Neuro'N behavior
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Rescooped by Sarah Helal from from Flow Cytometry to Cytomics
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Brain tumour cells found circulating in blood

Brain tumour cells found circulating in blood | Neuro'N behavior | Scoop.it
(Medical Xpress)—German scientists have discovered rogue brain tumour cells in patient blood samples, challenging the idea that this type of cancer doesn't generally spread beyond the brain.

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Reprogrammed human neurons extend axons to almost the entire length of the central nervous system

Reprogrammed human neurons extend axons to almost the entire length of the central nervous system | Neuro'N behavior | Scoop.it

Building upon previous research, scientists at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Veteran’s Affairs San Diego Healthcare System report that neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and grafted into rats after a spinal cord injury produced cells with tens of thousands of axons extending virtually the entire length of the animals’ central nervous system.

 

Writing in the August 7 early online edition of Neuron, lead scientist Paul Lu, PhD, of the UC San Diego Department of Neurosciences and colleagues said the human iPSC-derived axons extended through the white matter of the injury sites, frequently penetrating adjacent gray matter to form synapses with rat neurons. Similarly, rat motor axons pierced the human iPSC grafts to form their own synapses.

 

The iPSCs used were developed from a healthy 86-year-old human male.

“These findings indicate that intrinsic neuronal mechanisms readily overcome the barriers created by a spinal cord injury to extend many axons over very long distances, and that these capabilities persist even in neurons reprogrammed from very aged human cells,” said senior author Mark Tuszynski, MD, PhD, professor of Neurosciences and director of the UC San Diego Center for Neural Repair.

 

For several years, Tuszynski and colleagues have been steadily chipping away at the notion that a spinal cord injury necessarily results in permanent dysfunction and paralysis. Earlier work has shown that grafted stem cells reprogrammed to become neurons can, in fact, form new, functional circuits across an injury site, with the treated animals experiencing some restored ability to move affected limbs. The new findings underscore the potential of iPSC-based therapy and suggest a host of new studies and questions to be asked, such as whether axons can be guided and how will they develop, function and mature over longer periods of time.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Rescooped by Sarah Helal from Les laboratoires du CNRS en Midi-Pyrénées dans la presse
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N'utilise-t-on vraiment que 10 % des capacités de notre cerveau ? - 20 minutes

Pour Simon Thorpe, directeur du laboratoire du Cerco (Centre de recherche cerveau et cognition) et directeur de recherche au CNRS, l’idée de capacités cérébrales non exploitées à leur maximum n’est pas farfelue.

 

 


Via Le CNRS en Midi-Pyrénées
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Neuropathology of Attention (2 of 6)

Professor Philip Shaw discusses research that indicates a pattern of right-hemisphere dominance for attention in the mature brain.
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Neuropathology of Bipolar Disorder (7 of 11)

Professor Wayne Drevets discusses the amygdala, striatum, and prefrontal cortex as neural correlates of bipolar disorder. Mania and depression may link to th...
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Neuropathology of ADHD (1 of 6)

Professor Philip Shaw discusses three brain areas in relation to the neuropathology of ADHD: the frontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus.
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Une approche quantique du problème corps-esprit | Implications philosophiques

Une approche quantique du problème corps-esprit | Implications philosophiques | Neuro'N behavior | Scoop.it

Les modèles de la conscience proposés dans le cadre de la neurobiologie actuelle s’inscrivent dans un cadre matérialiste, voire physicaliste, qui présuppose que tout phénomène pourrait être complètement expliqué à partir de la matière et de ses lois. Cependant, comme l’ont noté de nombreux philosophes et certains neurophysiologistes, cette approche est sujette à la difficile question de savoir comment des processus neuronaux décrits dans le langage de la neurobiologie, à la troisième personne,  pourraient donner lieu à une expérience subjective qui, elle, est vécue de façon privée, à la première personne. C’est ce que le philosophe Chalmers appelle le « problème difficile de la conscience ». (Nagel 1974) (Chalmers 1996) (Edelman 2000) (Bitbol 2008)


