relationship between force, mass and acceleration
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# relationship between force, mass and acceleration

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## Newton's Laws Of Motion (2) : Force, Mass And Acceleration

ESA Science - Newton In Space (Part 2): Newton's Second Law of Motion - Force, Mass And Acceleration. Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that fo...
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How to use in a classroom:

This video highly supports the teaching of outcome {PW2    (a) describe qualitatively the relationship between force, mass and acceleration}.  This source is excellent for starting an assessment task. After watching this video students will be asked to construct an experiment with three different scenarios (e.g. toy car carrying large weight, moderate weight and no weight) using any objects they like to explain the relationship between force, mass and acceleration. Students then need to explain what is happening in the experiment that allows some objects to travel faster/ slower than others. This is an inquiry based approach task where students’ research and find their own examples to include in their experiment. The teacher will scaffold this task by firstly asking students to construct a definition list of all the terms introduced in the video (e.g. friction, gravity) and then to get ideas from the video on experiments they can do for their assessment task.

This support the development of students’ numeracy and literacy skills as students are required to collect data, find trends and then write their own scientific report.

Strengths/ Weaknesses of site:

Strengths:

A major strength of this video is that it defines new terms introduced before it explains how they are involved in the relationship between force, mass and acceleration (an example of this is how this video defines ‘friction’). Secondly, this video is constructed by using an ‘inquiry based approach’. Questions asked throughout the video are not answered directly. However, several experiments are conducted to in an attempt to answer the questions. As a result students derive their own answers by critically analyzing and finding connections within the information presented to them.Fianlly the video provides students with examples on the relationship between force, mass and acceleration from their daily lives. This is very crucial in transforming the foreign idea of forces into something that we experience on a daily bases. In turn, students realize the significance and implication of scientific ideas to their lives which increases engagement.

Weakness:

The video is long which might be time consuming in a classroom where the teacher has many tasks to complete. For this reason this resource will be set as either an assessment or homework task where students are required to view the video in out of class hours.

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## BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Resultant force

A secondary school revision resource for AQA GCSE Additional Science about force, mass and acceletation
Lina Abu-Eid's insight:

How to use in the classroom?

This site will be used as a resource to aid students in the final assessment they will receive at the end of the unit. Students will be asked to construct a website to educate some members of the community on how relevant forces are to our lives. This is because they believe learning about forces is very pointless and doesn’t help us in life. Students need to:

-          Talk about what is force, mass and acceleration

-          Talk about the relationship between force, mass and acceleration

-          Talk about Newton’s laws of motion

-          Provide diagrams and real life scenarios to represent the written material

-          Choose a website template from www.wix.com

Students will be given this site as the starting point to access information and ideas from. Students will then have to support the ideas and information introduced in this site by doing further research. This is an inquiry based activity as students have to use the information they have been taught to make it relevant to a particular audience. Furthermore, students are given a problem which they have to target using many different approaches. Finally, this supports the students’ scientific literacy skills as they are required to construct and present information in a professional manner using the correct terminology.

Strengths/ weaknesses:

A major strength of this site is the inclusion of definitions, diagrams and examples to facilitate learning and make information more memorable to children. In addition, the presence of question also helps to break down large pieces of information and reinforce the key ideas.  These questions are not just based on real life examples but are also accompanied by answers which the students can reveal upon completing the exercise. This provides feedback to students, allows them to track their progress and makes the topic more relevant/ significant. Finally, using this site allows the teacher to track the information accessed by students and the final 'quiz' clarifies any misconceptions and keeps students on track.

A major weakness of this site is that there is too much information to be consumed at once by the students. Therefore, this site doesn’t cater for the different learning needs of students and the class may become disengaged very fast. Furthermore, the presence of ‘answers’ for the questions can become a problem if the students just reveal them without trying to think of the question being asked. Finally, some of the terminology used (resultant forces) are too difficult for some students and this might lead to misunderstanding, frustration and feelings of hopelessness.

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## BBC - Schools Science Clips - Forces in action

An interactive track on which children can explore the effect of weight and air resistance of a moving vehicle.
Lina Abu-Eid's insight:

How to use in the classroom?

This resource will be used to begin a scientific investigation assessment about forces in a virtual laboratory. Students will experiment with the online activity and experience how you can set the truck moving, how you can alter the initial gradient of the track, and how you can add parachutes or weights to the track. In groups students will brainstorm a scientific question they could investigate. Students will think about how will they carry out a fair test and predict what will happen. Each group carries out their chosen experiment. They will be required to explain their observations using their knowledge of forces. They also need to investigate which combination of factors will make the truck go furthest, and which will make it travel the shortest distance.

