Research on emotional, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT)
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Emotion Perception as Conceptual Synchrony - Maria Gendron, Lisa Feldman Barrett, 2018

emotion perception as a stream of synchronized conceptualizations between two individuals, which is supported and shaped by language.

We articulate how this framework can illuminate the fundamental need to study culture, as well as other sources of conceptual variation, in unpacking conceptual synchrony in emotion.

We close by suggesting that the conceptual system provides the necessary flexibility to overcome gaps in emotional synchrony.

Fabien Devaugermé's insight:
synchroniser la conceptualisation pour synchroniser l'état émotionnel... ou comment être en phase...
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Pollution lumineuse : le Conseil d'État force la France à agir

Pollution lumineuse : le Conseil d'État force la France à agir | Research on emotional, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) | Scoop.it
La lumière la nuit peut perturber les rythmes circadiens (l’horloge biologique) ce qui accroît le risque de cancer, de diabète et de dépression. Elle peut aussi inhiber la dormance des végétaux qui leur permet de survivre aux rigueurs de l’hiver.
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Conceptual advances in the cognitive neuroscience of learning: Implications for relational frame theory - ScienceDirect

Conceptual advances in the cognitive neuroscience of learning: Implications for relational frame theory - ScienceDirect | Research on emotional, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) | Scoop.it

Cognitive neuroscience has developed many approaches to the study of learning that might be useful to functionally oriented researchers, including those from a relational frame theory (RFT) perspective. We focus here on two examples. 


First, cognitive neuroscience often distinguishes between habit and goal-directed reinforcement learning, in which only the latter is sensitive to proximal changes in behavior-environment contingencies. This distinction is relevant to RFT’s original concerns about how rule-based processes can sometimes render an individual’s behavior maladaptive to changing circumstances.


Second, the discovery of neurophysiological structures associated with fear extinction and generalization can potentially yield new insights for derived relational responding research. In particular, we review how such work not only informs new ways of modifying the functions transformed in derived relational responding, but also new ways of measuring derived relational responding itself.


Overall, therefore, existing conceptual and methodological advances in the cognitive neuroscience literature addressing learning appear to generate functionally interesting predictions related to RFT that might not have surfaced from a traditional functional analysis of behavior.

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Reduced reciprocal giving in social anxiety – Evidence from the Trust Game - ScienceDirect

Reduced reciprocal giving in social anxiety – Evidence from the Trust Game - ScienceDirect | Research on emotional, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) | Scoop.it
Individuals high in social anxiety showed reduced reciprocal, but intact trustful giving, pointing to a constraint in responsiveness.
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Dépression légère à modérée : le magnésium serait efficace

Dépression légère à modérée : le magnésium serait efficace | Research on emotional, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) | Scoop.it
Les résultats montrent une amélioration des symptômes de dépression et d'anxiété comparable à celle des antidépresseurs, soulignent les chercheurs.

Ces effets apparaissaient rapidement, à deux semaines.
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Experimental Methods for Inducing Basic Emotions: A Qualitative Review - Ewa Siedlecka, Thomas F. Denson, 2018

we evaluated five common experimental emotion induction techniques: visual stimuli, music, autobiographical recall, situational procedures, and imagery. For each technique, we discuss the extent to which they induce six basic emotions: anger, disgust, surprise, happiness, fear, and sadness. For each emotion, we discuss the relative influences of the induction methods on subjective emotional experience and physiological responses (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure).
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Using conceptual developments in RFT to direct case formulation and clinical intervention: Two case summaries - ScienceDirect

Using conceptual developments in RFT to direct case formulation and clinical intervention: Two case summaries - ScienceDirect | Research on emotional, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) | Scoop.it
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Frontiers | Types of Anxiety and Depression: Theoretical Assumptions and Development of the Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire | Psychology