Via Vincent Mignerot
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Serge Meunier's comment, October 12, 2012 1:50 PM
Je songe là aux neurones "miroirs"…
Vincent Mignerot's comment, October 13, 2012 7:25 AM
Je me dis même que si les processus physiques et chimiques dans leur ensemble sont sous-tendus par des phénomènes quantique, nous ne faisons que soupçonner leur importance pour ce que nous sommes en tant qu'êtres percevant et pensant....
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L'inconscient neuronal 1

neurones cerveau conscience inconscient conference savoir connaissance science neurologie neurobiologie algerie dz-youtube.
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Aliments qui Influencent Votre Disposition

Humeur (état d'esprit ou disposition) est un état temporaire de l'esprit ou un sentiment, un état émotionnel qui est moins précis et moins intense que les ém...
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Rescooped by Sarah Helal from Les laboratoires du CNRS en Midi-Pyrénées dans la presse
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Les 15 travaux de la rentrée 2014

Les 15 travaux de la rentrée 2014 | Neuro'N behavior | Scoop.it
On vous l’avait fait en 2013, voici celle de 2014 : une liste de quelques-uns de nos projets pour la rentrée, que vous découvriez très bientôt sur ce blog… ;-)
Créer un « réseau-labo » en ligne :...

Via Audrey Bardon, Le CNRS en Midi-Pyrénées
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Rescooped by Sarah Helal from Viruses, Immunology & Bioinformatics from Virology.uvic.ca
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Newest anti-vaxx trend causes babies’ brains to bleed

Newest anti-vaxx trend causes babies’ brains to bleed | Neuro'N behavior | Scoop.it
Parents are now denying newborns important Vitamin K injections to avoid unnecessary "toxins" VIDEO

Via Chris Upton + helpers
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Rescooped by Sarah Helal from Les laboratoires du CNRS en Midi-Pyrénées dans la presse
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L'influence du ventre sur le cerveau

Les parois de notre intestin sont tapissées de 200 millions de neurones Ce réseau de neurones, réparti tout au long de notre tube digestif, joue un rôle dans la digestion bien sûr, mais il agit aussi sur notre cerveau par des voies que les chercheurs commencent à peine à identifier.


Via Uston News, Le CNRS en Midi-Pyrénées
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Brain-inspired Chip

Brain-inspired Chip | Neuro'N behavior | Scoop.it

Six years ago, IBM and our university partners embarked on a quest—to build a brain-inspired machine—that at the time appeared impossible. Today, in an article published in Science, we deliver on the DARPA SyNAPSE metric of a one million neuron brain-inspired processor. The chip consumes merely 70 milliwatts, and is capable of 46 billion synaptic operations per second, per watt–literally a synaptic supercomputer in your palm.

Along the way—progressing through Phase 0, Phase 1,Phase 2, and Phase 3—we have journeyed fromneuroscience to supercomputing, to a new computer architecture, to a new programming language, toalgorithms, applications, and now to a new chip—TrueNorth.

Let me take this opportunity to take you through the road untraveled. At this moment, I hope this reflection will incite within you a burning desire to collaborate and partner with us to make the future journey a joint one.


Via Alin Velea
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Sending Red Light Through The Skull To Influence Brain Activity Using Red-Shifted Cruxhalorhodopsin named Jaws

Sending Red Light Through The Skull To Influence Brain Activity Using Red-Shifted Cruxhalorhodopsin named Jaws | Neuro'N behavior | Scoop.it
Genetically engineered protein responds remotely to red light.

 

A team of biological engineers has developed a light-sensitive protein that permits scientists to control activity inside the brains of mice from outside the rodents’ skulls. The protein, called Jaws, promises to expand scientists’ ability to study brain activity in experimental animals and -- eventually -- humans. Ultimately, it holds the prospect of facilitating treatment of human conditions such as epilepsy.

 

Researchers are also using the protein to treat eye disease in experimental animals. Here, an immediate goal is therapy for certain eye ailments in humans.

