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New discoveries in biomedical sciences
Curated by Vincent Geenen
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Rescooped by Vincent Geenen from AUTOIMMUNITY
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Frontiers | Thymic B Cell-Mediated Attack of Thymic Stroma Precedes Type 1 Diabetes Development | Immunology

Frontiers | Thymic B Cell-Mediated Attack of Thymic Stroma Precedes Type 1 Diabetes Development | Immunology | Research and science | Scoop.it
Type 1 diabetes results from a co-ordinated autoimmune attack of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas by the innate and adaptive immune systems, beta cell death being predominantly T cell-mediated. In addition to T cells, peripheral B cells are important in type 1 diabetes progression. The thymus of mice and man also contain B cells, and lately they have been linked to central tolerance of T cells. The role of thymic B cells in type 1 diabetes is undefined. Here we show there are abnormalities in the thymic B cell compartment prior to beta cell destruction and type 1 diabetes manifestation.Using non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, we document that preceding type 1 diabetes development, there is significant accumulation of thymic B cells-partly through in situ development- and the putative formation of ectopic germinal centres. In addition, in NOD mice we quantify thymic plasma cells and observe in situ binding of immunoglobulins to undefined antigens on a significant proportion of medullary thymic epithelial cells. In contrast, no ectopic germinal centres, or pronounced intrathymic autoantibodies are detectable in animals not genetically predisposed to developing type 1 diabetes. Binding of autoantibodies to thymic stroma correlates with apoptosis of medullary thymic epithelial cells, including insulin-expressing cells. In contrast, apoptosis of medullary thymic epithelial cells was decreased by 50% in B cell deficient NOD mice suggesting intrathymic autoantibodies ma

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T cells in patients with narcolepsy target self-antigens of hypocretin neurons

T cells in patients with narcolepsy target self-antigens of hypocretin neurons | Research and science | Scoop.it
The detection of hypocretin-specific autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in patients with narcolepsy reveals the autoimmune aetiology of this disorder.

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Rescooped by Vincent Geenen from AUTOIMMUNITY
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The challenge of modulating β-cell autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes

With the conceptual advance about four decades ago that type 1 diabetes represents
an autoimmune disease, hope arose that immune-based therapies would soon emerge to
prevent and reverse the disorder. However, despite dozens of clinical trials seeking to achieve these goals, the promise remains...

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Rescooped by Vincent Geenen from Cancer Immunotherapy Review
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Cancer Immunotherapy: From Inception to Nobel Prize and Beyond

Cancer Immunotherapy: From Inception to Nobel Prize and Beyond | Research and science | Scoop.it
Impact of the Nobel Prize for cancer immunotherapy on patient treatments...

Via Krishan Maggon
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Fonds Léon Fredericq

Fonds Léon Fredericq | Research and science | Scoop.it
Fonds Léon Fredericq pour la promotion des recherches médicales,fondamentales et cliniques au CHU de Liège
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Rescooped by Vincent Geenen from AUTOIMMUNITY
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Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes | Research and science | Scoop.it
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease characterised by insulin deficiency
and resultant hyperglycaemia. Knowledge of type 1 diabetes has rapidly increased over the past 25 years, resulting in a broad understanding about many aspects of the disease, including its genetics, epidemiology,...

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A Closer Look at the Environmental Triggers of Autoimmune Disease – Guardian Liberty Voice