Frontiers | Types of Anxiety and Depression: Theoretical Assumptions and Development of the Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire | Psychology | Research on emotional, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) | Scoop.it
The present paper is addressed to (1) the validation of a recently proposed typology of anxiety and depression, and (2) the presentation of a new tool – the Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire (ADQ) – based on this typology. Empirical data collected across two stages – construction and validation – allowed us to offer the final form of the ADQ, designed to measure arousal anxiety, apprehension anxiety, valence depression, anhedonic depression, and mixed types of anxiety and depression. The results support the proposed typology of anxiety and depression and provide evidence that the ADQ is a reliable and valid self-rating measure of affective types, and accordingly its use in scientific research is recommended.
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Emotion regulation strategies in daily life: mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression

Most empirical studies of emotion regulation have relied on retrospective trait measures, and have not examined the link between daily regulatory strategies and every day emotional well-being. We used a daily diary methodology with multilevel modelling data analyses (n = 187) to examine the influence of three emotion regulation strategies (mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression) on the experience of daily negative and positive affect. Our results suggested that daily mindfulness was associated with lower negative and higher positive affect whereas the converse pattern was found for daily emotion suppression; cognitive reappraisal was related to daily positive, but not negative affect. When daily mindfulness, suppression and reappraisal were included in the same models, these strategies predicted unique variance in emotional well-being. Random slope analyses revealed substantial variability in the utility of these strategies. Indeed the presumably “adaptive” cognitive reappraisal strategy seemed to confer no benefit to the regulation of negative affect in approximately half the sample. Additional analyses revealed that age moderates the effect of cognitive reappraisal on daily negative affect: Higher use of reappraisal was associated with more negative affect for adolescents (aged 17 to 19) but became associated with less negative affect with increasing age. We interpret these results in line with a contextual view of emotion regulation where no strategy is inherently “good” or “bad”.
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Implementing Mindfulness in the Mainstream: Making the Path by Walking It

Implementing Mindfulness in the Mainstream: Making the Path by Walking It | Research on emotional, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) | Scoop.it
There is expanding interest in mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) within the mainstream. While there are research gaps, there is empirical evidence for these developments. Implementing new evidence into practice is always complex and difficult. Particular complexities and tensions arise when implementing MBPs in the mainstream. MBPs are emerging out of the confluence of different epistemologies—contemplative teaching and practice, and contemporary Western empiricism and culture. In the process of navigating implementation and integrity, and developing a professional practice context for this emerging field, the diverse influences within this confluence need careful attention and thought. Both contemplative practices, and mainstream institutions and professional practice have well-developed ethical understandings and integrity. MBPs aim to balance fidelity to both. This includes the need to further develop skillful expressions of the underpinning theoretical and philosophical framework for MBPs; to sensitively work with the boundary between mainstream and religious mindfulness; to develop organizational structures which support governance and collaboration; to investigate teacher training, supervision models, and teaching competence; to develop consensus on the ethical frameworks on which mainstream MBPs rests; and to build understanding and work skillfully with barriers to access to MBPs. It is equally important to attend to how these developments are conducted. This includes the need to align with values integral to mindfulness, and to hold longer-term intentions and directions, while taking small, deliberate steps in each moment. The MBP field needs to establish itself as a new professional field and stand on its own integrity.
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The Impact of Experiential Avoidance and Event Centrality in Trauma-Related Rumination and Posttraumatic StressBehavior Modification - Lia S. Bishop, Victoria E. Ameral, Kathleen M. Palm Reed, 2017

These data suggest that the link between ruminating about a traumatic experience and enhanced PTSD symptomology may be partially explained by increasingly restrictive cognitive patterns and enhanced avoidance of aversive internal stimuli. Furthermore, they provide preliminary evidence to suggest that rumination and experiential avoidance are strongly associated with one another (and subsequent PTSD symptomology) among trauma survivors, regardless of how central a traumatic event is to an individual’s personal narrative. Such findings support clinical interventions like exposure, which progressively support new learning in response to feared or unwanted experiences in service of expanding an individual’s cognitive and behavioral repertoires.
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Finding a family: A categorization of enjoyable emotions