This is an inquiry based task because students have to develop their own investigation to answer a question that was derived from stimulating material. Students have a choice over the question they want to investigate and the teacher just facilitates that process. Furthermore, this resource develops both the literacy and numeracy skills of students. This is because students tabulate observations for both the online activity and their investigation question, on addition; students have to use their literacy skills to translate observations and trends into written expressions

Strengths/ weakness:

A major strength in this resource is the detailed instructions given to students in both oral and written form and the 'help' option. This assures that students are clear of what is expected from them and are able to complete the activity smoothly. In addition, oral and written explanations cater for the different learning needs of students and also for students with hearing or visual disability. Furthermore, the presence of a quiz at the end of the activity helps reinforce important concepts. The quiz also provides feedback and explanation for the answer given. This is form of feedback is very beneficial for students because it clarifies present misconceptions and helps students stay in track. Finally, the quiz questions also help students think about their investigation method and results.

A weakness is that the resource doesn’t provide any real life examples and fails to reinforce the relevance and significance of topic to the students. Hence as part of their investigation assessment students should be asked to research some real life examples demonstrating a relationship between force, mass and acceleration.  Furthermore, students might view the online activity as easy and pointless and therefore will not engage with the resource.

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## Force and Acceleration

Force and acceleration for year 10 science
Lina Abu-Eid's insight:

How to use in the classroom?

This site will be used as a resource for students learning about the relationship between force, mass and acceleration. Students can either save this site to their favourites or print out the ‘flash cards’ that are presented. Having a resource that is very simple, yet inclusive of all the ideas covered in class is very useful for students to keep with them and refer to each time they feel confused throughout the unit.

This resource will be printed out on paper and handed out to the class with the arrow labels, the explanations under each image and the calculations being removed. Students will be asked to rotate within two stalls. The first stall has balls of different masses and students will be given instructions to throw them using different efforts and then measure the time of travel. The second stall will have different masses on it. Students must attach the different masses to paper and determine its effects on how fast it takes to reach the floor. Upon completion students will be asked to write explanations under each image, label the arrows and carry out calculations. This is an inquiry based approach where students deduct conclusions from problems. This resource will then be available for the rest of the unit.

This resource develops students’ literacy and numeracy skills as they have to fill in their own explanations and will have to conduct their own calculations.

Strengths/ weaknesses:

The first weakness is that the resource doesn’t define the terms of acceleration, force and mass. As a study resource for the students it would be useful to have definitions of the main terms covered. Secondly the resource doesn’t cater for students with disability as there is no audio component in the site. Finally, this resource might be too complex to provide students with in the early part of the unit. Students don’t get exposed to Newton’s law of motion till towards the end of the unit. Exposing them to it in an early stage with no previous explanation might create anxiety and fear towards the topic which reduces engagement. Therefore, the resource should be given at the end of the unit for revision.

The first strength is that the resource caters for different learning needs through the inclusion of visual images. This is useful as most students are visual learners and this site will help making the learning easier to comprehend. Secondly, the use of different size arrows to represent forces of different strengths is very useful in breaking down complex concepts. The analogy of arrows is familiar t students and they can easily use it in representing their future work. Finally, a step by step worked example is very useful in introducing students to Newton’s law of motion and showing them how to rearrange and organize calculations to reach to the correct answer. This recourse is also useful in cross curriculum work between math and science.

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## BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Resultant forces and terminal velocity activity

A secondary school revision resource for AQA GCSE Science about energy, electricity, heat transfer and efficiency
Lina Abu-Eid's insight:

How to use in a classroom?

This resource will be used as a stimulus to start a class activity. After watching this video students will be asked to relate the information presented to them to how forces affect skydivers. Students will be given images representing the different stages of skydiving (free fall at high acceleration, moving at steady speed and parachute opening). They will be required to draw arrows of different sizes and label them with the name of the force.  They will also be required to explain what the skydiver is feeling at every stage (e.g. slowed down, same speed…etc.).

This activity is crucial is helping students widen their understanding. They are taught to take the information learnt in one context and apply it to different contexts. This firstly allows students to acknowledge the significance of the topic to our life and also part of inquiry based learning. Students are no given the answer but instead they must deduce, analyze and apply information to reach to a solution.

Furthermore, students also develop their literacy skills as they have to translate their understanding and ‘arrows’ into words and sentences describing the relationship between force, mass and acceleration.

Strengths/ weaknesses:

Firstly, a major strength in the video is the use of arrows to represent forces. This analogy is consistent with other resources and with the way students have been taught to represent forces. Secondly, this resource caters for students different learning needs by including visual components accompanied by written words and written explanations. This is very useful because if students can’t catch up with the oral component of the video they have written expressions to keep them on track. Having an oral and written component in a video also means that this resource caters for the learning of students with either hearing or visual disabilities. Finally, referring constantly to students ‘exam’ helps students realize that this resource is truly aimed at helping them and supporting their learning. In turn students will be encouraged to pay more attention to the video and the help being provided for them.

A major weakness of this video is that it introduces terminologies or expressions that are foreign to students and no further explanations are given. An example of this is ‘air is a fluid as well’ and ‘terminal velocity’. The teacher needs to cater for this by providing students with a definition list of all the terminology introduced in the video.

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