

Could mindfulness decrease anger, hostility, and aggression by decreasing rumination? | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
Research suggests that rumination increases anger and aggression. Mindfulness, or present-focused and intentional awareness, may counteract rumination. Using structural equation modeling, we examined the relations between mindfulness, rumination, and aggression. In a pair of studies, we found a pattern of correlations consistent with rumination partially mediating a causal link between mindfulness and hostility, anger, and verbal aggression. The pattern was not consistent with rumination mediating the association between mindfulness and physical aggression. Although it is impossible with the current nonexperimental data to test causal mediation, these correlations support the idea that mindfulness could reduce rumination, which in turn could reduce aggression. These results suggest that longitudinal work and experimental manipulations mindfulness would be worthwhile approaches for further study of rumination and aggression. We discuss possible implications of these results.
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or by decreasing emotional reactivity
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Mapping complex mind states: EEG neural substrates of meditative unified compassionate awareness - ScienceDirect

Mapping complex mind states: EEG neural substrates of meditative unified compassionate awareness - ScienceDirect | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
Neural markers of awakened awareness via essence-of-mind meditation were examined.


Current density decreased in ACC, insula, precuneus, PCC, S/IPL, at meditation onset.


Gamma current density increased in d/vACC, precuneus, SPL, from state 1 to state 4.


Beta current density increased within the insular cortex, from state 1 to state 4.


Dissociation of self-referential and executive-control regions in awakened awareness.
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Frontiers | The Mindful Self: A Mindfulness-Enlightened Self-view | Psychology

Frontiers | The Mindful Self: A Mindfulness-Enlightened Self-view | Psychology | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
This paper analyzes studies of mindfulness and the self, with the aim of deepening our understanding of the potential benefits of mindfulness meditation for mental health and well-being. Our review of empirical research reveals that positive changes in attitudes toward the self and others as a result of mindfulness practices can play an important role in modulating many mental and physical health problems. Accordingly, we introduce a new concept—the “mindful self”—and compare it with related psychological constructs to describe the positive changes in self-attitude associated with mindfulness meditation practices or interventions. The mindful self is conceptualized as a mindfulness-enlightened self-view and attitude developed by internalizing and integrating the essence of Buddhist psychology into one’s self-system. We further posit that the mindful self will be an important intermediary between mindfulness intervention and mental health problems, and an important moderator in promoting well-being. More generally, we suggest that the mindful self may also be an applicable concept with which to describe and predict the higher level of self-development of those who grow up in the culture of Buddhism or regularly engage in meditation over a long period of time.
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Measuring alertness. - PubMed - NCBI

Measuring alertness. - PubMed - NCBI | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it

A generation of research in cognitive psychology has given rise to many tasks that tap at various aspects of attention. It is now widely agreed that attention is not a single thing and that its measurement needs a strategy to study each of its various aspects. While there is no widely agreed taxonomy of attentional operations, there is an important distinction between functions of


- obtaining and maintaining the alert state (alerting network),

- orienting to sensory events (orienting network), and

- regulating thoughts and behaviors (executive network).


Neuroimaging has confirmed that these functions involve separate but overlapping areas of brain activity. Neurochemical and genetic studies have also provided some distinctions between brain networks involved in attention. Alertness as a function of one important attentional network is emphasized and methods to activate phasic and tonic alerting are reviewed and individual or group differences in the efficiency of network operations are discussed.A generation of research in cognitive psychology has given rise to many tasks that tap at various aspects of attention. It is now widely agreed that attention is not a single thing and that its measurement needs a strategy to study each of its various aspects. While there is no widely agreed taxonomy of attentional operations, there is an important distinction between functions of obtaining and maintaining the alert state (alerting network), orienting to sensory events (orienting network), and regulating thoughts and behaviors (executive network). Neuroimaging has confirmed that these functions involve separate but overlapping areas of brain activity. Neurochemical and genetic studies have also provided some distinctions between brain networks involved in attention. Alertness as a function of one important attentional network is emphasized and methods to activate phasic and tonic alerting are reviewed and individual or group differences in the efficiency of network operations are discussed.

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Group Metacognitive Therapy vs. Mindfulness Meditation Therapy in a Transdiagnostic Patient Sample: A Randomised Feasibility Trial. - PubMed - NCBI

Group Metacognitive Therapy vs. Mindfulness Meditation Therapy in a Transdiagnostic Patient Sample: A Randomised Feasibility Trial. - PubMed - NCBI | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
Psychiatry Res. 2017 Nov 21;259:554-561. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.11.045. [Epub ahead of print]
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Frontiers | Defining Contemplative Science: The Metacognitive Self-Regulatory Capacity of the Mind, Context of Meditation Practice and Modes of Existential Awareness | Psychology

Frontiers | Defining Contemplative Science: The Metacognitive Self-Regulatory Capacity of the Mind, Context of Meditation Practice and Modes of Existential Awareness | Psychology | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
Defining Contemplative Science: The Metacognitive Self-Regulatory Capacity of the Mind, Context of Meditation Practice and Modes of Existential Awareness
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Associations Between Early Maladaptive Schemas and Mindful Attention-Awareness

Associations Between Early Maladaptive Schemas and Mindful Attention-Awareness | Research on Mindfulness Meditation | Scoop.it
Preliminary research has demonstrated negative correlations between mindful attention-awareness and early maladaptive schemas, a key construct in schema therapy. However, little is known about the associations between early maladaptive schemas and mindfulness, particularly which specific early maladaptive schemas are related to mindful attention-awareness. This study examined the relationship between early maladaptive schemas, assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form—Extended (YSQ-S2-Extended), and mindful attention-awareness, assessed with the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), in a community sample of Finnish adults (N = 215). Findings demonstrated that 17 out of 18 early maladaptive schemas were negatively correlated with mindful attention-awareness. In addition, three early maladaptive schemas, characterized by lack of self-control and avoidance of thoughts and emotions, were significantly related to low mindful attention-awareness in the linear regression. This study provides further empirical support for proposed associations between the presence of maladaptive cognitive schemas and a low ability to focus attention on experiences in the present in a mindful way. Future research is needed to study whether mindfulness-based interventions are beneficial in observing or reducing early maladaptive schemas and maladaptive coping strategies associated with them.
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