Finding a family: A categorization of enjoyable emotions | Research on emotional, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) | Scoop.it
Responding to burgeoning scholarship examining discrete positive emotions, the overarching goals of the current review are to provide a summary of 28 enjoyable emotions and to offer an initial classification of these emotions into families. The families of discrete enjoyable emotions, many proposed for the first time, are as follows: (1) Self-praising emotions (authentic pride, fiero, naches, feeling respected), (2) other-praising emotions (admiration, elevation, gratitude, inspiration), (3) past-oriented emotions (forgiveness, nostalgia, relief), (4) future-oriented emotions (anticipatory enthusiasm, courage, determination, hope), (5) hazardous emotions (lust, schadenfreude, hubristic pride), (6) affectionate emotions (love, attachment love, tenderness, positive empathy), (7) arousal-defined emotions (euphoria, serenity), (8) violation-elicited emotions (amusement, awe, curiosity, positive surprise).This review describes how the 28 enjoyable emotions were selected, outlines the classification process generating the families of enjoyable emotions, provides a brief summary of current scholarship on each emotion, and concludes with a discussion of fertile future directions.
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Trusting homeostatic cues versus accepting hedonic cues: A randomized controlled trial comparing two distinct mindfulness-based intervention components - ScienceDirect

Trusting homeostatic cues versus accepting hedonic cues: A randomized controlled trial comparing two distinct mindfulness-based intervention components - ScienceDirect | Research on emotional, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) | Scoop.it
first direct comparison of two theoretically distinct mindfulness-based weight loss approaches: increasing awareness of homeostatic/innate physiological cues versus hedonic/externally-driven cues for eating.
Methods

Overweight adults were randomized to one of three group-based workshops: Mindful Eating (ME; n = 21), Mindful Decision-Making (MD; n = 17), or active standard behavioral control (SC; n = 19). Outcome measures included percent weight change and reduction in caloric intake from baseline to 6 weeks.
Results

Differences in weight loss and calorie reduction did not differ significantly among groups. However, the difference in weight loss between the MD and ME groups trended towards significance, with medium-large effect sizes.
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Putting Feelings Into Words: Affect Labeling as Implicit Emotion Regulation - Jared B. Torre, Matthew D. Lieberman, 2018

Putting feelings into words, or “affect labeling,” can attenuate our emotional experiences. However, unlike explicit emotion regulation techniques, affect labeling may not even feel like a regulatory process as it occurs. Nevertheless, research investigating affect labeling has found it produces a pattern of effects like those seen during explicit emotion regulation, suggesting affect labeling is a form of implicit emotion regulation. In this review, we will outline research on affect labeling, comparing it to reappraisal, a form of explicit emotion regulation, along four major domains of effects—experiential, autonomic, neural, and behavioral—that establish it as a form of implicit emotion regulation. This review will then speculate on possible mechanisms driving affect labeling effects and other remaining unanswered questions.
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Reflections on Positive Emotions and Upward Spirals - Barbara L. Fredrickson, Thomas Joiner, 2018

We reflect on our 2002 article and the impact this research report has had both within and beyond psychological science. This article was both one of the first publications to provide empirical support for hypotheses based on the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and a product of the genesis of positive psychology. We highlight empirical and theoretical advancements in the scientific understanding of upward spiral dynamics associated with positive emotions, with particular focus on the new upward spiral theory of lifestyle change. We conclude by encouraging deeper and more rigorous tests of the prospective and reciprocal relations associated with positive emotions. Such progress is needed to better inform translations and applications to improve people’s health and well-being.
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The Effects of Stress and Meditation on the Immune System, Human Microbiota, and Epigenetics.