 

Scientists use optogenetics, as the technology is known, to study the behavior and pathology of experimental animals’ brains by shining light on proteins known as opsins. Introduced into the brain aboard viruses, the opsins respond to the light by suppressing or stimulating electrical signals in brain cells. Optogenetic inhibition of the electrical activity of neurons enables the causal assessment of their contributions to brain functions. Red light penetrates deeper into tissue than other visible wavelengths. The red-shifted cruxhalorhodopsin, Jaws, derived from Haloarcula (Halobacterium) salinarum (strain Shark) and engineered to result in red light–induced photocurrents three times those of earlier silencers. Jaws exhibits robust inhibition of sensory-evoked neural activity in the cortex and results in strong light responses when used in retinas of retinitis pigmentosa model mice.

 

The opsins normally used in brain studies are sensitive to blue, green, or yellow light. Because bodily tissue absorbs those colors easily, the sources of such light must lie inside the brain. Typically, the light is delivered through an optical fiber implanted in an experimental animal’s brain. Jaws can noninvasively mediate transcranial optical inhibition of neurons deep in the brains of awake mice. The noninvasive optogenetic inhibition opened up by Jaws enables a variety of important neuroscience experiments and offers a powerful general-use chloride pump for basic and applied neuroscience.

 

A team led by Ed Boyden, associate professor of biological engineering and brain and cognitive sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge, reporting in Nature Neuroscience, demonstrated that red light shone from outside a mouse’s head can influence the Jaws protein up to three millimeters deep inside the brain. In fact, Boyden said, "we think the light goes further into the brain." A mouse’s brain is only about four millimeters thick.

 

"This is a huge advance, in that it allows for much deeper penetration of effective light," said David Lyon, an associate professor of anatomy and neurobiology at the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine. Lyon was not involved in the research on Jaws.


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The Neuropathology of Depression and Bipolar Disorder (6 of 8)

Professor James Potash discusses studies that show reductions in hippocampal volume in people with depression and abnormalities in cingulate areas in patient...
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Neuropathology of Bipolar Disorder (8 of 15)

Doctor Ellen Leibenluft discusses brain regions associated with bipolar disorder, including the amygdala (which may be smaller) and prefrontal cortex (which ...
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Do Beta-Blockers Lower the Neuropathology Associated with Cognitive Impairment and Dementia?

From the 2013 AAN Annual Meeting: In a post-mortem analysis of brains from the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study, investigators found that people who had been treate...
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My MRI Lower Back Pain, Neuropathology conditions

I have a painful lower back that hurts daily and is causing Neuropathy conditions :- Pins and Needles in legs and arms, shooting pains, burning calves. If anyone with medical/Orthopedic experience...
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Tweet from @immunology2014

Tweet from @immunology2014 | Neuro'N behavior | Scoop.it
From a recent accepted article "Examining the interplay between emotion and the Immune System" #Immunology http://t.co/xKVjNw5xKf

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EP-Paris 30/01/2014 - Neurofonctionnement de la conscience : se connecter à nos neuronnes

EP-Paris 30/01/2014 - Neurobiologie de la conscience de soi : fonctionnement neuroconnectique Lors de la conférence « La réalité augmentée par les biotechnol...
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P comme... Parkinson

La maladie de Parkinson est due à une dégénérescence de la substance noire, une zone cérébrale au sein de laquelle les neurones fabriquent la dopamine. L'ins...
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Le TDAH (Trouble du Déficit de l'Attention avec ou sans Hyperactivité)

TDAH (Trouble du Déficit de l'Attention avec ou sans Hyperactivité) ou ADHD en anglais: génétique, neurotransmetteur, dysfonctionnements, dopamine, symptômes...
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The social origins of intelligence in the brain

The social origins of intelligence in the brain | Neuro'N behavior | Scoop.it

By studying the injuries and aptitudes of Vietnam War veterans who suffered penetrating head wounds during the war, researchers have found that brain regions that contribute to optimal social functioning are also vital to general intelligence and emotional intelligence.