A Closer Look at the Environmental Triggers of Autoimmune Disease – Guardian Liberty Voice | Research and science | Scoop.it
The world of autoimmune disease is broad and complex, with many mysteries still lurking. With over 100 types of autoimmune diseases identified, medical researchers are constantly seeking to gain a better understanding of how, when and why these conditions are triggered. While many diseases, in general, are associated with genetics, the onset of symptoms associated with an autoimmune disease is much more complicated, making proactive prevention quite difficult. However, an awareness of common environmental triggers of autoimmune disease can help identify and treat many autoimmune conditions. Health issues associated with autoimmune disease are expanding quickly and are now known to affect tens of millions of people in the United States alone. As environmental factors are one of the primary triggers of autoimmune reaction, it is imperative we keep a close eye on any adverse reactions we may have to specific environmental elements. Environmental triggers of autoimmunity include the following: Dietary proteins – Each person has their own unique body chemistry and digestive function. Sensitivities to different foods can not only bother one’s digestive tract but can also trigger autoimmune-related response. While each of us may react differently to different foods, there are some proteins that are more likely than others to present symptoms of autoimmune response, such as gluten (a wheat protein). Chemicals – When thinking of the health risks associated with excessive chemical exposure, many of us are quick to think of cancer. However, the loss of immune tolerance associated with toxic-chemical exposure can also lead to autoimmune reactivity. Environmental toxins are believed by many health care professionals to be the leading cause of autoimmune disease. Over 80,000 chemicals have been introduced into our society since 1900, and only 550 have been tested for safety. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), about 2.5 billion pounds of toxic chemicals are released yearly by large industrial facilities. Heavy metals – Cadmium, lead, and mercury are known to have strong associations with autoimmune reactivity. However, studies have shown mercury to be the worst. The EPA also reports that six million pounds of mercury is poured into our air every year. Bacteria, viruses and other pathogens – Repeated exposure to bacteria and viruses wear on our immune system. For some, that hard-working immune system can turn on its own body and mistake its own healthy cells for harmful ones, thus attacking them and leading to autoimmunity. Stress and other factors – Levels of stress-related illness are higher than ever. Both physical and emotional stresses weaken our immune system, allowing the body to develop a variety of illnesses. Stress is also known to trigger and intensify autoimmune-related disorders. So, how can we tell if environmental elements have placed us at risk for autoimmune disease? Unfortunately, symptoms do not always present themselves until we are under a full autoimmune attack. However, symptoms such as brain fog, fatigue, abdominal pain, and nausea are common signs of early autoimmune response as a result of an environmental trigger. Identifying potential dietary, chemical or other environmental triggers to your individual immune reactivity is key. Cyrex Laboratories, a clinical laboratory specializing in advanced, innovative testing designed to detect food sensitivities and monitor autoimmune reactivities and their possible triggers, offers the Array 10 – Multiple Food Immune Reactivity Screen – to evaluate immune reactions to foods, raw and/or modified, food enzymes, lectins and artificial food additives, including meat glue, colorings and gums. This helps with early detection of dietary-related triggers of autoimmune reactivity. The Array 11 – Chemical Immune Reactivity Screen – identifies the loss of immune intolerance associated with toxic chemicals exposure, which may lead to autoimmune reactivity. We are exposed to environmental toxins and bacteria through the food we eat, the air we breathe and the water we drink. If you have symptoms that you believe could be related to autoimmune reactivity, speak with a healthcare professional to determine if testing might be an option for you. We learn more and more about the causes and impact of autoimmune disease every day, so determining any triggers you may have can set you on a path toward a much healthier, happier quality of life. By Dr. Chad Larson (Edited by Cherese Jackson) Dr. Chad Larson, NMD, DC, CCN, CSCS, Advisor, and Consultant on the Clinical Consulting Team for Cyrex Laboratories (www.joincyrex.com). Dr. Larson holds a Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine degree from Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine and a Doctor of Chiropractic degree from Southern California University of Health Sciences. He is a Certified Clinical Nutritionist and a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist. He particularly pursues advanced developments in the fields of endocrinology, orthopedics, sports medicine, and environmentally-induced chronic disease. Sources: Cyrex Laboratories: Chemical Immune Reactivity Screen Cyrex Laboratories: Total Serum IgG/IgA/IgM AARDA: There are more than 100 Autoimmune Diseases Image Credits: Top Image Courtesy of DR. Chad Larson Featured Image Courtesy of Tadmit MFA’s Flickr Page – Creative Commons License   autoimmune disease A Closer Look at the Environmental Triggers of Autoimmune Disease added by on October 2, 2018 View all posts by Cherese Jackson →

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Rescooped by Vincent Geenen from AUTOIMMUNITY
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Frontiers | γδ T Lymphocytes: An Effector Cell in Autoimmunity and Infection | Immunology

Frontiers | γδ T Lymphocytes: An Effector Cell in Autoimmunity and Infection | Immunology | Research and science | Scoop.it
γδ T cells are non-conventional lymphocytes which show several properties of innate immune cells. They present a limited TCR repertoire and circulate as cells with a pre-activated phenotype thus being able to generate rapid immune responses. γδ T cells do not recognize classical peptide antigens, their TCRs are non-MHC restricted and they can respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns and to cytokines in absence of TCR ligands. They also recognize self-molecules induced by stress, which indicate infection and cellular transformation. All these features let γδ T cells act as a first line of defense in sterile and non-sterile inflammation. γδ T cells represent 1-10% of circulating lymphocytes in the adult human peripheral blood, they are widely localized in non-lymphoid tissues and constitute the majority of immune cells in some epithelial surfaces, where they participate in the maintenance of the epithelial barriers. γδ T cells produce a wide range of cytokines that orchestrate the course of immune responses and also exert high cytotoxic activity against infected and transformed cells. In contrast to their beneficial role during infection, γδ T cells are also implicated in the development and progression of autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, several functions of γδ T cells are susceptible to modulation by interaction with other cells. In this review, we give an overview of the γδ T cell participation in infection and autoimmunity. We also revise the underlyin

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Rescooped by Vincent Geenen from Brain Immune Interactions
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9th ISNIM Congress 2014 - congress announcement | The BrainImmune Resource: Opinions & views in neuroendocrine immunology, stress-immune interactions

9th ISNIM Congress 2014 - congress announcement | The BrainImmune Resource: Opinions & views in neuroendocrine immunology, stress-immune interactions | Research and science | Scoop.it
An invitation and meeting announcement about the next International Society for NeuroImmunoModulation (ISNIM) congress in Liege, Belgium, Sept 2014

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Fetal immune programming - ABC Online

Fetal immune programming - ABC Online | Research and science | Scoop.it
Fetal immune programming ABC Online So one of the very important arms of the immune system which normally acts on immunosuppression, on tolerance, is a specific subset of T lymphocytes, of thymus derived lymphocytes, which regulate immune...
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Immune tolerance and autoimmunity are programmed in the thymus during fetal life.

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