Context • Globally, more than 25% of individuals are affected by anxiety and depression disorders. Meditation is gaining popularity in clinical settings and its treatment efficacy is being studied for a wide array of psychological and physiological ailments. An exploration of stress physiology is an essential precursor to delineation of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of meditation practices. Objective • The review outlines a model of interconnected physiological processes that might support the continued inclusion and expansion of meditation in the treatment of diverse medical conditions and to investigate the role that gut microbiota may play in realizing well-being through meditation. Design • The authors conducted a scientific literature database search with the goal of reviewing the link between stress management techniques and human microbiota. Their goal was also to identify the extent of underlying epigenetic reactions in these processes. The review was completed in approximately 2 y. Databases searched included Medline via PubMed and Ovid, PsycINFO via Ovid, Spinet, ProQuest Central, SAGE Research Methods Online, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Science Direct, Springer Link, and Wiley Online Library. Keywords searched included, but were not limited to, stress, meditation, mindfulness, immune system, HPA axis, sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system, microbiota, microbiome, gut-barrier function, leaky gut, vagus nerve, psychoneuroimmunology, epigenetic, and NF-κB. Setting • The study took place at New York University (New York, NY, USA), the University of California, San Diego (La Jolla, CA, USA), and the Chopra Foundation (Carlsbad, CA, USA). Results • Psychological stress typically triggers a fight-or-flight response, prompting corticotropin-releasing hormone and catecholamine production in various parts of the body, which ultimately disturbs the microbiota. In the absence of stress, a healthy microbiota produces short-chain fatty acids that exert anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects. During stress, an altered gut microbial population affects the regulation of neurotransmitters mediated by the microbiome and gut barrier function. Meditation helps regulate the stress response, thereby suppressing chronic inflammation states and maintaining a healthy gut-barrier function. Conclusions • The current research team recommends the integration of meditation into conventional health care and wellness models. Concurrently, studies to explore the effects of meditation on human microbiota are warranted.
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Self-regulation and bedtime procrastination: The role of self-regulation skills and chronotype - ScienceDirect

Self-regulation and bedtime procrastination: The role of self-regulation skills and chronotype - ScienceDirect | Research on emotional, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) | Scoop.it


Bedtime procrastination is linked to low perceived quality and quantity of sleep.


Bedtime procrastination is negatively related to self-regulation skills.


Bedtime procrastination is positively related to eveningness.


Eveningness mediated the self-regulation skills-bedtime procrastination relationship.

Abstract

The present study focuses on examining the role of chronotype in the relationship between self-regulation skills and bedtime procrastination. Two possible models were tested, hypothesizing that eveningness may moderate or mediate the association between self-regulation abilities and bedtime procrastination. A sample of 304 participants completed measures of self-regulation, morningness–eveningness, bedtime procrastination, and subjective indicators of the amount and quality of sleep. The analyses showed that bedtime procrastination was negatively correlated with hours of sleep and positively correlated with frequencies of perceived insufficient sleep and daily fatigue. Moreover, bedtime procrastination was negatively related to self-regulation skills and to morningness. No significant interaction (moderation) effect was found between self-regulation skills and eveningness. The analysis showed that eveningness partly mediated the relationship between low self-regulation skills and bedtime procrastination. The results confirm that low self-regulation skills may account for higher bedtime procrastination, and suggest that this negative effect reveals itself, in part, through enhancing eveningness.
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Rejection sensitivity and interpersonal behavior in daily life - ScienceDirect

Rejection sensitivity and interpersonal behavior in daily life - ScienceDirect | Research on emotional, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) | Scoop.it

Rejection sensitivity (RS) was evaluated as a moderator of the relationship between perceptions of others and interpersonal behavior over the course of a week.


Participants (n = 240) were non-clinical young adults who completed a 7-day event-contingent experience sampling study of interpersonal perception and affect. Multilevel linear models indicated that those with high RS were less agentically responsive to their interaction partner's agency and positive affect.


Further, those with high RS exhibited cold, unfriendly behavior in response to their interaction partner's negative and subdued affect. Findings suggest an avoidant stance in those with high RS, which may aim to avoid but likely invites the very rejection they fear.