 

This finding, reported in the journal Brain, bolsters the view that general intelligence emerges from the emotional and social context of one’s life.

“We are trying to understand the nature of general intelligence and to what extent our intellectual abilities are grounded in social cognitive abilities,” said Aron Barbey, a University of Illinois professor of neuroscience, psychology, and speech and hearing science.

 

Barbey, an affiliate of the Beckman Institute and he Institute for Genomic Biology at the University of Illinois, led the new study with an international team of collaborators.

 

The study involved 144 Vietnam veterans injured by shrapnel or bullets that penetrated the skull, damaging distinct brain tissues while leaving neighboring tissues intact. Using CT scans, the scientists painstakingly mapped the affected brain regions of each participant, then pooled the data to build a collective map of the brain.

 

The researchers used a battery of carefully designed tests to assess participants’ intellectual, emotional and social capabilities. They then looked for damage in specific brain regions tied to deficits in the participants’ ability to navigate intellectual, emotional or social realms. Social problem solving in this analysis primarily involved conflict resolution with friends, family and peers at work.

 

As in their earlier studies of general intelligence and emotional intelligence, the researchers found that regions of the frontal cortex (at the front of the brain), the parietal cortex (further back near the top of the head) and the temporal lobes (on the sides of the head behind the ears) are all implicated in social problem solving. The regions that contributed to social functioning in the parietal and temporal lobes were located only in the brain’s left hemisphere, while both left and right frontal lobes were involved.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Eric Chan Wei Chiang's curator insight, August 2, 2014 12:30 PM

There is a popular myth that humans use no more than 10% of their brains throughout their entire life. This has been shown to be untrue as brain damage consistently results in loss of function. Nonetheless, this myth provided the premise for some great movies such as the 2014 film, Lucy 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucy_(2014_film)

 

Read more scoops on the brain here:

http://www.scoop.it/t/biotech-and-beyond/?tag=Brain

Dr. Helen Teague's curator insight, August 3, 2014 9:32 AM

From Dr. Stefan Gruenwald:

By studying the injuries and aptitudes of Vietnam War veterans who suffered penetrating head wounds during the war, researchers have found that brain regions that contribute to optimal social functioning are also vital to general intelligence and emotional intelligence.

 

This finding, reported in the journal Brain, bolsters the view that general intelligence emerges from the emotional and social context of one’s life.

“We are trying to understand the nature of general intelligence and to what extent our intellectual abilities are grounded in social cognitive abilities,” said Aron Barbey, a University of Illinois professor of neuroscience, psychology, and speech and hearing science.

 

Barbey, an affiliate of the Beckman Institute and he Institute for Genomic Biology at the University of Illinois, led the new study with an international team of collaborators.

 

The study involved 144 Vietnam veterans injured by shrapnel or bullets that penetrated the skull, damaging distinct brain tissues while leaving neighboring tissues intact. Using CT scans, the scientists painstakingly mapped the affected brain regions of each participant, then pooled the data to build a collective map of the brain.

 

The researchers used a battery of carefully designed tests to assess participants’ intellectual, emotional and social capabilities. They then looked for damage in specific brain regions tied to deficits in the participants’ ability to navigate intellectual, emotional or social realms. Social problem solving in this analysis primarily involved conflict resolution with friends, family and peers at work.

 

As in their earlier studies of general intelligence and emotional intelligence, the researchers found that regions of the frontal cortex (at the front of the brain), the parietal cortex (further back near the top of the head) and the temporal lobes (on the sides of the head behind the ears) are all implicated in social problem solving. The regions that contributed to social functioning in the parietal and temporal lobes were located only in the brain’s left hemisphere, while both left and right frontal lobes were involved.

Jocelyn Stoller's curator insight, August 13, 2014 4:55 AM

Strange that CT scans were used. High resolution Functional MRI would show both structure and activity. Other imaging methods such as optogenetics, MEG, TMS, BOLD, etc. could also help to pinpoint these areas without using radiation on an already-injured brain.