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Effects of mindfulness exercises as stand-alone intervention on symptoms of anxiety and depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis - ScienceDirect

Effects of mindfulness exercises as stand-alone intervention on symptoms of anxiety and depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis - ScienceDirect | Research on emotional, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) | Scoop.it
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are currently well established in psychotherapy with meta-analyses demonstrating their efficacy. In these multifaceted interventions, the concrete performance of mindfulness exercises is typically integrated in a larger therapeutic framework. Thus, it is unclear whether stand-alone mindfulness exercises (SAMs) without such a framework are beneficial, as well. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the effects of SAMs on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Systematic searching of electronic databases resulted in 18 eligible studies (n = 1150) for meta-analyses. After exclusion of one outlier SAMs had small to medium effects on anxiety (SMD = 0.39; CI: 0.22, 0.56; PI: 0.07, 0.70; p < .001, I2 = 18.90%) and on depression (SMD = 0.41; CI: 0.19, 0.64; PI: −0.05, 0.88; p < .001; I2 = 33.43%), when compared with controls. Summary effect estimates decreased, but remained significant when corrected for potential publication bias. This is the first meta-analysis to show that the mere, regular performance of mindfulness exercises is beneficial, even without being integrated in larger therapeutic frameworks.
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Frontiers | Broadening Humor: Comic Styles Differentially Tap into Temperament, Character, and Ability | Psychology

Frontiers | Broadening Humor: Comic Styles Differentially Tap into Temperament, Character, and Ability | Psychology | Research on emotional, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) | Scoop.it
The present study introduces eight comic styles (i.e., fun, humor, nonsense, wit, irony, satire, sarcasm, and cynicism) and examines the validity of a set of 48 marker items for their assessment, the Comic Style Markers (CSM). These styles were originally developed to describe literary work and are used here to describe individual differences. Study 1 examines whether the eight styles can be distinguished empirically, in self- and other-reports, and in two languages. In different samples of altogether more than 1500 adult participants, the CSM was developed and evaluated with respect to internal consistency, homogeneity, test-retest reliability, factorial validity, and construct and criterion validity. Internal consistency was sufficiently high, and the median test-retest reliability over a period of 1–2 weeks was .86 (N = 148). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the eight styles could be distinguished in both English- (N = 303) and German-speaking samples (N = 1018 and 368). Comparing self- and other-reports (N = 210) supported both convergent and discriminant validity. The intercorrelations among the eight scales ranged from close to zero (between humor and sarcasm/cynicism) to large and positive (between sarcasm and cynicism). Consequently, second-order factor analyses revealed either two bipolar factors (based on ipsative data) or three unipolar factors (based on normative data). Study 2 related the CSM to instruments measuring personality (N = 999), intelligence (N = 214), and character strengths (N = 252), showing that (a) wit was the only style correlated with (verbal) intelligence, (b) fun was related to indicators of vitality and extraversion, (c) humor was related to character strengths of the heart, and (d) comic styles related to mock/ridicule (i.e., sarcasm, cynicism, but also irony) correlated negatively with character strengths of the virtues temperance, transcendence, and humanity. By contrast, satire had a moral goodness that was lacking in sarcasm and cynicism. Most importantly, the two studies revealed that humor might be related to a variety of character strengths depending on the comic style utilized, and that more styles may be distinguished than has been done in the past. The CSM is recommended for future explorations and refinements of comic styles.
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What Best Predicts Goal Attainment?

What Best Predicts Goal Attainment? | Research on emotional, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) | Scoop.it
In other words, not only do more temptations undermine our ability to stay on track with our goals and make progress, these temptations wear us down psychologically, leaving us feeling depleted. This depletion further undermines our goal progress and attainment.

The main conclusion from their study was that

“. . . the path to better self-regulation lies not in increasing self-control but in removing temptations in our environments”
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Frontiers | Expressing and Amplifying Positive Emotions Facilitate Goal Attainment in Workplace Interactions | Psychology

Expressing emotions has social functions; it provides information, affects social interactions, and shapes relationships with others. Expressing positive emotions could be a strategic tool for improving goal attainment during social interactions at work. Such effects have been found in research on social contagion, impression management, and emotion work. However, expressing emotions one does not feel entails the risk of being perceived as inauthentic. This risk may well be worth taking when the emotions felt are negative, as expressing negative emotions usually has negative effects. When experiencing positive emotions, however, expressing them authentically promises benefits, and the advantage of amplifying them is not so obvious. We postulated that expressing, and amplifying, positive emotions would foster goal attainment in social interactions at work, particularly when dealing with superiors. Analyses are based on 494 interactions involving the pursuit of a goal by 113 employees. Multilevel analyses, including polynomial analyses, show that authentic display of positive emotions supported goal attainment throughout. However, amplifying felt positive emotions promoted goal attainment only in interactions with superiors, but not with colleagues. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of hierarchy for detecting, and interpreting, signs of strategic display of positive emotions.
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Experiential Avoidance as a Mediator of the Relationship between Dispositional Mindfulness and Compulsive Sexual Behaviors among Men in Residential Substance Use Treatment

The present study sought to extend compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and mindfulness research by testing whether dispositional mindfulness negatively related to CSB among men with substance use disorders (SUD) through experiential avoidance. Dispositional mindfulness is believed to decrease experiential avoidance, a correlate of CSB. We therefore hypothesized that dispositional mindfulness would relate to CSB indirectly through experiential avoidance. We reviewed medical records from 175 men in residential treatment for SUD. Results revealed significant indirect effects of dispositional mindfulness on CSB through experiential avoidance. Results provided preliminary support for developing mindfulness-based CSB interventions that target experiential avoidance
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Associations Between Early Maladaptive Schemas and Mindful Attention-Awareness

Associations Between Early Maladaptive Schemas and Mindful Attention-Awareness | Research on emotional, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) | Scoop.it
Preliminary research has demonstrated negative correlations between mindful attention-awareness and early maladaptive schemas, a key construct in schema therapy. However, little is known about the associations between early maladaptive schemas and mindfulness, particularly which specific early maladaptive schemas are related to mindful attention-awareness. This study examined the relationship between early maladaptive schemas, assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form—Extended (YSQ-S2-Extended), and mindful attention-awareness, assessed with the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), in a community sample of Finnish adults (N = 215). Findings demonstrated that 17 out of 18 early maladaptive schemas were negatively correlated with mindful attention-awareness. In addition, three early maladaptive schemas, characterized by lack of self-control and avoidance of thoughts and emotions, were significantly related to low mindful attention-awareness in the linear regression. This study provides further empirical support for proposed associations between the presence of maladaptive cognitive schemas and a low ability to focus attention on experiences in the present in a mindful way. Future research is needed to study whether mindfulness-based interventions are beneficial in observing or reducing early maladaptive schemas and maladaptive coping strategies associated with them.
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Decentering Attenuates the Associations of Negative Affect and Positive Affect With PsychopathologyClinical Psychological Science - Kristin Naragon-Gainey, Kenneth G. DeMarree, 2017

Decentering Attenuates the Associations of Negative Affect and Positive Affect With PsychopathologyClinical Psychological Science - Kristin Naragon-Gainey, Kenneth G. DeMarree, 2017 | Research on emotional, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) | Scoop.it
Theory on decentering—an observer perspective on one’s ongoing internal experiences—suggests that decentering may be a protective factor against extreme affective states in predicting psychopathology. The current studies were the first to empirically test this, using multiple measures of decentering to capture two distinct components. Across three student samples and two clinical samples, we investigated whether trait decentering moderated the relationship of negative affect and positive affect with a variety of internalizing symptoms, as well as with narcissism, mania, and anhedonia. Greater decentering attenuated the associations of negative affect with dysphoria and panic symptoms, in both cross-sectional (Study 1) and ecological momentary assessment (Study 2) designs. Exploratory analyses in a single sample revealed that positive affect interacted with decentering to predict anhedonia and narcissism symptoms. Implications are discussed for understanding the effects of decentering on psychopathology and refining interventions, as well as the conceptualization and assessment of decentering.
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